XDVI(1)                                                                XDVI(1)


       xdvi - DVI Previewer for the X Window System


       xdvi  [+[page]] [--help] [-allowshell] [-altfont font] [-base base URL]
       [-bg color] [-browser WWWbrowser] [-bw width] [-bw width] [-copy]  [-cr
       color]  [-debug  bitmask|string[,string  ...]]  [-display host:display]
       [-dvipspath path] [-editor  command]  [-expertmode  flag]  [-fg  color]
       [-findstring  string] [-font font] [-fullscreen ] [-gamma g] [-geometry
       geometry] [-gsalpha] [-gspalette  palette]  [-h]  [-help]  [-hl  color]
       [-href  anchor]  [-hush]  [-hushchars] [-hushchecksums] [-hushspecials]
       [-hushstdout]    [-icongeometry    geometry]    [-iconic]    [-install]
       [-interpreter   path]   [-keep]  [-l]  [-linkcolor  color]  [-linkstyle
       0|1|2|3]  [-margins  dimen]  [-mfmode  mode-def[:dpi]]  [-mgs[n]  size]
       [-mousemode  0|1|2]  [-nocolor]  [-nofork]  [-noghostscript]  [-nogrey]
       [-nogssafer]  [-noinstall]  [-nomakepk]  [-nomatchinverted]  [-noomega]
       [-noscan] [-not1lib] [-notempfile] [-offsets dimen] [-p pixels] [-paper
       papertype] [-pause] [-pausespecial special-string]  [-postscript  flag]
       [-rulecolor color] [-rv] [-S density] [-s shrink] [-safer] [-sidemargin
       dimen]    [-sourceposition     line[:col][ ]filename]     [-statusline]
       [-thorough]  [-topmargin dimen] [-unique] [-version] [-visitedlinkcolor
       color] [-warnspecials] [-watchfile secs] [-wheelunit pixels]  [-xoffset
       dimen] [-yoffset dimen] [dvi_file]


       Xdvi  is  a  program  for previewing dvi files, as produced e.g. by the
       tex(1) program, under the X window system.

       Xdvi can show the file shrunken by various integer factors, and it  has
       a  ‘‘magnifying glass’’ for viewing parts of the page enlarged (see the
       section MAGNIFIER below). This version of xdvi is also referred  to  as
       xdvik  since  it  uses the kpathsea library to locate and generate font
       files.  In addition to that, it supports the following features:

         - hyperlinks in DVI files (section HYPERLINKS),

         - direct rendering of Postscript<tm> Type1 fonts (section T1LIB),

         - source specials in the DVI file (section SOURCE SPECIALS),

         - string search in DVI files (section STRING SEARCH),

         - saving or printing (parts of) the DVI file (sections  PRINT  DIALOG
           and SAVE DIALOG).

       Xdvi can be compiled with the Motif toolkit or the Xaw (Athena) toolkit
       (and variants of it), and the Motif version has  a  slightly  different
       GUI; these differences are noted below.

       Before  displaying  a page of a DVI file, xdvi will check to see if the
       file has changed since the last time it was displayed.  If this is  the
       case, it will reload the file.  This feature allows you to preview many
       versions of the same file while running xdvi only once. Since it cannot
       read  partial DVI files, xdvik versions starting from 22.74.3 will cre-
       ate a temporary copy of the DVI file being viewed, to ensure  that  the
       file  can be viewed without interruptions. (The -notempfile can be used
       to turn off this feature).

       Xdvi can show PostScript<tm> specials by any of three methods.  It will
       try first to use Display PostScript<tm>, then NeWS, then it will try to
       use Ghostscript to render the images.  All of these options  depend  on
       additional software to work properly; moreover, some of them may not be
       compiled into this copy of xdvi.

       For performance reasons, xdvi does not render  PostScript  specials  in
       the magnifying glass.

       If  no  file name has been specified on the command line, xdvi will try
       to open the most recently opened file; if the file history  (accessible
       via  the  File > Open Recent menu) is empty, or if none of the files in
       the history are valid DVI files, it will pop up  a  file  selector  for
       choosing  a file name.  (In previous versions, which didn’t have a file
       history, the file selector was always used; you can set the X  resource
       noFileArgUseHistory to false to get back the old behaviour.)


       In addition to specifying the dvi file (with or without the .dvi exten-
       sion), xdvi supports the following command line options.  If the option
       begins  with  a ‘+’ instead of a ‘-’, the option is restored to its de-
       fault value.  By default, these options can be  set  via  the  resource
       names given in parentheses in the description of each option.

       +page  Specifies  the first page to show.  If + is given without a num-
              ber, the last page is assumed; the first page is the default.

              (.allowShell) This option enables the shell escape in PostScript
              specials.   (For security reasons, shell escapes are disabled by
              default.)  This option should be rarely used; in  particular  it
              should  not  be  used just to uncompress files: that function is
              done automatically if the file name ends in .Z,  .gz,  or  .bz2.
              Shell  escapes  are  always  turned  off if the -safer option is

       -altfont font
              (.altFont) Declares a default font to use when the font  in  the
              dvi  file  cannot  be  found.  This is useful, for example, with
              PostScript <tm> fonts.

       -background color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.   Same  as

       -bg color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.

       -borderwidth width
              (.borderWidth)  Specifies the width of the border of the window.
              Same as -bw.

       -browser browser
              (.wwwBrowser) Defines the web browser used for handling external
              URLs.  The  value of this option or resource has the same syntax
              as the BROWSER environment variable; see the explanation of that
              variable  in  the section ‘ENVIRONMENT’ below for a detailed de-
              scription.  If neither the option nor the X resource  wwwBrowser
              is  specified,  the environment variables BROWSER and WWWBROWSER
              (in that order) are used to determine the  browser  command.  If
              these  are  not set either, the following default value is used:
              htmlview  %s:firefox  -remote   -remote   openURL(%s,new-window)
              :mozilla  -remote  openURL(%s,new-window) :xterm -e w3m %s:xterm
              -e lynx %s:xterm -e wget %s

       -bw width
              (.borderWidth) Specifies the width of the border of the  window.

       -copy  (.copy) Always use the copy operation when writing characters to
              the display.  This option may be necessary for correct operation
              on a color display, but overstrike characters will be incorrect.
              If greyscale anti-aliasing is in use, the -copy  operation  will
              disable the use of colorplanes and make overstrikes come out in-
              correctly.  See also -thorough.

       -cr color
              (.cursorColor) Determines the color of the  mouse  cursor.   The
              default is the same as the foreground color.

       -debug bitmask|string[,string ...]
              (.debugLevel) If nonzero, prints additional information on stan-
              dard output.  The argument can be either a bitmask specified  as
              a decimal number, or comma-separated list of strings.
              For the bitmask representation, multiple values can be specified
              by adding the numbers that represent the individual  bits;  e.g.
              to  debug  all all file searching and opening commands, use 4032
              (= 2048 + 1024 + 512 + 256 + 128 + 64). Use -1 to turn on debug-
              ging of everything (this will produce huge output).
              For  the  string  representation,  use the strings listed in the
              following table, with a comma to separate the  values;  e.g.  to
              debug  all  file  searching and opening commands, use search,ex-
              pand,paths,hash,stat,open.  (The option ‘kpathsea’  is  provided
              as a shorthand for these.)  Note that such a list may need to be
              quoted to prevent the shell from interpreting commas  or  spaces
              in the list.
              The individual numbers and strings have the following meanings:

               1       bitmap      Bitmap creation
               2       dvi         DVI translation
               4       pk          PK fonts
               8       batch       Batch mode: Exit after
                                   reading the DVI file
               16      event       Event handling
               32      ps          PostScript interpreter calls
               64      stat        Kpathsea stat(2) calls
               128     hash        Kpathsea hash table lookups
               256     open        Kpathsea file opening
               512     paths       Kpathsea path definitions
               1024    expand      Kpathsea path expansion
               2048    search      Kpathsea searching
               4032    kpathsea    All Kpathsea options
               4096    htex        Hypertex specials
               8192    src         Source specials
               16384   client      Client/server mode (see -unique
                                   and -sourceposition options)
               32768   t1          Type1 font library messages
               65536   t1_verbose  Verbose Type1 library messages
               131072  gui         GUI elements

              Some  of the Kpathsea debugging options are actually provided by
              Kpathsea; see the Debugging section in the Kpathsea  manual  for
              more information on these.

       -density density
              (.densityPercent)  Determines  the  density  used when shrinking
              bitmaps for fonts.  A higher value produces a lighter font.  The
              default  value  is  40.  If greyscaling is in use, this argument
              does not apply; use -gamma instead.  See also the ‘S’ keystroke.
              Same as -S.

       -display host:display
              Specifies  the host and screen to be used for displaying the dvi
              file.  By default this is obtained from the environment variable

       -dvipspath path
              (.dvipsPath) Use path as the dvips program to use when printing.
              The default for this is dvips.  The  program  or  script  should
              read  the DVI file from standard input, and write the Postscript
              file to standard output.

       -editor editor
              (.editor) Specifies the editor that will  be  invoked  when  the
              source-special()  action  is triggered to start a reverse search
              (by default via Ctrl-Mouse 1).  The argument to this option is a
              format string in which occurrences of ‘‘%f’’ are replaced by the
              file name, occurrences of ‘‘%l’’ are replaced by the line number
              within the file, and optional occurrences of ‘‘%c’’ are replaced
              by the column number within the line.

              If neither the option nor the X resource .editor  is  specified,
              the following environment variables are checked to determine the
              editor command: XEDITOR, VISUAL, and EDITOR (in this  sequence).
              If  the string is found as the value of the VISUAL or EDITOR en-
              vironment variables, then ‘‘xterm -e  ’’  is  prepended  to  the
              string;  if the editor is specified by other means, then it must
              be in the form of a shell command to pop up an X window with  an
              editor  in it. If none of these variables is set, a warning mes-
              sage is displayed and the command ‘‘xterm  -e  vi  +%l  %f’’  is

              If  no ‘‘%f’’ or ‘‘%l’’ occurs in the string, the missing format
              strings are appended automatically.  (This is for  compatibility
              with  other  programs  when  using  one of the environment vari-

              A new instance of the editor is started each time  this  command
              is  used;  therefore it is preferrable to use an editor that can
              be invoked in ‘client’ mode to load new files into the same  in-
              stance. Example settings are:

              emacsclient --no-wait
                     (older Emacsen)

              gnuclient -q
                     (XEmacs and newer Emacsen)

              gvim --servername xdvi --remote
                     (VIM  v6.0+;  the  ‘--servername  xdvi’ option will cause
                     gvim to run a dedicated instance for the files opened  by

              nc     (nedit)

              Note that those strings need to be enclosed into quotes when us-
              ing them on the command-line to protect  them  from  the  shell;
              when using them as argument for the .editor resource in an X re-
              source file, no quotes should be used.

              NOTE ON SECURITY: The argument of this option isn’t executed  as
              a  shell command, but via exec() to prevent evil tricks with the
              contents of source specials.

              This option is only supported for backwards compatibility; it is
              equivalent to -expertmode 0, which should be preferred.

