tethereal



TETHEREAL(1)             The Ethereal Network Analyzer            TETHEREAL(1)




NAME

       tethereal - Dump and analyze network traffic


SYNOPSYS

       tethereal [ -a capture autostop condition ] ...  [ -b cap-
       ture ring buffer option] ...  [ -B capture buffer size (Win32 only) ]
       [ -c capture packet count ] [ -d <layer type==<selector>,<decode-as
       protocol> ]> [ -D ] [ -f capture filter ] [ -F file format ] [ -h ]
       [ -i capture interface ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -n ] [ -N name resolv-
       ing flags ] [ -o preference setting ] ...  [ -p ] [ -q ] [ -r infile ]
       [ -R read (display) filter ] [ -s capture snaplen ] [ -S ]
       [ -t time stamp format ] [ -T pdml│psml│ps│text ] [ -v ] [ -V ]
       [ -w savefile ] [ -x ] [ -y capture link type ] [ -z statistics ]


DESCRIPTION

       Tethereal is a network protocol analyzer.  It lets you capture packet
       data from a live network, or read packets from a previously saved cap-
       ture file, either printing a decoded form of those packets to the stan-
       dard output or writing the packets to a file.  Tethereal’s native cap-
       ture file format is libpcap format, which is also the format used by
       tcpdump and various other tools.

       Tethereal can read / import the following file formats:

       * libpcap/WinPcap, tcpdump and various other tools using tcpdump’s cap-
       ture format
       * snoop and atmsnoop
       * Shomiti/Finisar Surveyor captures
       * Novell LANalyzer captures
       * Microsoft Network Monitor captures
       * AIX’s iptrace captures
       * Cinco Networks NetXRay captures
       * Network Associates Windows-based Sniffer captures
       * Network General/Network Associates DOS-based Sniffer (compressed or
       uncompressed) captures
       * AG Group/WildPackets EtherPeek/TokenPeek/AiroPeek/EtherHelp/Packet-
       Grabber captures
       * RADCOM’s WAN/LAN analyzer captures
       * Network Instruments Observer version 9 captures
       * Lucent/Ascend router debug output
       * files from HP-UX’s nettl
       * Toshibas ISDN routers dump output
       * the output from i4btrace from the ISDN4BSD project
       * traces from the EyeSDN USB S0.
       * the output in IPLog format from the Cisco Secure Intrusion Detection
       System
       * pppd logs (pppdump format)
       * the output from VMS’s TCPIPtrace/TCPtrace/UCX$TRACE utilities
       * the text output from the DBS Etherwatch VMS utility
       * Visual Networks’ Visual UpTime traffic capture
       * the output from CoSine L2 debug
       * the output from Accellent’s 5Views LAN agents
       * Endace Measurement Systems’ ERF format captures
       * Linux Bluez Bluetooth stack hcidump -w traces

       There is no need to tell Tethereal what type of file you are reading;
       it will determine the file type by itself.  Tethereal is also capable
       of reading any of these file formats if they are compressed using gzip.
       Tethereal recognizes this directly from the file; the ’.gz’ extension
       is not required for this purpose.

       If the -w flag is not specified, Tethereal writes to the standard
       output the text of a decoded form of the packets it captures or reads.
       If the -w flag is specified, Tethereal writes to the file specified by
       that flag the raw data of the packets, along with the packets’ time
       stamps.

       When writing a decoded form of packets, Tethereal writes, by default, a
       summary line containing the fields specified by the preferences file
       (which are also the fields displayed in the packet list pane in Ethe-
       real), although if it’s writing packets as it captures them, rather
       than writting packets from a saved capture file, it won’t show the
       "frame number" field.  If the -V flag is specified, it writes instead a
       view of the details of the packet, showing all the fields of all proto-
       cols in the packet.

       If you want to write the decoded form of packets to a file, run Tethe-
       real without the -w flag, and redirect its standard output to the file
       (do not use the -w flag).

