xcalc



XCALC(1)                                                              XCALC(1)




NAME

       xcalc - scientific calculator for X


SYNOPSIS

       xcalc [-stipple] [-rpn] [-toolkitoption...]


DESCRIPTION

       xcalc  is  a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can emulate a
       TI-30 or an HP-10C.


OPTIONS

       xcalc accepts all of the standard toolkit command  line  options  along
       with two additional options:


       -stipple
               This  option  indicates  that  the background of the calculator
               should be drawn using a stipple of  the  foreground  and  back-
               ground colors.  On monochrome displays improves the appearance.


       -rpn    This option indicates that Reverse Polish  Notation  should  be
               used.  In this mode the calculator will look and behave like an
               HP-10C.  Without this flag, it will emulate a TI-30.


OPERATION

       Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer button 1, or in
       some  cases, with the keyboard.  Many common calculator operations have
       keyboard accelerators.  To quit, press pointer button 3 on the  AC  key
       of the TI calculator, or the ON key of the HP calculator.

       Calculator Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/- key, and the
       +, -, *, /, and = keys all do exactly what you would  expect  them  to.
       It should be noted that the operators obey the standard rules of prece-
       dence.  Thus, entering "3+4*5=" results in "23", not "35".  The  paren-
       theses  can  be used to override this.  For example, "(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)="
       results in "6*15=90".

       The entire number in the calculator display can be selected,  in  order
       to paste the result of a calculation into text.

       The  action  procedures  associated with each function are given below.
       These are useful if you are interested in defining a custom calculator.
       The  action  used for all digit keys is digit(n), where n is the corre-
       sponding digit, 0..9.

       1/x       Replaces the number in the display with its reciprocal.   The
                 corresponding action procedure is reciprocal().

       x^2       Squares  the number in the display.  The corresponding action
                 procedure is square().

       SQRT      Takes the square root of the number in the display.  The cor-
                 responding action procedure is squareRoot().

       CE/C      When  pressed  once, clears the number in the display without
                 clearing the state of the machine.  Allows you to re-enter  a
                 number  if  you make a mistake.  Pressing it twice clears the
                 state, also.  The corresponding action procedure for TI  mode
                 is clear().

       AC        Clears  the  display, the state, and the memory.  Pressing it
                 with the third pointer button turns off  the  calculator,  in
                 that it exits the program.  The action procedure to clear the
                 state is off(); to quit, quit().

       INV       Invert  function.   See  the  individual  function  keys  for
                 details.  The corresponding action procedure is inverse().

       sin       Computes  the  sine  of  the number in the display, as inter-
                 preted  by  the  current  DRG  mode  (see  DRG,  below).   If
                 inverted,  it computes the arcsine.  The corresponding action
                 procedure is sine().

       cos       Computes the cosine, or arccosine when inverted.  The  corre-
                 sponding action procedure is cosine().

       tan       Computes  the tangent, or arctangent when inverted.  The cor-
                 responding action procedure is tangent().

       DRG       Changes the DRG mode, as indicated by ’DEG’, ’RAD’, or ’GRAD’
                 at  the  bottom  of of the calculator ‘‘liquid crystal’’ dis-
                 play.  When in ’DEG’ mode, numbers in the display  are  taken
                 as being degrees.  In ’RAD’ mode, numbers are in radians, and
                 in ’GRAD’ mode, numbers are in grads.  When inverted, the DRG
                 key  has  a feature of converting degrees to radians to grads
                 and vice-versa.  Example:   put  the  calculator  into  ’DEG’
                 mode,  and  enter  "45 INV DRG".  The display should now show
                 something along the lines of ".785398", which is  45  degrees
                 converted  to radians.  The corresponding action procedure is
                 degree().

       e         The constant ’e’.  (2.7182818...).  The corresponding  action
                 procedure is e().