       -expertmode flag
              (.expertMode)  With  an  argument of 0, this option switches off
              the display of the buttons, scrollbars, the toolbar  (Motif  on-
              ly),  the  statusline  and the page list. These GUI elements can
              also be (de)activated separately, by combining  the  appropriate
              values in the flag argument. This acts similar to the -debug op-
              tion: The integer flag is treated as a  bitmap  where  each  bit
              represents  one element. If the bit has the value 1, the element
              is switched on, if it has the value 0, the element  is  switched
              off. The meaning of the bits is as follows:

               1       statusline
               2       scrollbars
               4       Motif: pagelist, Xaw: buttons and pagelist
               8       toolbar (Motif only)
               16      menubar (Motif only)

              For  example, to turn on only the statusline and the scrollbars,
              use 3 (= 1 + 2).  See also the ‘x’ keystroke, where the bits are
              addressed  by  their  positions, from 1 to 3 (Xaw) or 5 (Motif),

       If the statusline is not active, all messages that  would  normally  be
       printed  to the statusline will be printed to stdout, unless the -hush-
       stdout option is used.

       -fg color
              (.foreground) Determines the color of the text (foreground).

       -findstring string
              This option triggers a search for string in the  DVI  file  men-
              tioned  on  the command-line, similar to forward search (see the
              description of the sourceposition option): If there  is  already
              another  instance  of  xdvi  running  on the displaying that DVI
              file, it will cause that instance to perform the search instead.
              The  search  starts  at  the  top of the current page of the DVI

       -font font
              (*font) Sets the font used in menus, buttons etc., as  described
              in  the  X(7x)  man  page. The font for child windows can be set
              separately, e.g.:

              xdvi*statusline*font: \

       -foreground color
              Same as -fg.

              When this option is used, xdvi will (try to) run  in  fullscreen
              mode, with no window decorations.  This option is not guaranteed
              to work with all windowmanagers/desktops; if you’re experiencing
              problems with it, please use the -geometry option instead, and a
              suitable window manager setting to  remove  the  window  decora-
              tions.  When using this option for presentations, you might want
              to get rid of all the control widgets as well,  using  the  -ex-
              pertmode  option. This option can also be toggled at runtime us-
              ing the fullscreen action (by default bound to Ctrl-l).

       -gamma gamma
              (.gamma) Controls the interpolation of colors in  the  greyscale
              anti-aliasing  color  palette.   Default  value is 1.0.  For 0 <
              gamma < 1, the fonts will be lighter (more like the background),
              and for gamma > 1, the fonts will be darker (more like the fore-
              ground).  Negative values behave the same way, but use a slight-
              ly  different  algorithm.  For color and grayscale displays; for
              monochrome, see -density.  See also the ‘S’ keystroke.

       -geometry geometry
              (.geometry) Specifies the initial geometry of the  main  window,
              as  described  in the X(7x) man page. The geometry of child win-
              dows can be set separately, e.g.:
              xdvi*helpwindow.geometry: 600x800

              (.gsAlpha) Causes Ghostscript to be  called  with  the  x11alpha
              driver  instead  of the x11 driver.  The x11alpha driver enables
              anti-aliasing in PostScript specials, for  a  nicer  appearance.
              It  is  available on newer versions of Ghostscript.  This option
              can also be toggled with the ‘V’ keystroke.

       -gspalette palette
              (.palette)  Specifies  the  palette  to  be  used   when   using
              Ghostscript  for rendering PostScript specials.  Possible values
              are Color, Greyscale, and Monochrome.  The default is Color.

       -h, -help, --help
              Prints a short help text with an overview  of  the  command-line
              options to standard output.

       -hl color
              (.highlight)  Determines  the  color  of the page border, of the
              ruler in ‘ruler mode’, and of the highlighting markers  in  for-
              ward  search  and  string search.  The default is the foreground

       -href anchor
              Jump to anchor after opening the DVI file. This is  only  useful
              when invoking xdvi from other applications.

       -hush  (.Hush) Causes xdvi to suppress all suppressible warnings.

              (.hushLostChars)  Causes  xdvi to suppress warnings about refer-
              ences to characters which are not defined in the font.

              (.hushChecksums) Causes xdvi to suppress warnings about checksum
              mismatches between the dvi file and the font file.

              (.hushSpecials)  Causes xdvi to suppress warnings about \special
              strings that it cannot process.

              (.hushStdout) Suppresses printing of status messages to  stdout.
              Note  that  errors  or  warnings will still be printed to stderr
              even if this option is used.

       -icongeometry geometry
              (.iconGeometry) Specifies the initial position for the icon.

              (.iconic) Causes the xdvi window to start in the  iconic  state.
              The default is to start with the window open.

              (.install)  If  xdvi is running under a PseudoColor visual, then
              (by default) it will check for TrueColor visuals with more  bits
              per  pixel,  and  switch  to such a visual if one exists.  If no
              such visual exists, it will use the current visual and colormap.
              If  -install is selected, however, it will still use a TrueColor
              visual with a greater depth, if one is available; otherwise,  it
              will  install  its  own  colormap on the current visual.  If the
              current visual is not PseudoColor, then xdvi will not switch the
              visual or colormap, regardless of its options.  The default val-
              ue of the install resource is the special value,  maybe.   There
              is no +install option.  See also -noinstall, and the GREYSCALING
              AND COLORMAPS section.

       -interpreter filename
              (.interpreter) Use filename as the Ghostscript interpreter.   By
              default it uses gs.

       -keep  (.keepPosition)  Sets  a  flag  to indicate that xdvi should not
              move to the home position when moving to a new page.   See  also
              the  ‘k’  keystroke.  This flag is only honoured by the up() and
              down() actions, not by up-or-previous() and down-or-next().

       -l     (.listFonts) List the names of all fonts used.

              (.linkColor) Color used for unvisited hyperlinks (‘Blue2’ by de-
              fault).  Hyperlinks  are  unvisited before you click on them, or
              after the DVI file has been reloaded.  The value should  be  ei-
              ther a valid X color name (such as DarkGoldenrod4) or a hexadec-
              imal color string (such  as  #8b6508).Seealso  -visitedlinkcolor
              and -linkstyle.

              (.LinkStyle)  Determines  the style in which hyperlinks are dis-
              played. Possible values and their meanings are:

               0       No highlighting of links
               1       Underline links with link color
               2       No underlining, color text with link color
               3       Underline and display text colored with
                       link color

              The values for link color are specified by the options/resources
              -linkcolor and -visitedlinkcolor (which see).

       -margins dimen
              (.Margin)  Specifies  the  size  of both the top margin and side
              margin.  This determines the ‘‘home’’ position of the page with-
              in  the  window as follows.  If the entire page fits in the win-
              dow, then the margin settings are ignored.  If, even  after  re-
              moving  the  margins  from the left, right, top, and bottom, the
              page still cannot fit in the window, then the page is put in the
              window  such  that the top and left margins are hidden, and pre-
              sumably the upper left-hand corner of the text on the page  will
              be  in the upper left-hand corner of the window.  Otherwise, the
              text is centered in the window.  The dimension should be a deci-
              mal number optionally followed by any of the two-letter abbrevi-
              ations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp,  cm,  mm,  dd,
              cc, or sp).  By default, the unit will be cm (centimeters).  See
              also -sidemargin, -topmargin, and the keystroke ‘M.’

       -mfmode mode-def
              (.mfMode) Specifies a mode-def string,  which  can  be  used  in
              searching  for  fonts (see ENVIRONMENT, below).  Generally, when
              changing the mode-def, it is also necessary to change  the  font
              size  to  the  appropriate value for that mode.  This is done by
              adding a colon and the value in dots per inch; for example, -mf-
              mode  ljfour:600.   This method overrides any value given by the
              pixelsPerInch resource or the  -p  command-line  argument.   The
              metafont  mode  is also passed to metafont during automatic cre-
              ation of fonts.  By default, it is unspecified.

       -mgs size
              Same as -mgs1.

       -mgs[n] size
              (.magnifierSize[n]) Specifies the size of the window to be  used
              for the ‘‘magnifying glass’’ for Button n.  The size may be giv-
              en as an integer (indicating that the magnifying glass is to  be
              square),  or  it may be given in the form widthxheight.  See the
              MOUSE ACTIONS section.  Defaults are 200x150, 400x250,  700x500,
              1000x800, and 1200x1200.

       -mousemode [0|1|2]
              (.mouseMode) Specifies the default mode of xdvi at startup: Mag-
              nifier (0), Text Selection Mode (1) or Ruler Mode (2).  See  the
              section MODES, below, for more information.

              (.color)  Turns  off the use of color specials.  This option can
              be toggled with the ‘C’ keystroke.  (Note: -nocolor  corresponds
              to color:off; +nocolor to color:on.)

              (.fork)  With  the  -sourceposition and -unique options, the de-
              fault behavior is for xdvi to put  itself  into  the  background
              (like  a daemon) if there is no appropriate instance of xdvi al-
              ready running.  This argument makes it run in the foreground in-
              stead.  This is useful for debugging, or if your client applica-
              tion cannot deal well with a program  self-backgrounding  itself
              in  this  way  --  e.g., the IPC functions in emacs are known to
              have problems with this.  If no -sourceposition or -unique argu-
              ment  is  given, then this option has no effect.  (Note: -nofork
              corresponds to fork:off; +nofork to fork:on.)

              (.ghostscript) Inhibits the use of  Ghostscript  for  displaying
              PostScript<tm>  specials.   (Note: -noghostscript corresponds to
              ghostscript:off; +noghostscript to ghostscript:on.)

              (.grey) Turns off the use of greyscale anti-aliasing when print-
              ing  shrunken  bitmaps.  (Note: -nogrey corresponds to grey:off;
              +nogrey to grey:on.)  See also the ‘G’ keystroke.

              (.gsSafer) Normally, if Ghostscript is used to render PostScript
              specials,  the  Ghostscript  interpreter  is run with the option
              -dSAFER.   The  -nogssafer  option  runs   Ghostscript   without
              -dSAFER.   The -dSAFER option in Ghostscript disables PostScript
              operators such as  deletefile,  to  prevent  possibly  malicious
              PostScript  programs  from having any effect.  If the -safer op-
              tion is specified, then this option has no effect; in that  case
              Ghostscript  is always run with -dSAFER.  (Note: -nogssafer cor-
              responds to gsSafer:off; +nogssafer to gsSafer:on.)

              (.install) Inhibit the default behavior of switching to a  True-
              Color  visual  if one is available with more bits per pixel than
              the current visual.  (Note: -noinstall corresponds  install:off;
              there  is  no  +noinstall  option.)   See also -install, and the
              GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

              (.makePk) Turns off automatic generation of font files that can-
              not  be  found  by other means.  (Note: -nomakepk corresponds to
              makePk:off; +nomakepk to makePK:on.)

              (.matchInverted) Don’t highlight string search  matches  in  in-
              verted  color; instead, draw a rectangle in highlight color (see
              the -hl option) around the match. This option is activated auto-
              matically  if  the  display  isn’t running in TrueColor.  (Note:
              -nomatchinverted corresponds to  matchInverted:off;  +nomatchin-
              verted to matchInverted:on.)