       When writing packets to a file, Tethereal, by default, writes the file
       in libpcap format, and writes all of the packets it sees to the output
       file.  The -F flag can be used to specify the format in which to write
       the file.  The following output formats are supported:

       * libpcap - libpcap (tcpdump, Ethereal, etc.)
       * rh6_1libpcap - Red Hat Linux 6.1 libpcap (tcpdump)
       * suse6_3libpcap - SuSE Linux 6.3 libpcap (tcpdump)
       * modlibpcap - modified libpcap (tcpdump)
       * nokialibpcap - Nokia libpcap (tcpdump)
       * lanalyzer - Novell LANalyzer
       * ngsniffer - Network Associates Sniffer (DOS-based)
       * snoop - Sun snoop
       * netmon1 - Microsoft Network Monitor 1.x
       * netmon2 - Microsoft Network Monitor 2.x
       * ngwsniffer_1_1 - Network Associates Sniffer (Windows-based) 1.1
       * ngwsniffer_2_0 - Network Associates Sniffer (Windows-based) 2.00x
       * visual - Visual Networks traffic capture

       This list is also displayed by the -h flag.

       Read filters in Tethereal, which allow you to select which packets are
       to be decoded or written to a file, are very powerful; more fields are
       filterable in Tethereal than in other protocol analyzers, and the syn-
       tax you can use to create your filters is richer.  As Tethereal pro-
       gresses, expect more and more protocol fields to be allowed in read
       filters.

       Packet capturing is performed with the pcap library.  The capture fil-
       ter syntax follows the rules of the pcap library.  This syntax is dif-
       ferent from the read filter syntax.  A read filter can also be speci-
       fied when capturing, and only packets that pass the read filter will be
       displayed or saved to the output file; note, however, that capture fil-
       ters are much more efficient than read filters, and it may be more dif-
       ficult for Tethereal to keep up with a busy network if a read filter is
       specified for a live capture.

       Compressed file support uses (and therefore requires) the zlib library.
       If the zlib library is not present, Tethereal will compile, but will be
       unable to read compressed files.

       A capture or read filter can either be specified with the -f or -R
       option, respectively, in which case the entire filter expression must
       be specified as a single argument (which means that if it contains
       spaces, it must be quoted), or can be specified with command-line argu-
       ments after the option arguments, in which case all the arguments after
       the filter arguments are treated as a filter expression.  Capture fil-
       ters are supported only when doing a live capture; read filters are
       supported when doing a live capture and when reading a capture file,
       but require Tethereal to do more work when filtering, so you might be
       more likely to lose packets under heavy load if you’re using a read
       filter.  If the filter is specified with command-line arguments after
       the option arguments, it’s a capture filter if a capture is being done
       (i.e., if no -r flag was specified) and a read filter if a capture file
       is being read (i.e., if a -r flag was specified).


OPTIONS

       -a  Specify a criterion that specifies when Tethereal is to stop writ-
           ing to a capture file.  The criterion is of the form test:value,
           where test is one of:

           duration:value Stop writing to a capture file after value seconds
           have elapsed.

           filesize:value Stop writing to a capture file after it reaches a
           size of value kilobytes (where a kilobyte is 1024 bytes). If this
           option is used together with the -b option, Ethereal will stop
           writing to the current capture file and switch to the next one if
           filesize is reached.

           files:value Stop writing to capture files after value number of
           files were written.

       -b  Cause Tethereal to run in "multiple files" mode.  In "multiple
           files" mode, Tethereal will write to several capture files. When
           the first capture file fills up, Tethereal will switch writing to
           the next file and so on.

           The created filenames are based on the filename given with the -w
           flag, the number of the file and on the creation date and time,
           e.g. savefile_00001_20050604120117.pcap, save-
           file_00001_20050604120523.pcap, ...

           With the files option it’s also possible to form a "ring buffer".
           This will fill up new files until the number of files specified, at
           which point Tethereal will discard the data in the first file and
           start writing to that file and so on. If the files option is not
           set, new files filled up until one of the capture stop conditions
           match (or until the disk if full).

