tail



TAIL(1)                          User Commands                         TAIL(1)




NAME

       tail - output the last part of files


SYNOPSIS

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...


DESCRIPTION

       Print  the  last  10  lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file  name.   With
       no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options
       too.

       --retry
              keep trying to open a file even if it is inaccessible when  tail
              starts  or  if it becomes inaccessible later -- useful only with
              -f

       -c, --bytes=N
              output the last N bytes

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and --fol-
              low=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=N
              output the last N lines, instead of the last 10

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
              with  --follow=name,  reopen  a  FILE which has not changed size
              after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been unlinked or
              renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files)

       --pid=PID
              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

       -s, --sleep-interval=S
              with -f, sleep for approximately S seconds (default 1.0) between
              iterations.

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       If the first character of N (the number of bytes or lines)  is  a  ‘+’,
       print  beginning  with the Nth item from the start of each file, other-
       wise, print the last N items in the file.  N may have a multiplier suf-
       fix: b 512, k 1024, m 1024*1024.

       With  --follow  (-f),  tail  defaults to following the file descriptor,
       which means that even if a tail’ed file is renamed, tail will  continue
       to  track  its  end.   This  default behavior is not desirable when you
       really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file descrip-
       tor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes
       tail to track the named file by reopening it periodically to see if  it
       has been removed and recreated by some other program.


AUTHOR

       Written  by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-
       ering.


REPORTING BUGS

       Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO  warranty;  not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.


SEE ALSO

       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If
       the  info  and  tail  programs are properly installed at your site, the
       command

              info coreutils tail

       should give you access to the complete manual.



tail (coreutils) 5.2.1             July 2005                           TAIL(1)

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