              (.omega)  This will disable the use of Omega extensions when in-
              terpreting DVI files.  By default, the  additional  opcodes  129
              and  134  are  recognized by xdvi as Omega extensions and inter-
              preted as requests to set 2-byte characters. The  only  drawback
              is  that the virtual font array will require 65536 positions in-
              stead of the default 256 positions, i.e. the memory requirements
              of  xdvi  will be slightly larger. If you find this unacceptable
              or encounter another problem with the Omega extensions, you  can
              switch  this extension off by using -noomega (but please do send
              a bug report if you find such problems - see the bug address  in
              the AUTHORS section below).
              (Note:  -noomega  corresponds  to omega: off; +noomega to omega:

              (.prescan) By default, xdvi does a preliminary scan of  the  dvi
              file  to  process any papersize specials; this is especially im-
              portant at startup since the paper size may be needed to  deter-
              mine  the  window size.  If PostScript<tm> is in use, then pres-
              canning is also necessary in order to  properly  process  header
              files.   In  addition, prescanning is needed to correctly deter-
              mine the background color of a page.  This option turns off such
              prescanning.   (Prescanning will be automatically be turned back
              on if xdvi detects any of the specials mentioned above.)  (Note:
              -noscan corresponds to prescan:off; +noscan to prescan:on.)

              (.t1lib)   This  will  disable  the  use  of  T1Lib  to  display
              PostScript<tm> fonts.  Use this option as a workaround when  you
              encounter  problems  with the display of T1Lib (but please don’t
              forget to send a bug report in this case, to the  URL  mentioned
              in the section AUTHORS below).
              (Note: -not1lib corresponds to t1lib:off; +not1lib to t1lib:on.)

              (.tempFile) As mentined in the section DESCRIPTION  above,  xdvi
              will  create  a temporary copy of the DVI file so that it can be
              accessed without interruptions even  while  the  file  is  being
              rewritten by TeX.  Since this introduces the overhead of copying
              the file every time it has changed, the -notempfile  allows  you
              to  turn off this behaviour. In this case, exposing parts of the
              window while the DVI file is being written by TeX will erase the
              current  window  contents  until  the DVI file can be completely
              (Note: -notempfile corresponds to tempFile:off;  +notempfile  to

       -offsets dimen
              (.Offset) Specifies the size of both the horizontal and vertical
              offsets of the output on the page.  By decree  of  the  Stanford
              TeX  Project,  the default TeX page origin is always 1 inch over
              and down from the top-left page corner, even  when  non-American
              paper  sizes  are  used.  Therefore, the default offsets are 1.0
              inch.  The argument dimen should be a decimal number  optionally
              followed  by  any  of the two-letter abbreviations for units ac-
              cepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).   By  de-
              fault, the unit will be cm (centimeters).  See also -xoffset and

       -p pixels
              (.pixelsPerInch) Defines the size of the fonts to use, in pixels
              per  inch.   The  default value is 600.  This option is provided
              only for backwards compatibility; the preferred  way is  to  set
              both the resolution and the Metafont mode via the -mfmode option
              (which see).

       -paper papertype
              (.paper) Specifies the size of the printed page.  Note  that  in
              most  cases it’s best to specify the paper size in the TeX input
              file via the line


              which will be recognized by both dvips and xdvi;  in  that  case
              the use of a ‘-paper’ option should be unneccessary.
              The paper size may be specified in the form widthxheight option-
              ally followed by a unit, where width and height are decimal num-
              bers giving the width and height of the paper, respectively, and
              the unit is any of the two-letter abbreviations  for  units  ac-
              cepted  by  TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  By de-
              fault, the unit is cm (centimeters).
              There are also synonyms which may be used: us (8.5x11in),  legal
              (8.5x14in),  foolscap  (13.5x17in),  as  well  as  the ISO sizes
              a1-a7, b1-b7, c1-c7.  Each of these also has a landscape or ‘ro-
              tated’  variant: usr (11x8.5in), a1r-a7r, etc. For compatibility
              with dvips, the formats letter (8.5x11in), ledger (17x11in)  and
              tabloid  (11x17in)  are also supported (these don’t have rotated
              Any of the above sizes may be preceded by  a  plus  sign  (‘+’);
              this causes the paper size given here to override any paper size
              given in the dvi file.  The default paper size is 21 x  29.7  cm
              (A4 size).

       -pause (.pause)  This option provides a simple implementation of incre-
              mental (stepwise) display, which can be used for  presentations.
              When  this  option  is  used, xdvi will pause the display of the
              current page whenever it  encounters  a  special  special-string
              (xdvi:pause  by default; the string can be customized via -paus-
              especial, see below), and the cursor will change its shape.  The
              action  unpause-or-next()  (by  default  bound to the Space key)
              will display the next portion of the page up  to  the  following
              special-string,  or  until the end of the page is reached.  When
              the option is not used, specials containing special-string  will
              be ignored.

       -pausespecial special-string
              (.pauseSpecial)  Sets  the  special  string  that causes xdvi to
              pause when the -pause option is active.  The  default  value  of
              special-string is xdvi:pause.

       -postscript flag
              (.postscript)  If flag = 0, rendering of PostScript<tm> specials
              is disabled; instead,  bounding  boxes  will  be  displayed  (if
              available).  A  value of 1 (the default) switches PostScript<tm>
              specials on. With a value of 2, the PostScript<tm> specials  are
              displayed  along  with  their bounding boxes; this allows you to
              visually check the correctness of the bounding boxes. The values
              can  also  be  toggled at runtime with the ‘v’ keystroke and the
              corresponding numerical prefix arguments 0, 1 and 2.

       -ps2pdfpath path
              (.ps2pdfPath) Use path as a conversion program  from  Postscript
              to PDF. The program or script should accept two command-line ar-
              guments: The Postscript file as first argument, and the PDF out-
              put file as second argument.

       -rulecolor color
              (.ruleColor)  Determines the color of the rules used for the the
              magnifier (default: foreground color).

       -q     (.noInitFile) Ignore the $HOME/.xdvirc startup file (i.e.  don’t
              read it at startup, and don’t write it at exit). This forces the
              defaults defined in $HOME/.Xdefaults to be used. See  FILES  for
              more information on $HOME/.xdvirc.

       -rv    (.reverseVideo) Causes the page to be displayed with white char-
              acters on a black background, instead of vice versa.

       -S density
              (.densityPercent) Same as -density (which see).

       -s shrink
              (.shrinkFactor) Defines the initial shrink factor.  The  default
              value  is  8.   If shrink is given as 0, then the initial shrink
              factor is computed so that the page fits within the  window  (as
              if the ‘s’ keystroke were given without a number).

       -safer (.safer) This option turns on all available security options; it
              is designed for use when xdvi is called by a  browser  that  ob-
              tains  a dvi or TeX file from another site.  This option selects
              +nogssafer and +allowshell.

       -sidemargin dimen
              (.sideMargin) Specifies the side margin (see -margins).

       -sourceposition line[:col][ ]filename
              This option makes xdvi search in the dvi file for the place cor-
              responding  to  the  indicated line (and, optionally, column) in
              the .tex source file, and highlight the place found by drawing a
              rectangle in the highlight color (see the -hl option) around the
              corresponding text.  In addition, when run  with  this  argument
              (and  the -nofork option is not given, which see), xdvi will al-
              ways return immediately:  if it finds another instance  of  xdvi
              already  showing  dvi_file,  then it will cause that instance to
              raise its window and move to the given place in  the  dvi  file;
              otherwise  it  will start up its own instance in the background.
              If several instances of xdvi are displaying the  respective  dvi
              file,  the instance which was last raised to the foreground will
              be used.

              The space before filename is only needed if the filename  starts
              with  a digit.  When the space is used, the argument needs to be
              encosed in quotes to prevent the shell from misinterpreting  the
              space as argument separator.

              This  option requires that dvi_file be prepared with source spe-
              cial information.  See the section on SOURCE  SPECIALS  for  de-
              tails on how to do this.

              Here  is  a more detailed description of how the filename in the
              -sourceposition argument is matched with  the  filename  in  the
              source specials:

              1. If  neither  of the filenames contains a path name component,
                 the filenames are compared ignoring the ‘.tex’ extensions  in
                 both filenames.

              2. Otherwise, if one of the filenames does contain a path compo-
                 nent (e.g.: ./test.tex, ../test.tex, /my/homedir/tex/test.tex
                 or  any combination of these), both filenames are expanded to
                 a full path, with any occurences of ../ and ./ expanded,  and
                 multiple slashes removed.
                 The  pathname  in the -sourceposition is expanded relative to
                 the current working directory of the xdvi -sourceposition in-
                 vocation,  and  the  pathnames in the source specials are ex-
                 panded relative to the path of the  current  DVI  file  being
                 The  path  names are then compared ignoring the ‘.tex’ exten-
                 sions in both path names.

              (.statusline) This option is obsolete; use -expertmode  flag in-
              stead (which see).

              (.thorough)  Xdvi  will  usually  try  to ensure that overstrike
              characters (e.g., \notin) are printed correctly.  On  monochrome
              displays,  this  is  always possible with one logical operation,
              either and or or.  On color displays, however, this may take two
              operations,  one  to  set  the appropriate bits and one to clear
              other bits.  If this is the case, then by default xdvi will  in-
              stead use the copy operation, which does not handle overstriking
              correctly.  The -thorough option chooses  the  slower  but  more
              correct choice.  See also -copy.

       -topmargin dimen
              (.topMargin)  Specifies  the  top  and bottom margins (see -mar-

              (.unique) This option will make another instance of xdvi running
              on the same display act as a ‘server’.  For example, the invoca-

              xdvi -unique +5 file.dvi

              will cause this other instance to load file.dvi  on  page  5  in
              place  of  the file that it is currently displaying. If there is
              already another instance of xdvi  already  displaying  the  file
              file.dvi,  then  it  will just jump to page 5.  If the other in-
              stance of xdvi is displaying a  different  file,  it  will  load
              file.dvi  instead.  Otherwise,  if  no other instance of xdvi is
              currently running on the display, this option instead  starts  a
              new  instance  of xdvi in the background (unless the -nofork op-
              tion is specified, which see) displaying page 5 of file.dvi.
              The filename and the +n option for the page number are the  only
              options available for controlling a remote instance of xdvi like
              this; all other options are currently ignored.

              Use logical TeX pages (the values of the \count0  register)  in-
              stead of physical pages for the pagelist lables and when jumping
              to a page in a document with the ‘g’  keystroke  (or  the  goto-
              page()  action).   This  option  can  be  toggled  via  the  ‘T’

              Print information on the version of xdvi.

              (.visitedLinkColor) Color used for visited hyperlinks (‘Purple4’
              by  default).  Hyperlinks become visited once you click on them.
              As for linkColor, the value should be either  a  valid  X  color
              name or a hexadecimal color string.

              (.warnSpecials)  Causes  xdvi  to  issue warnings about \special
              strings that it cannot process.