           The criterion is of the form key:value, where key is one of:

           duration:value switch to the next file after value seconds have
           elapsed, even if the current file is not completely filled up.

           filesize:value switch to the next file after it reaches a size of
           value kilobytes (where a kilobyte is 1024 bytes).

           files:value begin again with the first file after value number of
           files were written (form a ring buffer).

       -B  Win32 only: set capture buffer size (in MB, default is 1MB). This
           is used by the the capture driver to buffer packet data until that
           data can be written to disk. If you encounter packet drops while
           capturing, try to increase this size.

       -c  Set the maximum number of packets to read when capturing live data.

       -d  Specify that if the layer type in question (for example, tcp.port
           or udp.port for a TCP or UDP port number) has the specified selec-
           tor value, packets should be dissected as the specified protocol.

           Example: -d tcp.port==8888,http will decode any traffic running
           over TCP port 8888 as HTTP.

       -D  Print a list of the interfaces on which Tethereal can capture, and
           exit.  For each network interface, a number and an interface name,
           possibly followed by a text description of the interface, is
           printed.  The interface name or the number can be supplied to the
           -i flag to specify an interface on which to capture.

           This can be useful on systems that don’t have a command to list
           them (e.g., Windows systems, or UNIX systems lacking ifconfig -a);
           the number can be useful on Windows 2000 and later systems, where
           the interface name is a somewhat complex string.

           Note that "can capture" means that Tethereal was able to open that
           device to do a live capture; if, on your system, a program doing a
           network capture must be run from an account with special privileges
           (for example, as root), then, if Tethereal is run with the -D flag
           and is not run from such an account, it will not list any inter-
           faces.

       -f  Set the capture filter expression.

       -F  Set the file format of the output capture file written using the -w
           flag.  The output written with the -w flag is raw packet data, not
           text, so there is no -F option to request text output.

       -h  Print the version and options and exits.

       -i  Set the name of the network interface or pipe to use for live
           packet capture.

           Network interface names should match one of the names listed in
           "tethereal -D" (described above); a number, as reported by "tethe-
           real -D", can also be used.  If you’re using UNIX, "netstat -i" or
           "ifconfig -a" might also work to list interface names, although not
           all versions of UNIX support the -a flag to ifconfig.

           If no interface is specified, Tethereal searches the list of inter-
           faces, choosing the first non-loopback interface if there are any
           non-loopback interfaces, and choosing the first loopback interface
           if there are no non-loopback interfaces; if there are no inter-
           faces, Tethereal reports an error and doesn’t start the capture.

           Pipe names should be either the name of a FIFO (named pipe) or
           ‘‘-’’ to read data from the standard input.  Data read from pipes
           must be in standard libpcap format.

       -l  Flush the standard output after the information for each packet is
           printed.  (This is not, strictly speaking, line-buffered if -V was
           specified; however, it is the same as line-buffered if -V wasn’t
           specified, as only one line is printed for each packet, and, as -l
           is normally used when piping a live capture to a program or script,
           so that output for a packet shows up as soon as the packet is seen
           and dissected, it should work just as well as true line-buffering.
           We do this as a workaround for a deficiency in the Microsoft Visual
           C++ C library.)

           This may be useful when piping the output of Tethereal to another
           program, as it means that the program to which the output is piped
           will see the dissected data for a packet as soon as Tethereal sees
           the packet and generates that output, rather than seeing it only
           when the standard output buffer containing that data fills up.

       -L  List the data link types supported by the interface and exit.

       -n  Disable network object name resolution (such as hostname, TCP and
           UDP port names), the -N flag might override this one.

       -N  Turn on name resolving only for particular types of addresses and
           port numbers, with name resolving for other types of addresses and
           port numbers turned off. This flag overrides -n if both -N and -n
           are present. If both -N and -n flags are not present, all name res-
           olutions are turned on.