       EE        Used  for  entering exponential numbers.  For example, to get
                 "-2.3E-4" you’d enter "2 . 3 +/- EE 4 +/-".  The  correspond-
                 ing action procedure is scientific().

       log       Calculates  the  log  (base 10) of the number in the display.
                 When inverted, it raises "10.0" to the number in the display.
                 For  example,  entering  "3 INV log" should result in "1000".
                 The corresponding action procedure is logarithm().

       ln        Calculates the log (base e) of the  number  in  the  display.
                 When  inverted,  it  raises "e" to the number in the display.
                 For example, entering "e ln" should result in "1".  The  cor-
                 responding action procedure is naturalLog().

       y^x       Raises  the  number on the left to the power of the number on
                 the right.  For example "2 y^x 3 =" results in "8", which  is
                 2^3.   For a further example, "(1+2+3) y^x (1+2) =" equals "6
                 y^x 3" which equals "216".  The corresponding  action  proce-
                 dure is power().

       PI        The constant ’pi’.  (3.1415927....)  The corresponding action
                 procedure is pi().

       x!        Computes the factorial of the number  in  the  display.   The
                 number  in the display must be an integer in the range 0-500,
                 though, depending on your math  library,  it  might  overflow
                 long before that.  The corresponding action procedure is fac-
                 torial().

       (         Left parenthesis.  The corresponding action procedure for  TI
                 calculators is leftParen().

       )         Right parenthesis.  The corresponding action procedure for TI
                 calculators is rightParen().

       /         Division.  The corresponding action procedure is divide().

       *         Multiplication.  The corresponding action procedure is multi-
                 ply().

       -         Subtraction.   The  corresponding  action  procedure  is sub-
                 tract().

       +         Addition.  The corresponding action procedure is add().

       =         Perform calculation.  The  TI-specific  action  procedure  is
                 equal().

       STO       Copies the number in the display to the memory location.  The
                 corresponding action procedure is store().

       RCL       Copies the number from the memory location  to  the  display.
                 The corresponding action procedure is recall().

       SUM       Adds  the  number  in the display to the number in the memory
                 location.  The corresponding action procedure is sum().

       EXC       Swaps the number in the display with the number in the memory
                 location.  The corresponding action procedure for the TI cal-
                 culator is exchange().

       +/-       Negate; change sign.  The corresponding action  procedure  is
                 negate().

       .         Decimal point.  The action procedure is decimal().


       Calculator Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS (change sign), +,
       -, *, /, and ENTR keys all do exactly what you would expect them to do.
       Many of the remaining keys are the same as in TI mode.  The differences
       are detailed below.  The action procedure for the ENTR key is  enter().


       <-        This  is  a backspace key that can be used if you make a mis-
                 take while entering a number.  It will erase digits from  the
                 display.   (See  BUGS).   Inverse  backspace will clear the X
                 register.  The corresponding action procedure is back().

       ON        Clears the display, the state, and the memory.   Pressing  it
                 with  the  third  pointer button turns off the calculator, in
                 that it exits the program.  To clear state, the action proce-
                 dure is off; to quit, quit().

       INV       Inverts  the meaning of the function keys.  This would be the
                 f key on an HP calculator, but xcalc does not display  multi-
                 ple  legends  on  each key.  See the individual function keys
                 for details.

       10^x      Raises "10.0" to the number in the top of  the  stack.   When
                 inverted,  it  calculates  the log (base 10) of the number in
                 the display.  The  corresponding  action  procedure  is  ten-
                 power().

       e^x       Raises  "e"  to  the  number  in  the top of the stack.  When
                 inverted, it calculates the log (base e) of the number in the
                 display.  The action procedure is epower().

       STO       Copies  the  number in the top of the stack to a memory loca-
                 tion.  There are 10 memory locations.  The desired memory  is
                 specified by following this key with a digit key.

       RCL       Pushes the number from the specified memory location onto the
                 stack.

       SUM       Adds the number on top of the stack  to  the  number  in  the
                 specified memory location.

       x:y       Exchanges  the  numbers in the top two stack positions, the X
                 and Y registers.  The corresponding action procedure is  Xex-
                 changeY().

       R v       Rolls  the stack downward.  When inverted, it rolls the stack
                 upward.  The corresponding action procedure is roll().

       blank     These keys were used for programming functions on the HP-10C.
                 Their functionality has not been duplicated in xcalc.

       Finally,  there  are  two  additional  action procedures: bell(), which
       rings the bell; and selection(), which performs a  cut  on  the  entire
       number in the calculator’s ‘‘liquid crystal’’ display.