       -watchfile n
              (.watchFile) If this option is set to a value larger than 0, xd-
              vi  will  check the DVI file for changes every n seconds. If the
              DVI file has been completely written by TeX, it will be reloaded
              automatically.  Fractional values (e.g. ‘2.5’) are possible. The
              default for this option is 0, i.e. no watching.
              Since xdvi cannot handle partial DVI  files,  it  tries  not  to
              reload  the  file  while it is being rewritten.  However, use of
              the magnifier or switching of pages requires reading (a part of)
              the  DVI  file, and if the tempfile option is switched off, this
              will erase the current contents of the window until the DVI file
              can be read entirely.

       -wheelunit pixels
              (.wheelUnit)  Sets the number of pixels that a motion of a wheel
              mouse will move the image up or down.  If set to zero, the wheel
              mouse functionality is disabled.  The default value is 80.

       -xoffset dimen
              (.xOffset)  Specifies  the  size of the horizontal offset of the
              output on the page.  See -offsets.

       -yoffset dimen
              (.yOffset) Specifies the size of the vertical offset of the out-
              put on the page.  See -offsets.


       Xdvi  recognizes  the  following  keystrokes  when typed in its window.
       Each may optionally be preceded by a (positive or negative)  number,  a
       ‘prefix  argument’,  whose interpretation will depend on the particular
       keystroke.  This prefix argument can be discarded by pressing the ‘‘Es-
       cape’’  key.  If present, the ‘‘Help’’, ‘‘Prior’’ and ‘‘Next’’ keys are
       synonyms for ‘?’, ‘b’, and ‘f’ keys, respectively.

       The key bindings listed here are those that xdvi  assigns  by  default.
       The  names  appearing  in brackets at the beginning of the descriptions
       are the names of the actions associated with the  keys;  these  can  be
       used  to customize the key bindings, as explained in more detail in the
       section CUSTOMIZATION below. If only a  lowercase  binding  is  listed,
       both upper- and lowercase keys will work for that binding.

       ESC key
              [discard-number()]  The escape key discards the numerical prefix
              for all actions (useful when you mistyped a number).

       Delete key
              [up-or-previous()] Moves down two-thirds of a window-full, or to
              the  top  of  the  previous page if already at the bottom of the
              page. With a float argument, moves down the corresponding  frac-
              tion of a window-full. By default, the Space key is bound to the
              action unpause-or-next() which does a similar thing; see  there.
              The ‘keep’ flag is ignored by these actions.

       Space key
              [unpause-or-next()]  Moves  down two-thirds of a window-full, or
              to the next page if already at the bottom of the page.
              When the option -pause special-string is used and the display is
              currenlty paused, this key will instead display the next portion
              of the page until the next special-string or the end of the page
              is  encountered.   See  the description of the -pause option for

       Ctrl-Home (Xaw), Ctrl-osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [goto-page(1)] Moves to the first page of the document.

       Ctrl-End (Xaw), Ctrl-osfEndLine (Motif)
              [goto-page()] Moves to the last page of the document.

       Home (Xaw), osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [home-or-top()] Move to the ‘‘home’’ position of the page, or to
              the  top  of the page if the keep flag is set (in this case, the
              page doesn’t scroll horizontally).

       End (Xaw), osfEndLine (Motif)
              [end-or-bottom()] Move to the ‘‘end’’ position of the page  (the
              lower  right-hand  corner),  or to the bottom of the page if the
              keep flag is set (in this case, the page doesn’t scroll horizon-

       Down arrow
              [down(0.015)] Scrolls page down.

       Up arrow
              [up(0.015)] Scrolls page up.

       Right arrow
              [right(0.015)] Scrolls page right.

       Left arrow
              [left(0.015)] Scrolls page left.

              [change-density(25)]  Increase  the darkness of the fonts in the
              DVI window by adding to  the  gamma  value  (see  also  the  ‘S’

              [change-density(-25)]  Decrease the darkness of the fonts in the
              DVI window by subtracting from the gamma value (see also the ‘S’

       Ctrl-+ [set-shrink-factor(+)]  Increase the shrink factor (see also the
              ‘s’ keystroke).

       Ctrl-- [set-shrink-factor(-)] Decrease the shrink factor (see also  the
              ‘s’ keystroke).

       Ctr-[  [pagehistory-delete-backward()]  Delete  the current item in the
              page history and move to the history  item  before  the  deleted
              one.  With a prefix argument n, delete n previous history items.
              See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       [      [pagehistory-back()] Move back in the  page  history  (see  PAGE
              HISTORY for details). With a prefix argument n, move back n his-
              tory items.

       Ctr-]  [pagehistory-delete-forward()] Delete the current  item  in  the
              page history and move to the history item after the deleted one.
              With a prefix argument n, delete n next history items. See  PAGE
              HISTORY for details.

       ]      [pagehistory-forward()]  Move  forward  in the page history (see
              PAGE HISTORY for details). With a prefix argument n,  move  for-
              ward n history items.

       ^      [home()]  Move  to  the  ‘‘home’’ position of the page.  This is
              normally the upper left-hand corner of the  page,  depending  on
              the margins as described in the -margins option, above.

       ?      [help()] Same as the h key (which see).

       B      [htex-back()]  This key jumps back to the previous hyperlink an-
              chor. See the section HYPERLINKS for more information  on  navi-
              gating the links.

       b      [back-page()]  Moves  to  the  previous  page (or back n pages).
              Synonyms are ‘p’ and Ctrl-h.

       C      [set-color()] This key toggles the use of color  specials.   The
              key  sequences  ‘0C’  and ‘1C’ turn interpretation of color spe-
              cials off and on, respectively.  See also the -nocolor option.

       c      [center()] Moves the page so that the  point  currently  beneath
              the mouse cursor is moved to the middle of the window, and warps
              the mouse cursor to the same place.

       d      [down()] Moves page down two thirds of  a  window-full.  With  a
              float  argument  to ‘‘down’’, moves down the corresponding frac-
              tion of a window-full.

       Ctrl-f [find()] Pop up a window to search for a string in the DVI file.
              See the section STRING SEARCH, below, for more details.

       f      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page
              if a number is given).  Synonyms are ‘n’, Return, and Line Feed.

       G      [set-greyscaling()]  This key toggles the use of greyscale anti-
              aliasing for displaying shrunken bitmaps.  In addition, the  key
              sequences  ‘0G’  and ‘1G’ clear and set this flag, respectively.
              See also the -nogrey option.

              If given a numeric argument that is not 0 or 1, greyscale  anti-
              aliasing is turned on, and the gamma resource is set to the val-
              ue divided by 100. E.g., ‘150G’ turns on greyscale and sets gam-
              ma to 1.5.

       Ctrl-g [find-next()]  Find  the next match string in the DVI file; this
              can be used instead of pressing the ‘Find’ button in the  search

       g      [goto-page()]  Moves  to  the  page with the given number. If no
              page number is given, xdvi jumps to the last page.
              If the option/resource useTeXpages is active, the numbers corre-
              spond  the  the  actual page numbers in the TeX file; otherwise,
              absolute page numbers (starting from 1) are used. In the  latter
              case,  the  page  numbers can be changed with the ‘P’ keystroke,
              below.  Note that with the useTeXpages  option  it  is  possible
              that the same page number occurs multiple times; in such a case,
              xdvi will use the first page number that matches.

       h      Pops up a help window with a short explanation of the  most  im-
              portant key bindings and concepts.

       k      [set-keep-flag()] Normally when xdvi switches pages, it moves to
              the home position as well.  The ‘k’ keystroke toggles  a  ‘keep-
              position’ flag which, when set, will keep the same position when
              moving between pages.  Also ‘0k’ and ‘1k’  clear  and  set  this
              flag, respectively.  See also the -keep option.

       Ctrl-l [fullscreen(toggle)]  Toggles  fullscreen mode (see the descrip-
              tion of the -fullscreen option for more  information  on  this).
              This  is  even  more  flaky  than using the command-line option:
              There is no universal standard how a window could change its own
              geometry  or  window  decorations  at run-time, so this will not
              work with most window managers or desktops. Generally, it’s bet-
              ter  to  use  the  window manager controls to change the size or
              decorations of the xdvi window.

       l      [left()] Moves page left two thirds of a window-full.

       M      [set-margins()] Sets the margins so that the point currently un-
              der  the  mouse cursor defines the upper left-hand corner of the
              text in the page.  Note that the command does not move  the  im-
              age, but only determines the margins for the page switching com-
              mands. For details on how the margins are used, see the -margins

       m      [toggle-mark()]  Toggles  the  mark  for the current page in the
              page list. When a page is marked, it is displayed with  a  small
              star  ‘*’ next to the page number.  The marked pages can then be
              printed or saved to a file.  A page or several pages can also be
              marked by clicking or dragging Mouse-2 in the page list.

       Ctrl-n [toggle-mark()forward-page()]  Toggles  the mark for the current
              page in the page list, and moves to the next page. This lets you
              quickly mark a series of subsequent pages.

       n      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page
              if a number is given).  Synonyms are ‘f’, Return, and Line Feed.

       Ctrl-o [select-dvi-file()] Read a new dvi file. A file-selection widget
              is popped up for you to choose the DVI file from.  If  a  prefix
              argument  n  is  given,  the  n th file from the file history is
              opened instead.

       P      [declare-page-number()] ‘‘This is page number n.’’  This can  be
              used  to make the ‘g’ keystroke refer to a different page number
              than the physical page.  (If you want to use  ‘logical’  or  TeX
              page  numbers  instead of physical pages, consider using the op-
              tion -useTeXpages instead.)  The argument n should be  given  as
              prefix to this key.

       Ctrl-p [print()]  Opens  a  popup  window for printing the DVI file, or
              parts of it.  See the section PRINT DIALOG for an explanation of
              the  options  available,  and the resources to customize the de-
              fault behaviour.

       p      [back-page()] Moves to the previous  page  (or  back  n  pages).
              Synonyms are ‘b’ and Ctrl-h.

       q      [quit()] Quits the program.

       Ctrl-r [forward-page(0)] Redisplays the current page.

       R      [reread-dvi-file()]  Forces the dvi file to be reread.  This al-
              lows you to preview many versions of the same file while running
              xdvi only once.

       r      [right()] Moves page right two thirds of a window-full.

       Ctrl-s [save()]  Opens a popup window for saving the DVI file, or parts
              of it. See the section SAVE DIALOG below for more information on

       S      [set-density()]  Sets the density factor to be used when shrink-
              ing bitmaps.  This should be a number between 0 and 100;  higher
              numbers  produce  lighter characters.  If greyscaling mode is in
              effect, this changes the value of gamma instead.  The new  value
              of gamma is the given number divided by 100; negative values are

       s      [set-shrink-factor()] Changes the shrink  factor  to  the  given
              number.   If  no number is given, the smallest factor that makes
              the entire page fit in the window will be  used.   (Margins  are
              ignored in this computation.)