           The argument is a string that may contain the letters:

           m to enable MAC address resolution

           n to enable network address resolution

           t to enable transport-layer port number resolution

           C to enable concurrent (asynchronous) DNS lookups

       -o  Set a preference value, overriding the default value and any value
           read from a preference file.  The argument to the flag is a string
           of the form prefname:value, where prefname is the name of the pref-
           erence (which is the same name that would appear in the preference
           file), and value is the value to which it should be set.

       -p  Dont put the interface into promiscuous mode.  Note that the
           interface might be in promiscuous mode for some other reason;
           hence, -p cannot be used to ensure that the only traffic that is
           captured is traffic sent to or from the machine on which Tethereal
           is running, broadcast traffic, and multicast traffic to addresses
           received by that machine.

       -q  When capturing packets, don’t display the continuous count of pack-
           ets captured that is normally shown when saving a capture to a
           file; instead, just display, at the end of the capture, a count of
           packets captured.  On systems that support the SIGINFO signal, such
           as various BSDs, typing your "status" character (typically con-
           trol-T, although it might be set to "disabled" by default on at
           least some BSDs, so you’d have to explicitly set it to use it) will
           cause the current count to be displayed.

           When reading a capture file, or when capturing and not saving to a
           file, don’t print packet information; this is useful if you’re
           using a -z flag to calculate statistics and don’t want the packet
           information printed, just the statistics.

       -r  Read packet data from infile.

       -R  Cause the specified filter (which uses the syntax of read filters,
           rather than that of capture filters) to be applied before printing
           a decoded form of packets or writing packets to a file; packets not
           matching the filter are discarded rather than being printed or
           written.

       -s  Set the default snapshot length to use when capturing live data.
           No more than snaplen bytes of each network packet will be read into
           memory, or saved to disk.

       -S  Decode and display packets even while writing raw packet data using
           the -w flag.

       -t  Set the format of the packet timestamp printed in summary lines,
           the default is relative. The format can be one of:

           r relative: The relative time is the time elapsed between the first
           packet and the current packet

           a absolute: The absolute time is the actual time the packet was
           captured, with no date displayed

           ad absolute with date: The absolute date and time is the actual
           time and date the packet was captured

           d delta: The delta time is the time since the previous packet was
           captured

       -T  Set the format of the output when viewing decoded packet data.  The
           options are one of:

           pdml Packet Details Markup Language, an XML-based format for the
           details of a decoded packet.  This information is equivalent to the
           packet details printed with the -V flag.

           psml Packet Summary Markup Language, an XML-based format for the
           summary information of a decoded packet.  This information is
           equivalent to the information shown in the one-line summary printed
           by default.

           ps PostScript for a human-readable one-line summary of each of the
           packets, or a multi-line view of the details of each of the pack-
           ets, depending on whether the -V flag was specified.

           text Text of a human-readable one-line summary of each of the pack-
           ets, or a multi-line view of the details of each of the packets,
           depending on whether the -V flag was specified.  This is the
           default.

       -v  Print the version and exit.

       -V  Cause Tethereal to print a view of the details of the packet rather
           than a one-line summary of the packet.

       -w  Write raw packet data to savefile or to the standard output if
           savefile is "-".  NOTE: this is raw packet data, not text; if you
           want text output, don’t use the -w flag.

       -x  Cause Tethereal to print a hex and ASCII dump of the packet data
           after printing the summary or details.

       -y  Set the data link type to use while capturing packets.  The values
           reported by -L are the values that can be used.

       -z  Get Tethereal to collect various types of statistics and display
           the result after finishing reading the capture file.  Use the -q
           flag if you’re reading a capture file and only want the statistics
           printed, not any per-packet information.

           Note that the -z proto option is different - it doesn’t cause
           statistics to be gathered and printed when the capture is complete,
           it modifies the regular packet summary output to include the values
           of fields specified with the option.  Therefore you must not use
           the -q option, as that option would suppress the printing of the
           regular packet summary output, and must also not use the -V option,
           as that would cause packet detail information rather than packet
           summary information to be printed.