ACCELERATORS

       Accelerators  are shortcuts for entering commands.  xcalc provides some
       sample keyboard accelerators; also users  can  customize  accelerators.
       The numeric keypad accelerators provided by xcalc should be intuitively
       correct.  The accelerators defined by xcalc on the  main  keyboard  are
       given below:

            TI Key    HP Key    Keyboard Accelerator     TI Function    HP Function

            SQRT SQRT r              squareRoot()   squareRoot()
            AC   ON   space               clear()        clear()
            AC   <-   Delete              clear()        back()
            AC   <-   Backspace      clear()        back()
            AC   <-   Control-H      clear()        back()
            AC        Clear               clear()
            AC   ON   q              quit()         quit()
            AC   ON   Control-C      quit()         quit()

            INV  i    i              inverse()      inverse()
            sin  s    s              sine()         sine()
            cos  c    c              cosine()       cosine()
            tan  t    t              tangent() tangent()
            DRG  DRG  d              degree()       degree()

            e         e              e()
            ln   ln   l              naturalLog()   naturalLog()
            y^x  y^x  ^              power()        power()

            PI   PI   p              pi()      pi()
            x!   x!   !              factorial()    factorial()
            (         (              leftParen()
            )         )              rightParen()

            /    /    /              divide()       divide()
            *    *    *              multiply()     multiply()
            -    -    -              subtract()     subtract()
            +    +    +              add()          add()
            =         =              equal()

            0..9 0..9 0..9           digit()        digit()
            .    .    .              decimal() decimal()
            +/-  CHS  n              negate()       negate()

                 x:y  x                        XexchangeY()
                 ENTR Return                        enter()
                 ENTR Linefeed                      enter()



CUSTOMIZATION

       The application class name is XCalc.

       xcalc  has  an  enormous  application defaults file which specifies the
       position, label, and function of each key on the calculator.   It  also
       gives  translations  to  serve as keyboard accelerators.  Because these
       resources are not specified in the source code, you can create  a  cus-
       tomized  calculator  by  writing  a  private application defaults file,
       using the Athena Command and Form widget resources to specify the  size
       and position of buttons, the label for each button, and the function of
       each button.

       The foreground and background colors of  each  calculator  key  can  be
       individually  specified.   For  the  TI  calculator,  a classical color
       resource specification might be:

       XCalc.ti.Command.background:  gray50
       XCalc.ti.Command.foreground:  white

       For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
       XCalc.ti.button20.background: black
       XCalc.ti.button20.foreground: white

       For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, and 39:
       XCalc.ti.button22.background: white
       XCalc.ti.button22.foreground: black


WIDGET HIERARCHY

       In  order  to  specify resources, it is useful to know the hierarchy of
       the widgets which compose xcalc.  In the  notation  below,  indentation
       indicates  hierarchical  structure.   The  widget  class  name is given
       first, followed by the widget instance name.

       XCalc xcalc
            Form  ti  or  hp    (the name depends on the mode)
                 Form  bevel
                      Form  screen
                           Label  M
                           Toggle  LCD
                           Label  INV
                           Label  DEG
                           Label  RAD
                           Label  GRAD
                           Label  P
                 Command  button1
                 Command  button2
                 Command  button3
       and so on, ...
                 Command  button38
                 Command  button39
                 Command  button40


APPLICATION RESOURCES

       rpn (Class Rpn)
               Specifies that the rpn mode should be used.  The default is  TI
               mode.

       stipple (Class Stipple)
               Indicates  that the background should be stippled.  The default
               is ‘‘on’’ for monochrome displays, and ‘‘off’’ for  color  dis-
               plays.

       cursor (Class Cursor)
               The  name  of  the  symbol  used to represent the pointer.  The
               default is ‘‘hand2’’.


COLORS

       If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the following  in
       the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read with xrdb:

       *customization:                 -color

       This  will  cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the app-defaults color
       customization file: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/XCalc-color.


SEE ALSO

       X(7x), xrdb(1), the Athena Widget Set


BUGS

       HP mode is not completely debugged.  In particular, the  stack  is  not
       handled properly after errors.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 1994 X Consortium
       See X(7x) for a full statement of rights and permissions.


AUTHORS

       John Bradley, University of Pennsylvania
       Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena
       Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium



                                                                      XCALC(1)

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