       T      [use-tex-pages()]  Use  logical  TeX  pages  (the  values of the
              \count0 register) instead of physical pages for the pagelist la-
              bels  and  when jumping to a page in a document via goto-page().
              See also the -useTeXpages option.

       t      [switch-magnifier-units()] Switches the units used for the  mag-
              nifier  tick  marks,  and for reporting the distance between the
              mouse pointer and the ruler centre in ruler mode (see  the  sec-
              tion  MODES).   The default value is specified by the X resource
              tickUnits (‘mm’ by default). The units toggle through  the  fol-
              lowing  values;  except  for  ‘px’, they all correspond to TeX’s
              units: mm (millimeters) pt (TeX points), in (inches), sp (scaled
              points,  the  unit  used  internally  by  TeX) bp (big points or
              ‘Postscript points’), cc (cicero points), dd (didot points),  pc
              (pica), and px (screen pixels).

       Ctrl-u [back-page()toggle-mark()]  Moves to the previous page, and tog-
              gles the mark for that page. This is the dual action to  Ctrl-n.

       u      [up()]  Moves  page up two thirds of a window-full. With a float
              argument to ‘‘up’’, moves up the  corresponding  fraction  of  a

       Ctrl-v [show-source-specials()]  Show  bounding  boxes for every source
              special on the current page, and print the strings contained  in
              these specials to stderr. With prefix 1, show every bounding box
              on the page. This is for debugging purposes mainly.

       V      [set-gs-alpha()]  This  key   toggles   the   anti-aliasing   of
              PostScript<tm>  specials  when  Ghostscript is used as renderer.
              In addition the key sequences ‘0V’ and ‘1V’ clear and  set  this
              flag, respectively.  See also the -gsalpha option.

       v      [set-ps()] This key toggles the rendering of PostScript<tm> spe-
              cials between 3 states:

              - specials (like EPS graphics) are displayed;

              - specials are displayed  along  with  their  bounding  box  (if

              - only the bounding box is displayed.

              The states can also be selected directly by using ‘1v’, ‘2v’ and
              ‘0v’ respectively.  See also the -postscript option.

       Ctrl-x [source-what-special()]  Display  information  about  the source
              special next to the mouse cursor in the statusline. This is  the
              same special that would be found by source-special() , but with-
              out invoking the editor. For debugging purposes.

       x      [set-expert-mode()] Toggles  expert  mode,  in  which  the  sta-
              tusline,  the  scrollbars,  the menu buttons, the toolbar (Motif
              only) and the page list are not shown.  Typing ‘1x’ toggles  the
              display  of  the  statusline at the bottom of the window. Typing
              ‘2x’ toggles the scrollbars (if available). For Xaw,  ‘3x’  tog-
              gles  the  menu buttons and the page list, for Motif, it toggles
              the page list. In Motif, the additional bindings ‘4x’ toggle the
              toolbar, and ‘5x’ the menu bar.
              Without a prefix argument, all of the mentioned GUI elements are
              either switched on (if they had been invisible before) or off.
              Toggling the scrollbars may behave erratically with the Xaw wid-
              gets;  e.g.  the scrollbars may reappear after resizing the win-
              dow, and at certain window sizes one of the scrollbars may  fail
              to disappear.
              See also the option -expertmode (the numbers above correspond to
              the bits in the argument to -expertmode).



              [do-href-newwindow()magnifier(*2)] Usually, if a binding  speci-
              fies  more  then  one  action, all actions are executed in a se-
              quence. The hyperlink bindings do-href() and do-href-newwindow()
              are special in that they are used as an alternative to other ac-
              tions that might follow them if the mouse is  currently  located
              on a hyperlink.  In this case, none of the other actions will be
              executed.  Otherwise, only the other actions are executed.
              The action do-href() jumps to the link target in the current xd-
              vi  window  (eventually switching to another page), and do-href-
              newwindow() opens a new instance of xdvi for  the  link  target.
              In  both  cases,  the  location  of the target is indicated by a
              small arrow drawn in the same color as a  visited  link  in  the
              left corner of the window.

              [magnifier(*3)]  The actions magnifier(n) will pop up a ‘‘magni-
              fying glass’’ which shows  the  unshrunk  image  of  the  region
              around  the  mouse  pointer.   The magnifier disappears when the
              mouse button is released. Moving the mouse cursor while  holding
              the button down will move the magnifier.
              In  Ruler  Mode,  the first button moves or sets a ruler cross
              instead; see the section MODES, below, for details.
              Different mouse buttons produce different sized windows, as  in-
              dicated by the the argument of the magnifier() action. Its argu-
              ment is either a string of the  form  widthxheight,  as  in  the
              -mgsn  command-line option, or one of the strings *1 through *5,
              referring to the value specified by the corresponding -mgsn  op-
              tion. Note that in order to assign magnifier actions to the but-
              tons 4 or 5, you need  to  use  the  resource  wheelTranslations
              (more about this resource below), e.g.:

              xdvi.wheelTranslations: <Btn4Down>: magnifier(*4)\n\



              [drag(-)]  Drags  the  page with the mouse. Shift-Mouse 1 allows
              dragging in all directions, Shift-Mouse 2 allows vertical  drag-
              ging only, and Shift-Mouse 3 allows horizontal dragging only. To
              access these actions via customization,  use  the  drag  action.
              This  action  should  have  one  parameter, the character ‘‘|’’,
              ‘‘-’’, or ‘‘+’’, indicating vertical dragging, horizontal  drag-
              ging, or dragging in both directions.

              [source-special()]  Holding down the Ctrl key and clicking mouse
              button 1 starts a ‘‘reverse search’’, opening the editor at  the
              location  in  the TeX file corresponding to the pointer location
              in the DVI file.  See the section on SOURCE SPECIALS, below, for
              more information on this.


       The following actions are not bound to a key by default, but are avail-
       able for customization.

              Pops up a confirmation window to quit xdvi. To bind  it  to  the
              ‘q’  key instead of the default ‘quit()’ action, put the follow-
              ing into your ~/.Xdefaults file:

              xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
              <Key>q: quit-confirm()\n

              Similar to unpause-or-next(): Moves down two-thirds of a window-
              full,  or to the next page if already at the bottom of the page.

              This action takes one (required) argument.  It sets  the  shrink
              factor  to an integer so as to approximate the use of fonts with
              the corresponding number of dots per inch.   If  xdvi  is  using
              fonts scaled for p dots per inch, and the argument to shrink-to-
              dpi is n, then the corresponding shrink factor is the ratio p/n,
              rounded to the nearest integer.


       Key  and  mouse  button assignments can be changed by setting the main-
       Translations resource to a string of translations  as  defined  in  the
       documentation  for  the X toolkit.  The actions should take the form of
       action names listed in the KEYSTROKES and MOUSE ACTIONS sections.

       An exception to this are the Motif keys osfPageUp  (PgUp),  osfPageDown
       (PgDown),  osfBeginLine (Home) and osfEndLine (End) which are currently
       not customizable in the Motif version.

       Key actions will usually be without arguments; if they  are  passed  an
       argument,  it represents the optional number or ‘prefix argument’ typed
       prior to the action.

       Some key actions may take special arguments, as follows:  The  argument
       of  goto-page  may be the letter ‘e’, indicating the action of going to
       the end of the document.  The argument of set-shrink-factor may be  the
       letter  ‘a’,  indicating  that  the  shrink factor should be set to the
       smallest value such that the page will fit in the window, or one of the
       signs ‘+’ or ‘-’, indicating that the shrink factor should be increased
       or decreased, respectively.  Finally, actions that would perform a tog-
       gle,  such  as  set-keep-flag,  may receive an argument ‘t’, indicating
       that the action should toggle regardless of the  current  prefix  argu-

       Mouse   actions   should   refer  only  to  ButtonPress  events  (e.g.,
       <Btn1Down>:magnifier(*1)).  The corresponding motion and release events
       will  be  handled  internally.   A  key  action may be bound to a mouse
       event, but not vice versa.

       Usually the string of translations should begin with ‘‘#override’’, in-
       dicating  that  the default key and mouse button assignments should not
       be discarded.

       When keys or mouse buttons involving modifiers (such as Ctrl or  Shift)
       are  customized together with their non-modified equivalents, the modi-
       fied keys should come first, for example:

            xdvi.mainTranslations: #override \
            Ctrl<Btn1Down>: magnifier(*3)\n\
            Shift<Btn1Down>: magnifier(*2)\n\
            <Btn1Down>: magnifier(*1)\n

       Note: The additional ‘Modes’ for Mouse-1 (Ruler Mode, Text Mode  -  see
       the  section  MODES)  only  work  if Mouse-1 has the magnifier() action
       bound to it.

       Because xdvi needs to capture pointer motion events, and because the  X
       Toolkit  translations  mechanism  cannot accommodate both motion events
       and double-click events at the same time, it is not possible to specify
       double-click  actions  in xdvi customizations.  For information on this
       and other aspects of translations, see the X Toolkit  Intrinsics  docu-

       There  is  no command-line option to set the mainTranslations resource,
       since changing this resource on the command line would  be  cumbersome.
       To set the resource for testing purposes, use the -xrm command-line op-
       tion provided by the X toolkit.  For  example,  xdvi  -xrm  XDvi.main-
       Translations:  #override "z":quit() ...  or xdvi -xrm XDvi.mainTrans-
       lations: #override <Key>z:quit() ...  will cause the key ‘z’  to  quit

       Support  of wheel mice is controlled by the wheelTranslations resource.
       Generally the only action routine called by  this  resource  should  be
       wheel.             The            default            value           is
       ‘‘<Btn4Down>:wheel(-1.)\n<Btn5Down>:wheel(1.)’’.  Because this resource
       is  implemented  differently  from the others, it should not begin with
       ‘‘#override; when specifying a value for this resource, all wheel ac-
       tions should be included.

       Some  resources  are provided to allow customization of the geometry of
       the Xaw command buttons.  Again, they are not changeable  via  command-
       line  options,  other than via the -xrm option.  All of these resources
       take integer values.

              The number of pixels to be placed on either side of the buttons.
              The default value is 6.

              The  number  of pixels between the top button and the top of the
              window.  The default value is 50.

              The number of pixels between the buttons.  The default value  is

              The  number  of pixels of additional space to be inserted if the
              buttonTranslations resource string  contains  an  extra  newline
              character.  The default value is 50.

              The border width of the button windows.  The default value is 1.


       The scrollable page list on the right of the main window allows you  to
       jump directly to a page in the DVI file.

              Jumps to the page the mouse is located on.

              [toggle-mark()]  Toggle  the mark of the current page. The marks
              are used by the ‘Print’ and ‘Save to file’ dialogs to select on-
              ly marked pages from the DVI file.

       When the mouse pointer is inside the page list, the mouse wheel switch-
       es to the next or previous page.


       The scrollbars (if present) behave in the standard way:  pushing Button
       2  in  a  scrollbar moves the top or left edge of the scrollbar to that
       point and optionally drags it; pushing Button 1 moves the image  up  or
       right  by  an amount equal to the distance from the button press to the
       upper left-hand corner of the window; pushing Button 3 moves the  image
       down or left by the same amount.