           Currently implemented statistics are:

           -z dcerpc,rtt,uuid,major.minor[,filter]

           Collect call/reply RTT data for DCERPC interface uuid, version
           major.minor.  Data collected is number of calls for each procedure,
           MinRTT, MaxRTT and AvgRTT.  Example: use -z
           dcerpc,rtt,12345778-1234-abcd-ef00-0123456789ac,1.0 to collect data
           for CIFS SAMR Interface.  This option can be used multiple times on
           the command line.

           If the optional filterstring is provided, the stats will only be
           calculated on those calls that match that filter.  Example: use -z
           dcerpc,rtt,12345778-1234-abcd-ef00-0123456789ac,1.0,ip.addr==1.2.3.4
           to collect SAMR RTT statistics for a specific host.

           -z io,phs[,filter]

           Create Protocol Hierarchy Statistics listing both number of packets
           and bytes.  If no filter is specified the statistics will be calcu-
           lated for all packets.  If a filters is specified statistics will
           be only calculated for those packets that match the filter.

           This option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           -z io,stat,interval[,filter][,filter][,filter]...

           Collect packet/bytes statistics for the capture in intervals of
           interval seconds.  Intervals can be specified either as whole or
           fractional seconds.  Interval can be specified in ms resolution.

           If no filter is specified the statistics will be calculated for all
           packets.  If one or more filters are specified statistics will be
           calculated for all filters and presented with one column of statis-
           tics for each filter.

           This option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           Example: -z io,stat,1,ip.addr==1.2.3.4 to generate 1 second statis-
           tics for all traffic to/from host 1.2.3.4.

           Example: -z "io,stat,0.001,smb&&ip.addr==1.2.3.4" to generate 1ms
           statistics for all SMB packets to/from host 1.2.3.4.

           The examples above all use the standard syntax for generating
           statistics which only calculates the number of packets and bytes in
           each interval.

           io,stat can also do much more statistics and calculate COUNT(),
           SUM(), MIN(), MAX(), and AVG() using a slightly different filter
           syntax:

             [COUNT│SUM│MIN│MAX│AVG](<field>)<filter>

           One important thing to note here is that the field that the calcu-
           lation is based on MUST also be part of the filter string or else
           the calculation will fail.

           So: -z io,stat,0.010,AVG(smb.time) does not work.  Use -z
           io,stat,0.010,AVG(smb.time)smb.time instead.  Also be aware that a
           field can exist multiple times inside the same packet and will then
           be counted multiple times in those packets.

           COUNT(<field>) can be used on any type which has a display filter
           name.  It will count how many times this particular field is
           encountered in the filtered packet list.

           Example: -z io,stat,0.010,COUNT(smb.sid)smb.sid This will count the
           total number of SIDs seen in each 10ms interval.

           SUM(<field>) can only be used on named fields of integer type.
           This will sum together every occurence of this fields value for
           each interval.

           Example: -z io,stat,0.010,SUM(frame.pkt_len)frame.pkt_len This will
           report the total number of bytes seen in all the packets within an
           interval.

           MIN/MAX/AVG(<field>) can only be used on named fields that are
           either integers or relative time fields.  This will calculate maxi-
           mum/minimum or average seen in each interval.  If the field is a
           relative time field the output will be presented in seconds and
           three digits after the decimal point.  The resolution for time cal-
           culations is 1ms and anything smaller will be truncated.

           Example:  -z
           "io,stat,0.010,smb.time&&ip.addr==1.1.1.1,MIN(smb.time)smb.time&&ip.addr==1.1.1.1,MAX(smb.time)smb.time&&ip.addr==1.1.1.1,MAX(smb.time)smb.time&&ip.addr==1.1.1.1"

           This will calculate statistics for all smb response times we see
           to/from host 1.1.1.1 in 10ms intervals.  The output will be dis-
           played in 4 columns; number of packets/bytes, minimum response
           time, maximum response time and average response time.