       The scrollbars can be removed via the -expertmode flag/keystroke (which

       Wheel mice are supported:  motion of the wheel on such  a  mouse  moves
       the  image up or down by the number of pixels indicated by the -wheelu-
       nit option.  To access this option via customization, use the wheel ac-
       tion.   This  action takes one parameter, giving the distance to scroll
       the image.  If the parameter contains a decimal point, the distance  is
       given in wheel units; otherwise, pixels.


       By default, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 will pop up a ‘‘magnifying glass’’
       that shows an unshrunken image of the page (i.e. an image at the  reso-
       lution determined by the option/X resource pixels or mfmode) at varying
       sizes. When the magnifier is moved, small  ruler-like  tick  marks  are
       displayed  at  the  edges  of  the magnifier (unless the X resource de-
       layRulers is set to false, in which case the tick marks will always  be
       displayed).   The  unit  of  the  marks is determined by the X resource
       tickUnits (mm by default). This unit can be changed at runtime via  the
       action  switch-magnifier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke ‘t’
       (see the description of that key, and of  switch-magnifier-units()  for
       more details on the units available).
       The  length  of  the tick marks can be changed via the X resource tick-
       Length (4 by default). A zero or negative  value  suppresses  the  tick


       Xdvi keeps a history of viewed pages, and you can move through the his-
       tory and delete items using the keys [ (pagehistory-back()),  ]  (page-
       history-forward()),  Ctr-[  (pagehistory-delete-backward())  and  Ctr-]

       When one of the history commands is used, the page history is displayed
       in  the  status line at the bottom of the window, with the current list
       item marked by square brackets ‘[’, ‘]’ and a left and right context of
       at most 10 items. File boundaries are marked by ‘#’.

       The  size of the history can be customized with the X resource pageHis-
       torySize (the default size is 1000 items). If the size is set to 0, the
       history commands are disabled.


       The  actions  do-href()  and  do-href-newwindow()  (by default bound to
       Mouse-1 and Mouse-2 if the pointer is currently located on a hyperlink)
       can  be  used to open the link target in the same window (do-href()) or
       in a new window (do-href-newwindow()).

       If the link target is not a file on  the  local  disk,  xdvi  tries  to
       launch a web browser (as specified by the -browser command line option,
       the BROWSER environment variable or the wwwBrowser X resource, in  this
       order) to retrieve the document. See the description of the BROWSER en-
       vironment variable, below, for an example setting.

       If the file is a local file, xdvi tries to determine if  it  is  a  DVI
       file.  If  it  is, xdvi will try to display the file; otherwise it will
       try to determine the MIME type of the file, and from that  an  applica-
       tion  suitable for opening the file.  This is done by parsing the files
       specified by the environment variable EXTENSIONMAPS for  a  mapping  of
       filename  extensions to MIME types, and the files determined by the en-
       vironment variable MAILCAPS for a mapping of MIME types to  application
       programs.  See the descriptions of these variables in the section ENVI-
       RONMENT, below, for a more detailed description and the default  values
       of  these  variables. If no suitable files are found, a set of built-in
       default MIME types and applications is used.

       Xdvi currently uses no heuristics apart from the filename suffix to de-
       termine the mime type of a file. If a filename has no suffix, the value
       of the resource noMimeSuffix  is  used  (by  default  application/x-un-
       known).  If the suffix doesn’t match any of the suffixes in mime.types,
       the value of the resource unknownMimeSuffix is used (by default  appli-
       cation/x-unknown).   If  the mailcap entries do not list a viewer for a
       given mime type, xdvi will show a warning popup. If you want  to  avoid
       this  warning,  and for example want to always use the netscape browser
       for unknown MIME types, you  could  add  the  following  line  to  your
       ~/.mailcap file:

           application/xdvi-unknown; \
               netscape -raise -remote openURL(%s,new-window)


       The keystroke Ctrl-f or the menu entry File > Find ...  (or the ‘Binoc-
       ulars’ symbol in the toolbar, for  Motif)  opens  a  dialog  window  to
       search  for a text string or a regular expression in the DVI file.  The
       keystroke Ctrl-g jumps to the next match (like pressing the ‘Find’ but-
       ton in the search window).

       By default, the matches are highlighted in inverted color.  If the dis-
       play isn’t running in TrueColor, or if the X resouce  matchHighlightIn-
       verted  is  set to false or the command-line option -nomatchinverted is
       used, xdvi will instead draw a rectangle in highlight  color  (see  the
       -hl option) around the match.

       If  a match crosses a page boundary, only the part on the first page is
       highlighted.  Xdvi will scan up to 2 adjacent pages  to  match  strings
       crossing  page boundaries; but note that header or footer lines, or in-
       tervening float pages will be treated as parts  of  the  scanned  text.
       Such text will usually cause multi-page matching to fail.

       This  emphasizes the fact that searching in the formatted text (the DVI
       output) works differently from searching in the source text:  Searching
       in  the  DVI  file makes it easier to skip formatting instructions, and
       makes it possible to search for e.g.  hyphenation and equation numbers;
       but  sometimes  the formatting results can also get in the way, e.g. in
       the case of footnotes. In these cases it’s better to search in the  TeX
       source  instead. The use of source specials will make switching between
       the xdvi display and the editor with the TeX  source  easier;  see  the
       section SOURCE SPECIALS below for more information on this.

       The  text  extracted  from the DVI file is in encoded in UTF-8 (you can
       view that text by saving the file in UTF-8 format via the File  >  Save
       as  ...  menu item).  If xdvi has been compiled with locale, nl_langin-
       fo() and iconv support, the search term is converted from the character
       set  specified by the current locale into UTF-8. (See the output of lo-
       cale -a for a list of locale settings available on  your  system).   If
       nl_langinfo() is not available, but iconv is, you can specify the input
       encoding for iconv via the X resource textEncoding (see the  output  of
       iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv support is not avail-
       able, only the encodings ISO-8859-1  and  UTF-8  are  supported  (these
       names are case-insensitive).

       Ideographic characters from CJKV fonts are treated specially: All white
       space (spaces and newlines) before and after such characters is ignored
       in the search string and in the DVI file.

       To match a newline character, use \n in the search string; to match the
       string \n, use \\n.

       If the checkbox Regular Expression is activated, the string is  treated
       as  a  regular  expression in extended POSIX syntax, with the following

         - a? matches a zero or one times.

         - a* matches a zero or more times.

         - a+ matches a one or more times.  Note that * and + are greedy, i.e.
           they match the longest possible substring.

         - The  pattern  .  matches  any character except for newline. To also
           match a newline, use ‘(.|\n)’.

         - a{n} matches a exactly n times.

         - a{n,m} matches a at least n and no more than m times.

         - a|b matches a or b.  Brackets  can  be  used  for  grouping,  e.g.:

         - The  string  matched by the nth group can be referenced by \n, e.g.
           \1 refers to the first match.

         - The characters ^ and $ match the beginning and the end of  a  line,

         - [abc]  matches  any  of  the letters a, b, c, and [a-z] matches all
           characters from a to z.

         - Each item in a regular expression can also be one of the  following
           POSIX character classes:
           [[:alnum:]] [[:alpha:]] [[:blank:]] [[:cntrl:]] [[:digit:]]
           [[:graph:]] [[:lower:]] [[:print:]] [[:space:]] [[:upper:]]

           These can be negated by inserting a ^ symbol after the first brack-
           et: [^[:alpha:]]

           For more details on POSIX regular expressions, see  e.g.  the  IEEE
           Std 1003.1 standard definition available online from:


         - As  a non-standard extension, the following Perl-like abbreviations
           can be used instead of the POSIX classes:

           Symbol   Meaning                       POSIX Class

               \w   an alphanumeric character     [[:alnum:]]
               \W   a non-alphanumeric character  [^[:alnum:]]
               \d   a digit character             [[:digit:]]
               \D   a non-digit character         [^[:digit:]]
               \s   a whitespace character        [[:space:]]
               \S   a non-whitespace character    [^[:space:]]

         - The following characters are special symbols; they need to  be  es-
           caped with \ in order to match them literally:  ( ) [ ] . * ? + ^ $

         - Matches of length zero are silently skipped.

       The dialog also provides checkboxes to:

         - search backwards;

         - match in a case-sensitive manner (the default is  to  ignore  case,
           i.e. a search string Test will match both the strings test and TEST
           in the DVI file);

         - ignore line breaks and hyphens: This removes  all  hyphens  at  the
           ends  of  lines  and the following newline characters, and replaces
           all remaining newline characters by  white  spaces.  So  hyphenated
           words  will  appear as one word to the search, and a search for two
           words with a space in between will also match the words if they are
           separated by a linebreak.
           Note  that  the  hyphen removal may cause unwanted side effects for
           compound words containing hyphens that are wrapped  after  the  hy-
           phen, and that replacing the newlines affects the interpretation of
           regular expressions as follows: The . pattern will also match  new-
           lines,  and  ^  and  $ won’t match begin and end of lines any more.
           (Since currently there is no option for turning off the  greediness
           of  *  and  +, turing on this option will usually result in matches
           that are longer than desired.)

       The current checkbox settings are saved in the ~/.xdvirc file.


       The print dialog window allows you to print  all  pages,  marked  pages
       (click  or  drag  Mouse-2 in the page list to mark them), or a range of
       pages. Note that the page numbers always refer to physical pages, so if
       you’re  using the option ‘use TeX pages’, you may want to disable it to
       make it easier to determine the correct page  numbers  (or  avoid  this
       problem altogether by marking the pages to be printed).

       The  value  of  the  Printer  text filed is passed to dvips via the -o!
       mechanism, as a single argument after the ‘!’. Any arguments listed  in
       the Dvips options field are segmeted at whitespaces and passed as sepa-
       rate arguments to dvips.  If you e.g. want to print the file 2-up,  you
       should enter the following string into the Printer field:

                psnup -2 -q | lpr -Plp

       There  are  several resources for customizing the behaviour and the de-
       fault entries of the print dialog:


              These can be used to provide default entries for the Printer and
              the Dvips options text fields, respectively. If no paper size is
              specified in the DVI file (via e.g. \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}
              -  this is the preferred method), the input field is initialized
              with the current value of the command line option/X resource pa-
              per.   E.g.,  the option -paper a4r is translated into the dvips
              options -t a4 -t landscape.  Note that  no  check  is  performed
              whether dvips actually understands these options (it will ignore
              them if it can’t); currently not all options used  by  xdvi  are
              also covered by dvips.


              These  specify  the  time  (in  milliseconds)  that the printing
              progress window will stay open after the dvips process has  ter-
              minated.  The value of dvipsHangTime is used if the process ter-
              minates successfully; dvipsFailHangTime is used if it terminates
              with an error. The default values are 1.5 and 5 seconds, respec-
              tively.  If both values are negative, the window will stay  open
              until it is closed by the user.


       This dialog allows you to save all or selected/marked pages in the cur-
       rent DVI file. You can save in one of the following formats:

         - Postscript (uses dvips to convert the  DVI  file  to  a  Postscript
           file, just like when printing to a Postscript file).