           -z conv,type[,filter]

           Create a table that lists all conversations that could be seen in
           the capture.  type specifies which type of conversation we want to
           generate the statistics for; currently the supported ones are

             "eth"   Ethernet
             "fc"    Fibre Channel
             "fddi"  FDDI
             "ip"    IP addresses
             "ipx"   IPX addresses
             "tcp"   TCP/IP socket pairs  Both IPv4 and IPv6 are supported
             "tr"    Token Ring
             "udp"   UDP/IP socket pairs  Both IPv4 and IPv6 are supported

           If the optional filter string is specified, only those packets that
           match the filter will be used in the calculations.

           The table is presented with one line for each conversation and dis-
           plays number of packets/bytes in each direction as well as total
           number of packets/bytes.  The table is sorted according to total
           number of bytes.

           -z proto,colinfo,filter,field

           Append all field values for the packet to the Info column of the
           one-line summary output.  This feature can be used to append arbi-
           trary fields to the Info column in addition to the normal content
           of that column.  field is the display-filter name of a field which
           value should be placed in the Info column.  filter is a filter
           string that controls for which packets the field value will be pre-
           sented in the info column. field will only be presented in the Info
           column for the packets which match filter.

           NOTE: In order for Tethereal to be able to extract the field value
           from the packet, field MUST be part of the filter string.  If not,
           Tethereal will not be able to extract its value.

           For a simple example to add the "nfs.fh.hash" field to the Info
           column for all packets containing the "nfs.fh.hash" field, use

           -z proto,colinfo,nfs.fh.hash,nfs.fh.hash

           To put "nfs.fh.hash" in the Info column but only for packets coming
           from host 1.2.3.4 use:

           -z "proto,colinfo,nfs.fh.hash && ip.src==1.2.3.4,nfs.fh.hash"

           This option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           -z rpc,rtt,program,version[,filter]

           Collect call/reply RTT data for program/version.  Data collected is
           number of calls for each procedure, MinRTT, MaxRTT and AvgRTT.
           Example: use -z rpc,rtt,100003,3 to collect data for NFS v3.  This
           option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           If the optional filterstring is provided, the stats will only be
           calculated on those calls that match that filter.  Example: use -z
           rpc,rtt,100003,3,nfs.fh.hash==0x12345678 to collect NFS v3 RTT
           statistics for a specific file.

           -z rpc,programs

           Collect call/reply RTT data for all known ONC-RPC programs/ver-
           sions.  Data collected is number of calls for each protocol/ver-
           sion, MinRTT, MaxRTT and AvgRTT.  This option can only be used once
           on the command line.

           -z smb,rtt[,filter]

           Collect call/reply RTT data for SMB.  Data collected is number of
           calls for each SMB command, MinRTT, MaxRTT and AvgRTT.  Example:
           use -z smb,rtt.  The data will be presented as separate tables for
           all normal SMB commands, all Transaction2 commands and all NT
           Transaction commands.  Only those commands that are seen in the
           capture will have its stats displayed.  Only the first command in a
           xAndX command chain will be used in the calculation.  So for common
           SessionSetupAndX + TreeConnectAndX chains, only the SessionSetu-
           pAndX call will be used in the statistics.  This is a flaw that
           might be fixed in the future.

           This option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           If the optional filterstring is provided, the stats will only be
           calculated on those calls that match that filter.  Example: use -z
           "smb,rtt,ip.addr==1.2.3.4" to only collect stats for SMB packets
           echanged by the host at IP address 1.2.3.4 .

           -z smb,sids

           When this feature is used Tethereal will print a report with all
           the discovered SID and account name mappings.  Only those SIDs
           where the account name is known will be presented in the table.

           For this feature to work you will need to either to enable
           "Edit/Preferences/Protocols/SMB/Snoop SID to name mappings" in the
           preferences or you can override the preferences by specifying -o
           "smb.sid_name_snooping:TRUE" on the Tethereal command line.

           The current methods used by Tethereal to find the SID->name mapping
           is relatively restricted but is hoped to be expanded in the future.