         - PDF (first uses dvips to convert the DVI file to a Postscript file,
           then uses ps2pdf to convert the Postscript file to PDF).

         - Plain text in ISO-8859-1 or UTF-8 encoding (the  latter  will  pre-
           serve  more  of the special LaTeX characters e.g. from mathematical
           mode).  If a character cannot be displayed in the selected charset,
           it  is  replaced by ‘\’ followed by the hexadecimal character code.
           If a character is not recognized at all, it is replaced by ‘?’.  If
           you  think  that  xdvi  should  recognize  a character but doesn’t,
           please send a feature request to the address given in  AUTHORS  be-
           low.  Likewise,  if  you  observe spurious spaces or unwanted line-
           breaks in the output, please report this as a bug.

       The programs for Postscript and PDF conversion can  be  customized  via
       the  command  line  options  or  X  resources -dvipspath/.dvipsPath and
       -ps2pdfpath/.ps2pdfPath, respectively; see the explanation of these op-
       tions above for more details.


       The  keystroke  Ctrl-m [switch-mode()] switches between three different
       bindings for Mouse-1, which can also be activated via  the  Modes  menu
       (in  Motif,  this  is a submenu of the Options menu called Mouse Mode).
       The default mode at startup can be customized via the X resource mouse-
       Mode  or  the command-line option -mousemode.  The default startup mode
       is Magnifier Mode.

       Note: The modes are implemented by  changing  the  magnifier()  action.
       Switching  the  mode will not work if Mouse-1 has been customized to an
       action sequence that does not contain the magnifier() action.

       Magnifier Mode
              In this mode, the mouse buttons 1 to 5  pop  up  a  ‘‘magnifying
              glass’’  that shows an unshrunken image of the page (i.e. an im-
              age at the resolution determined by the option/X resource pixels
              or  mfmode) at varying sizes. When the magnifier is moved, small
              ruler-like tick marks are displayed at the edges of the magnifi-
              er  (unless the X resource delayRulers is set to false, in which
              case the tick marks are always  displayed).   The  unit  of  the
              marks is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by default).
              This unit can be changed at runtime via the action switch-magni-
              fier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke ‘t’ (see the de-
              scription of that key, and of switch-magnifier-units() for  more
              details on the units available).
              The  length  of the tick marks can be changed via the X resource
              tickLength (4 by default). A zero or negative  value  suppresses
              the tick marks.

       Text Selection Mode
              This  mode  allows you to select a rectangular region of text in
              the DVI file by holding down Mouse-1 and moving the  mouse.  The
              text is put into the X primary selection so that it can be past-
              ed into other X applications with Mouse-2 as usual.
              If xdvi has been compiled with locale, nl_langinfo()  and  iconv
              support,  the  selected text is converted into the character set
              of the current locale (see the output of locale -a for a list of
              locale  settings available on your system).  If nl_langinfo() is
              not available, but iconv is, you can specify the input  encoding
              for  iconv  via  the  X resource textEncoding (see the output of
              iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv support is not
              available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 are supported
              (these names are case-insensitive).
              Note that UTF-8 is the only encoding that can render all charac-
              ters (e.g. mathematical symbols) of a DVI file. If ISO-8859-1 is
              active, characters that cannot be displayed are replaced by  ‘\’
              followed  by  the  hexadecimal character code.  For other encod-
              ings, such characters may trigger iconv error  messages.   If  a
              character is not recognized at all, it is replaced by ‘?’.
              To  extract  larger portions of text, you can alternatively save
              selected pages or the entire file in text format via the File  >
              Save as ...  menu.

       Ruler Mode
              This  mode  provides  a simple way of measuring distances on the
              When this mode is activated, the mouse  cursor  changes  into  a
              thin  cross,  and  a  larger, cross-shaped ruler is drawn in the
              highlight color at the mouse location. The  ruler  doesn’t  have
              units  attached to it; instead, the current distance between the
              ruler and the mouse cursor is continously printed  to  the  sta-
              When  activating  Ruler  Mode, the ruler is at first attached to
              the mouse and can be moved around. It can then be positioned  at
              a fixed place by clicking Mouse-1.  After that, the mouse cursor
              can be moved to measure the horizontal (dx), vertical  (dy)  and
              direct  (shortest)  (dr) distance between the ruler center point
              and the mouse.
              Clicking Mouse-1 again will move the ruler to the current  mouse
              position, and holding down Mouse-1 will drag the ruler around.
              In  Ruler  Mode, the following special keybindings extend or re-
              place the default bindings:

              o      [ruler-snap-origin()] Snap the ruler back to  the  origin
                     coordinate (0,0).

              t      [overrides switch-magnifier-units()] Toggle between vari-
                     ous ruler units, which can be specified by the X resource
                     tickUnits (‘mm’ by default).

              P      [overrides  declare-page-number()]  Print  the  distances
                     shown in the statusline to standard output.

TOOLBAR (Motif only)

       The Motif toolbar can also be customized. The XPM  file  used  for  the
       toolbar  icons  can  be  specified  via the resource toolbarPixmapFile,
       which should contain a filename that can be  found  in  one  of  XFILE-
       SEARCHPATH or XDVIINPUTS (see the section FILE SEARCHING below for more
       information on these variables).  Xdvi will try to  split  this  pixmap
       horizontally  into  n pieces, where each piece is as wide as the pixmap
       is high and is treated as an image for toolbar button  n.   This  means
       that  each  icon  should be a square, and that the entire pixmap should
       have width n x h if h is the height of the pixmap.

       The resource toolbarTranslations can be used to  map  icons/buttons  to
       specific  actions.   The  resource should contain a string separated by
       newline characters, similar to the resources mainTranslations and menu-
       Translations.   Every  line must contain either a spacer definition, or
       an icon definition:

       A spacer definition is a string SPACER(n), where n  is  the  number  of
       pixels inserted as separator to the following button.

       An  icon  definition is a colon-separated list containing the following

         - the index of an icon in the pixmap file (starting from zero);

         - a long tooltip string, displayed in the status area;

         - a short tooltip string, displayed as popup;

         - a sequence of actions to be performed when the corresponding  tool-
         bar button is pushed.

       To illustrate this, the default value of toolbarTranslations  looks  as

            xdvi.toolbarTranslations: \
               0:Open a new document   (Key\\: Ctrl-f):\
                    Open file:select-dvi-file()\n\
               1:Reread this document   (Key\\: R):\
                    Reread file:reread-dvi-file()\n\
               2:Go to the first page of this document   (Key\\: 1g):\
                    Go to first page:goto-page(1)\n\
               3:Go to the previous page of this document   (Key\\: p):\
                    Go to previous page:back-page(1)\n\
               4:Go to the next page of this document   (Key\\: n):\
                    Go to next page:forward-page(1)\n\
               5:Go to the last page of this document   (Key\\: g):\
                    Go to last page:goto-page()\n\
               6:Enlarge the display   (Key\\: Ctrl-+):Zoom in:\
               7:Shrink the display   (Key\\: Ctrl--):Zoom out:\
               8:Jump back to the previous hyperlink   (Key\\: B):\
                    Back hyperlink:htex-back()\n\
               10:Print this document:Print:print()\n\
               11:Toggle marks for odd pages   (Key\\: 1m):\
                    Toggle odd:toggle-mark(1)\n\
               12:Toggle marks for even pages   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle even:toggle-mark(2)\n\
               13:Toggle mark for current page   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle current:toggle-mark()\n\
               14:Unmark all pages   (Key\\: 0m):\
                    Unmark all:toggle-mark(0)\n\
               18:Display fonts darker   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl-+):\
                    Fonts darker:change-density(5)\n\
               19:Display fonts lighter   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl--):\
                    Fonts lighter:change-density(-5)\n

       When  the  mouse  remains over a toolbar button for a certain period, a
       ‘tooltip’ window is shown, describing what the button  does  using  the
       short  tooltip  string  from  the above resource. At the same time, the
       long tooltip string is displayed in the statusline.  The appearance and
       behaviour  of  these  tooltips  can be customized via the following re-

              Background color of the tooltip window.

              Font used for the tooltip.

              The time (in milliseconds) the mouse pointer needs  to  be  over
              the  button  before  the  tooltip is shown. Set it to a negative
              value to suppress the tooltips altogether.


       The greyscale anti-aliasing feature in xdvi will not work at  its  best
       if  the display does not have enough colors available.  This can happen
       if other applications are using most of the colormap (even if they  are
       iconified).   If this occurs, then xdvi will print an error message and
       turn on the -copy option.  This will result  in  overstrike  characters
       appearing wrong; it may also result in poor display quality if the num-
       ber of available colors is very small.

       Typically this problem occurs on displays that allocate eight  bits  of
       video  memory  per  pixel.  To see how many bits per pixel your display
       uses, type xwininfo in an xterm window, and then click the mouse on the
       root  window  when  asked.  The ‘‘Depth:’’ entry will tell you how many
       bits are allocated per pixel.

       Displays using at least 15 bits per pixel are typically TrueColor visu-
       als, which do not have this problem, since their colormap is permanent-
       ly allocated and available to all applications.  (The visual  class  is
       also  displayed  by  xwininfo.)  For more information on visual classes
       see the documentation for the X Window System.

       To alleviate this problem, therefore, one may (a) run  with  more  bits
       per  pixel  (this may require adding more video memory or replacing the
       video card), (b) shut down other applications that may be using much of
       the  colormap  and then restart xdvi, or (c) run xdvi with the -install

       One application which is often the cause of this problem  is  Netscape.
       In  this  case  there are two more alternatives to remedying the situa-
       tion.  One can run ‘‘netscape -install’’ to cause Netscape to install a
       private colormap.  This can cause colors to change in bizarre ways when
       the mouse is moved to a different window.  Or, one can  run  ‘‘netscape
       -ncols 220’’ to limit Netscape to a smaller number of colors.  A small-
       er number will ensure that other applications have more  colors  avail-
       able, but will degrade the color quality in the Netscape window.


       Xdvi  can  display  Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files included in the
       dvi file.  Such files are first searched for in the directory where the
       dvi  file is, and then using normal Kpathsea rules.  There is an excep-
       tion to this, however:  if the file name begins with  a  backtick  (),
       then  the  remaining  characters  in the file name give a shell command
       (often zcat) which is executed; its standard output is then sent to  be
       interpreted as PostScript.  Since the execution of arbitrary shell com-
       mands with the user’s permissions is a huge security  risk,  evaluation
       of these backtick commands is disabled by default. It needs to be acti-
       vated via the -allowshell command-line option.  NOTE: You should  never
       use  this  option  when viewing documents that you didn’t compile your-
       self. The backtick specials are not needed  for  uncompressing  gzipped
       Postscript  files,  since  xdvi  can do that on the fly if the filename
       ends with .eps.gz or .eps.Z (and if the first bytes of the  file  indi-
       cate  that the file is indeed compressed).  This is both safer and more
       flexible than the backtick approach, since the default  file  searching
       rules will apply to such filenames too.


       Using  T1Lib,  a  library  written  by  Rainer  Menzner (see ftp://sun-
       site.unc.edu/pub/Linux/libs/graphics/), xdvi can render  Postscript<tm>
       Type1  fonts  directly, without the route via TeX pixel (pk) fonts. The
       advantage of this is that only one size of each font needs to be stored
       on  disk.   Unless the -not1lib option is used, xdvi will try to render
       every font using T1Lib. Only as a fallback it will invoke  an  external
       program (like mktexpk, which in turn may invoke utilities like ps2pk or
       gsftopk) to generate a pixel font from the  Type1  source.  The  direct
       rendering  of  the  Computer  Modern  fonts should work out-of-the box,
       whereas other Type1 fonts such  as  the  35  ‘standard’  Postscript<tm>
       fonts  resident in printers may need to be made accessible for use with
       xdvi, unless your system administrator or TeX distribution has  already
       done  so  (which is the case e.g. for current teTeX systems). The xdvik
       distribution comes with a utility called t1mapper to make  these  fonts
       available  for  xdvi; see the manual page for t1mapper(1) for usage de-


       Any of the specials used by xdvi may  be  preceded  by  the  characters
       ‘‘xdvi:’’.   Doing so does not change the behavior of the special under
       xdvi, but it tells other dvi drivers (such as e.g. dvips) to ignore the


       Some  TeX implementations or macro packages provide the facility to au-
       tomatically include so-called ‘source specials’ into a DVI file.  These
       contain  the  line number, eventually a column number, and the filename
       of the .tex source. This makes it possible to jump from a .dvi file  to
       the  corresponding place in the .tex source and vice versa (also called
       ‘inverse search’ - jumping from the DVI file to the TeX  file  is  also
       known  as  ‘reverse  search’,  and jumping from the TeX file to the DVI
       file as ‘forward search’).

       To be usable with xdvi, source specials in the dvi file must  have  one
       of the following formats:

                src:line[ ]filename
                src:line:col[ ]filename

       If  filename or line are omitted, the most recent values are used.  The
       first source special on each page must be  in  one  of  the  first  two
       forms, since defaults are not inherited across pages.

       You  will need a TeX implementation that provides an appropriate switch
       (e.g.  -src) or a macro package  (such  as  srcltx.sty  or  srctex.sty,
       available  from  CTAN:macros/latex/contrib/supported/srcltx/) to insert
       such source specials into the DVI file.

       For reverse search, the combination Ctrl-Mouse 1 will make xdvi open an
       editor (the value of the -editor command line option) with the file and
       the line number of the .tex source. See the description of the  -editor
       option for more information and example settings.

       For  forward  search, xdvi has a -sourceposition option that makes xdvi
       jump to the page in the DVI file corresponding to the  given  line  (or
       the  closest  line  having  a source special) of the specified file and
       highlight the found region. See the description of the  -sourceposition
       option for more details.

       More information on setting up various editors for use with source spe-
       cials can be found at:



       xdvi accepts specials to set the paper size for  the  document.   These
       specials should be of the form


       where  width and height give the width and height of the paper, respec-
       tively.  Each of these should appear in the form of  a  decimal  number
       followed  by  any of the two-letter abbreviations for units accepted by
       TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  If an  asterisk  (*)  ap-
       pears  just  before the width, then the measurements refer to the docu-
       ment dimensions (e.g., pt as opposed to truept).  This allows  a  macro
       package  to  vary  the page size according to elements of the document;

            \special{xdvi: papersize=*\number\wd\mybox sp,
                     \number\ht\mybox sp}

       Except for the asterisk, this format is compatible with dvips.

       The last papersize special on a page determines the size of that  page.
       If  there is no such special on a given page, the most recent papersize
       is used, or, if there are no papersize specials on any preceding  page,
       then  the  value of the paper resource (or -paper option on the command
       line) is used.  Thus the paper size may vary for different pages of the
       dvi file.

       If  the  paper  resource  (or -paper command-line option) begins with a
       plus sign (‘+’), then all papersize specials in the dvi  file  are  ig-


       The color specials supported by xdvi are the same as those supported by
       dvips, except that the literal PostScript color  specification  (as  in
       the  AggiePattern example in the dvips documentation) is not supported.
       There are also some restrictions due to the way xdvi’s   drawing   rou-
       tines  are implemented; e.g. the \colorbox and \fcolorbox  macros don’t
       work with xdvi. See the section LIMITATIONS below for more  information
       on  these restrictions.  Xdvi supports the same list of named colors as
       with dvips, namely:

       Apricot, Aquamarine, Bittersweet, Black, Blue,  BlueGreen,  BlueViolet,
       BrickRed, Brown, BurntOrange, CadetBlue, CarnationPink, Cerulean, Corn-
       flowerBlue, Cyan, Dandelion, DarkOrchid, Emerald, ForestGreen, Fuchsia,
       Goldenrod,  Gray, Green, GreenYellow, JungleGreen, Lavender, LimeGreen,
       Magenta, Mahogany, Maroon,  Melon,  MidnightBlue,  Mulberry,  NavyBlue,
       OliveGreen,  Orange,  OrangeRed,  Orchid, Peach, Periwinkle, PineGreen,
       Plum, ProcessBlue, Purple, RawSienna, Red, RedOrange,  RedViolet,  Rho-
       damine,  RoyalBlue,  RoyalPurple,  RubineRed,  Salmon, SeaGreen, Sepia,
       SkyBlue, SpringGreen, Tan, TealBlue, Thistle, Turquoise, Violet, Viole-
       tRed, White, WildStrawberry, Yellow, YellowGreen, YellowOrange.

       Note that these names are case sensitive.

       The  documentation  of the LaTeX color package provides more details on
       how to use such specials with LaTeX; see the dvips documentation for  a
       detailed description of the syntax and semantics of the color specials.


       When xdvi receives a SIGUSR1 signal, it rereads the dvi file.


       Xdvik uses the same environment variables and algorithms for  searching
       for  font  files  as  TeX  and  friends.  See the documentation for the
       Kpathsea library, kpathsea.dvi, for a detailed description of these.

       In addition, xdvik accepts the following variables:

              Specifies which graphics display terminal to use.

              Trace Kpathsea lookups; set it to -1 (= all bits  on)  for  com-
              plete tracing.

              A  list  of  files to be searched for mime types entries (as for
              Acrobat Reader).  Earlier entries in one of these files override
              later  ones.  If this variable is not set, the following default
              path is used:


              A list of files to be searched for mailcap entries,  as  defined
              by  RFC  1343.  See this RFC or the mailcap(4) manual page for a
              detailed description of the mailcap file format.  Currently, on-
              ly the following mailcap features are supported:

                     The entry is only used if command can be executed via the
                     system() call and if the system() call returns with value
                     0  (success).   The command string may contain the format
                     string %s, which will be replaced by the file name.

                     If this flag is used, the command will be executed  in  a
                     new  xterm window by prepending ‘‘xterm -e ’’ to the com-
                     mand string.

              All other fields in the mailcap entry are ignored by xdvi.  Ear-
              lier  entries in one of these files override later ones.  If the
              variable is not defined, the following default path is used:


              For security reasons, some special characters (i.e.: ( ) ‘ \  ;)
              are escaped in the argument before passing it to system().

              Determines  the  web  browser used to open external links (i.e.,
              all URLs that don’t start with the ‘file:’ scheme  and  are  not
              relative  links  in  the  local DVI file), and to open links for
              which no viewer has been specified in  the  mailcap  files.  The
              value  of  this  variable is a colon-separated list of commands.
              Xdvi will try each of them in sequence until one succeeds  (i.e.
              doesn’t  immediately  return  with status 0). This allows you to
              specify your favourite browser at the  beginning,  and  fallback
              browsers at the end. Every occurrence of %s in the string is re-
              placed by the target URL; every occurrence of %% is replaced  by
              a  single %.  If no %s is present, the URL string is added as an
              extra argument.
              An example setting is:

              netscape -raise -remote openURL(%s,new-window):xterm  -e  lynx
              %s:xterm -e wget %s:lynx %s:wget %s



              for more details on the BROWSER environment variable.

       TMPDIR The directory to use for storing temporary  files  created  when
              uncompressing PostScript files.

              Determines  the  editor command used for source special ‘reverse
              search’, if neither the -editor command-line option nor the .ed-
              itor resource are  specified.   See  the description of the -ed-
              itor command line option for details on the format.

       VISUAL Determines an editor to be opened in an xterm window if  neither
              of -editor, .editor, or XEDITOR is specified.

       EDITOR Determines  an editor to be opened in an xterm window if neither
              of -editor, .editor, XEDITOR or VISUAL is specified.

              Obsolete; use BROWSER instead.


       xdvi accepts many but not all types of PostScript specials accepted  by
       dvips.  For example, it accepts most specials generated by epsf and ps-
       fig.  It does not, however, support bop-hook or eop-hook, nor  does  it
       allow  PostScript  commands  to affect the rendering of things that are
       not PostScript (for example, the ‘‘NEAT’’ and rotated ‘‘A’’ examples in
       the  dvips  manual).  These restrictions are due to the design of xdvi;
       in all likelihood they will always remain.

       LaTeX2e rotation specials are currently not supported.

       MetaPost files containing included text are not supported.

       Xdvi’s color handling doesn’t  support  the  \colorbox  and  \fcolorbox
       macros;   this  is  not  likely to change in the near future. This also
       means that  e.g. colored tables (as created by  the  colortbl  package)
       may render incorrectly: Text in colors different from the default fore-
       ground color may not not be displayed. When the page is  redrawn  (e.g.
       after using the magnifier), the background color of the cells may over-
       draw the text.


              A file that holds all settings that the  user  changed  via  the
              keys, the ‘Options’ and the Xaw ‘Modes’ menu and the dialogs, as
              X  resources.  These  resources   override   the   settings   in
              $HOME/.Xdefaults.  This file is ignored if the -q option is used
              or the noInitFile X resource is set.

              A configuration file for the T1 font setup  which  needs  to  be
              supplied  in the directory determined by the XDVIINPUTS environ-
              ment  variable.   Please  see   the   file   http://xdvi.source-
              forge.net/README.t1fonts if that file is missing.


       X(1),  dvips(1),  mktexpk(1),  ps2pk(1), gsftopk(1), t1mapper(1), mail-
       cap(4),  the  Kpathsea  documentation,  and  the  Xdvik  home  page  at


       Eric  Cooper,  CMU, did a version for direct output to a QVSS. Modified
       for X by Bob Scheifler, MIT Laboratory for Computer  Science.  Modified
       for  X11 by Mark Eichin, MIT SIPB. Additional enhancements by many oth-

       The current maintainer of the original xdvi is Paul Vojta, U.C.  Berke-

       Code  for  the xdvik variant has been contributed by many people, whose
       names are scattered  across  the  source  files.  Xdvik  is  hosted  on
       CTAN:dviware/xdvik and on SourceForge; for the most up-to-date informa-
       tion, please visit:


       Please report all bugs to the SourceForge bug tracker:


Xdvik 22.84.8                     2004/12/02                           XDVI(1)

Man(1) output converted with man2html