           -z mgcp,rtd[,filter]

           Collect requests/response RTD (Response Time Delay) data for MGCP.
           This is similar to -z smb,rtt). Data collected is number of calls
           for each known MGCP Type, MinRTD, MaxRTD and AvgRTD.  Additionally
           you get the number of duplicate requests/responses, unresponded
           requests, responses ,which don’t match with any request.  Example:
           use -z mgcp,rtd.

           This option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           If the optional filterstring is provided, the stats will only be
           calculated on those calls that match that filter.  Example: use -z
           "mgcp,rtd,ip.addr==1.2.3.4" to only collect stats for MGCP packets
           exchanged by the host at IP address 1.2.3.4 .

           -z h225,counter[,filter]

           Count ITU-T H.225 messages and their reasons. In the first column
           you get a list of H.225 messages and H.225 message reasons, which
           occur in the current capture file. The number of occurences of each
           message or reason is displayed in the second column.

           Example: use -z h225,counter.

           This option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           If the optional filterstring is provided, the stats will only be
           calculated on those calls that match that filter.  Example: use -z
           "h225,counter,ip.addr==1.2.3.4" to only collect stats for H.225
           packets exchanged by the host at IP address 1.2.3.4 .

           -z h225,srt[,filter]

           Collect requests/response SRT (Service Response Time) data for ITU-
           T H.225 RAS.  Data collected is number of calls of each ITU-T H.225
           RAS Message Type, Minimum SRT, Maximum SRT, Average SRT, Minimum in
           Frame, and Maximum in Frame.  You will also get the number of Open
           Requests (Unresponded Requests), Discarded Responses (Responses
           without matching request) and Duplicate Messages.  Example: use -z
           h225,srt.

           This option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           If the optional filterstring is provided, the stats will only be
           calculated on those calls that match that filter.  Example: use -z
           "h225,srt,ip.addr==1.2.3.4" to only collect stats for ITU-T H.225
           RAS packets exchanged by the host at IP address 1.2.3.4 .

           -z sip,stat[,filter]

           This option will activate a counter for SIP messages. You will get
           the number of occurences of each SIP Method and of each SIP Sta-
           tus-Code. Additionally you also get the number of resent SIP Mes-
           sages (only for SIP over UDP).

           Example: use -z sip,stat.

           This option can be used multiple times on the command line.

           If the optional filter string is provided, the stats will only be
           calculated on those calls that match that filter.  Example: use -z
           "sip,stat,ip.addr==1.2.3.4" to only collect stats for SIP packets
           exchanged by the host at IP address 1.2.3.4 .


CAPTURE FILTER SYNTAX

       See the manual page of tcpdump(8).


READ FILTER SYNTAX

       For a complete table of protocol and protocol fields that are filter-
       able in Tethereal see the ethereal-filter(4) manual page.


FILES

       These files contains various Ethereal configuration values.

       Preferences
           The preferences files contain global (system-wide) and personal
           preference settings. If the system-wide preference file exists, it
           is read first, overriding the default settings. If the personal
           preferences file exists, it is read next, overriding any previous
           values. Note: If the command line flag -o is used (possibly more
           than once), it will in turn override values from the preferences
           files.

           The preferences settings are in the form prefname:value, one per
           line, where prefname is the name of the preference and value is the
           value to which it should be set; white space is allowed between :
           and value.  A preference setting can be continued on subsequent
           lines by indenting the continuation lines with white space.  A #
           character starts a comment that runs to the end of the line:

             # Capture in promiscuous mode?
             # TRUE or FALSE (case-insensitive).
             capture.prom_mode: TRUE

           The global preferences file is looked for in the ethereal directory
           under the share subdirectory of the main installation directory
           (for example, /usr/local/share/ethereal/preferences) on UNIX-com-
           patible systems, and in the main installation directory (for exam-
           ple, C:\Program Files\Ethereal\preferences) on Windows systems.

           The personal preferences file is looked for in $HOME/.ethe-
           real/preferences on UNIX-compatible systems and %APPDATA%\Ethe-
           real\preferences (or, if %APPDATA% isn’t defined, %USERPRO-
           FILE%\Application Data\Ethereal\preferences) on Windows systems.

       Disabled (Enabled) Protocols
           The disabled_protos files contain system-wide and personal lists of
           protocols that have been disabled, so that their dissectors are
           never called.  The files contain protocol names, one per line,
           where the protocol name is the same name that would be used in a
           display filter for the protocol:

             http
             tcp     # a comment

           The global disabled_protos file uses the same directory as the
           global preferences file.

           The personal disabled_protos file uses the same directory as the
           personal preferences file.

       Name Resolution (hosts)
           If the personal hosts file exists, it is used to resolve IPv4 and
           IPv6 addresses before any other attempts are made to resolve them.
           The file has the standard hosts file syntax; each line contains one
           IP address and name, separated by whitespace. The same directory as
           for the personal preferences file is used.

       Name Resolution (ethers)
           The ethers files are consulted to correlate 6-byte hardware
           addresses to names. First the personal ethers file is tried and if
           an address is not found there the global ethers file is tried next.

           Each line contains one hardware address and name, separated by
           whitespace.  The digits of the hardware address are separated by
           colons (:), dashes (-) or periods (.).  The same separator charac-
           ter must be used consistently in an address. The following three
           lines are valid lines of an ethers file:

             ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff          Broadcast
             c0-00-ff-ff-ff-ff          TR_broadcast
             00.00.00.00.00.00          Zero_broadcast

           The global ethers file is looked for in the /etc directory on UNIX-
           compatible systems, and in the main installation directory (for
           example, C:\Program Files\Ethereal) on Windows systems.

           The personal ethers file is looked for in the same directory as the
           personal preferences file.

       Name Resolution (manuf)
           The manuf file is used to match the 3-byte vendor portion of a
           6-byte hardware address with the manufacturer’s name; it can also
           contain well-known MAC addresses and address ranges specified with
           a netmask.  The format of the file is the same as the ethers files,
           except that entries of the form:

             00:00:0C      Cisco

           can be provided, with the 3-byte OUI and the name for a vendor, and
           entries such as:

             00-00-0C-07-AC/40     All-HSRP-routers

           can be specified, with a MAC address and a mask indicating how many
           bits of the address must match. The above entry, for example, has
           40 significant bits, or 5 bytes, and would match addresses from
           00-00-0C-07-AC-00 through 00-00-0C-07-AC-FF. The mask need not be a
           multiple of 8.

           The manuf file is looked for in the same directory as the global
           preferences file.

       Name Resolution (ipxnets)
           The ipxnets files are used to correlate 4-byte IPX network numbers
           to names. First the global ipxnets file is tried and if that
           address is not found there the personal one is tried next.

           The format is the same as the ethers file, except that each address
           is four bytes instead of six.  Additionally, the address can be
           represented as a single hexadecimal number, as is more common in
           the IPX world, rather than four hex octets.  For example, these
           four lines are valid lines of an ipxnets file:

             C0.A8.2C.00              HR
             c0-a8-1c-00              CEO
             00:00:BE:EF              IT_Server1
             110f                     FileServer3

           The global ipxnets file is looked for in the /etc directory on
           UNIX-compatible systems, and in the main installation directory
           (for example, C:\Program Files\Ethereal) on Windows systems.

           The personal ipxnets file is looked for in the same directory as
           the personal preferences file.


SEE ALSO

       ethereal-filter(4) ethereal(1), editcap(1), tcpdump(8), pcap(3)


NOTES

       Tethereal is part of the Ethereal distribution.  The latest version of
       Ethereal can be found at http://www.ethereal.com.


AUTHORS

       Tethereal uses the same packet dissection code that Ethereal does, as
       well as using many other modules from Ethereal; see the list of authors
       in the Ethereal man page for a list of authors of that code.



0.10.14                           2005-12-26                      TETHEREAL(1)

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