SNMPCMD(1) Net-SNMP SNMPCMD(1)
snmpcmd - options and behaviour common to most of the Net-SNMP command-
snmpcmd [OPTIONS] AGENT [PARAMETERS]
This manual page describes the common options for the SNMP commands:
snmpbulkget, snmpbulkwalk, snmpdelta, snmpget, snmpgetnext, snmpnet-
stat, snmpset, snmpstatus, snmptable, snmptest, snmptrap, snmpdf, snm-
pusm , snmpwalk . The command line applications use the SNMP protocol
to communicate with an SNMP capable network entity, an agent. Individ-
ual applications typically (but not necessarily) take additional param-
eters that are given after the agent specification. These parameters
are documented in the manual pages for each application.
Sets the keys to be used for SNMPv3 transactions. These options
allow you to set the master authentication and encryption keys
(-3m and -3M respectively) or set the localized authentication
and encryption keys (-3k and -3K respectively). SNMPv3 keys can
be either passed in by hand using these flags, or by the use of
keys generated from passwords using the -A and -X flags dis-
cussed below. For further details on SNMPv3 and it’s usage of
keying information, see the Net-SNMP tutorial web site (
http://www.Net-SNMP.org/tutorial-5/commands/ ). See the
snmp.conf manual page on the defAuthMasterKey and related tokens
for more information as well.
Set the authentication protocol (MD5|SHA) used for authenticated
SNMPv3 messages. Overrides the defAuthType token in the
Set the authentication pass phrase used for authenticated SNMPv3
messages. Overrides the defAuthPassphrase token in the
snmp.conf file. It is insecure to specify pass phrases on the
command line, see snmp.conf(5).
Set the community string for SNMPv1/v2c transactions. Overrides
the defcommunity token in the snmp.conf file.
-d Dump (in hexadecimal) the sent and received SNMP packets.
Turn on debugging output for the given TOKEN(s). Try ALL for
extremely verbose output.
Set the authoritative (security) engineID used for SNMPv3
REQUEST messages. It is typically not necessary to specify
this, as it will usually be discovered automatically.
Set the context engineID used for SNMPv3 REQUEST messages scope-
dPdu. If not specified, this will default to the authoritative
Display a brief usage message and then exit.
-H Display a list of configuration file directives understood by
the command and then exit.
Specifies input parsing options. See INPUT OPTIONS below.
Set the securityLevel used for SNMPv3 messages (noAuthNo-
Priv|authNoPriv|authPriv). Appropriate pass phrase(s) must pro-
vided when using any level higher than noAuthNoPriv. Overrides
the defSecurityLevel token in the snmp.conf file.
Specifies output logging options. See LOGGING OPTIONS below.
Specifies a colon separated list of MIB modules (not files) to
load for this application. This overrides the environment vari-
The special keyword ALL is used to specify all modules in all
directories when searching for MIB files. Every file whose name
does not begin with "." will be parsed as if it were a MIB file.
If the MIBLIST has a leading ’+’, then the listed MIB modules
are loaded in addition to MIB modules specified in the environ-
ment variable MIBS.
If a mibfile token is specified in the snmp.conf file, the -m
MIB option overrides the mibfile token.
Specifies a colon separated list of directories to search for
MIBs. This overrides the environment variable MIBDIRS.
If DIRLIST has a leading ’+’, then the given directories are
added to the list of MIB directories. Without the leading ’+’,
the given directory list overrides the list specified with the
environment variable MIBDIRS. Note that the directories listed
at the end of the list have precedence over directories at the
beginning of the list.
If no value is specified for the environment variable MIBDIRS,
then the command will still search a default mib directory,
after it searches the MIB directories specified on the -M
option. The default directory is /usr/share/snmp/mibs. To
avoid having a default mib directory searched, set the MIBDIRS
environment variable to "". Even if the default MIB directory
is searched, the directories specified in the -M option have
precedence in the search order over the default directory.
If the -M option is specified and either a mibfile or mibdirs
token is also specified in the snmp.conf file, the directories
in the -M option have precedence in the MIB search order, over
the directories set with both the mibdirs token and the mibfile
Set the destination contextName used for SNMPv3 messages. The
default contextName is the empty string "". Overrides the def-
Context token in the snmp.conf file.
Specifies output printing options. See OUTPUT OPTIONS below.
Specifies MIB parsing options. See MIB PARSING OPTIONS below.
Specifies the number of retries to be used in the requests. The
default is 5.
Specifies the timeout in seconds between retries. The default is
Set the securityName used for authenticated SNMPv3 messages.
Overrides the defSecurityName token in the snmp.conf file.
-v 1 | 2c | 3
Specifies the protocol version to use: 1 (RFCs 1155-1157), 2c
(RFCs 1901-1908), or 3 (RFCs 2571-2574). The default is typi-
cally version 3. This option overrides the defVersion token in
the snmp.conf file.
Display version information for the application and then exit.
Set the privacy protocol (DES) used for encrypted SNMPv3 mes-
Set the privacy pass phrase used for encrypted SNMPv3 messages.
Overrides the defPrivPassphrase token in the snmp.conf file. It
is insecure to specify pass phrases on the command line, see
Set the engineBoots and engineTime used for authenticated SNMPv3
messages. This will initialize the local notion of the agents
boots/time with an authenticated value stored in the LCD. It is
typically not necessary to specify this option, as these values
will usually be discovered automatically.
The string AGENT in the SYNOPSIS above specifies the remote SNMP entity
with which to communicate. This specification takes the form:
At its simplest, the AGENT specification may consist of a hostname, or
an IPv4 address in the standard "dotted quad" notation. In this case,
communication will be attempted using UDP/IPv4 to port 161 of the given
host. Otherwise, the <transport-address> part of the specification is
parsed according to the following table:
<transport-specifier> <transport-address> format
udp hostname[:port] or IPv4-address[:port]
tcp hostname[:port] or IPv4-address[:port]
aal5pvc or pvc [interface.][VPI.]VCI
udp6 or udpv6 or udpipv6 hostname[:port] or IPv6-address:port or
tcp6 or tcpv6 or tcpipv6 hostname[:port] or IPv6-address:port or
Note that <transport-specifier> strings are case-insensitive so that,
for example, "tcp" and "TCP" are equivalent. Here are some examples,
along with their interpretation:
hostname:161 perform query using UDP/IPv4 datagrams to host-
name on port 161. The ":161" is redundant here
since that is the default SNMP port in any
udp:hostname identical to the previous specification. The
"udp:" is redundant here since UDP/IPv4 is the
TCP:hostname:1161 connect to hostname on port 1161 using TCP/IPv4
and perform query over that connection.
ipx::00D0B7AAE308 perform query using IPX datagrams to node num-
ber 00D0B7AAE308 on the default network, and
using the default IPX port of 36879 (900F hex-
adecimal), as suggested in RFC 1906.
perform query using IPX datagrams to port 1161
on node number 00D0B721C6C0 on network number
unix:/tmp/local-agent connect to the Unix domain socket /tmp/local-
agent, and perform the query over that connec-
/tmp/local-agent identical to the previous specification, since
the Unix domain is the default transport iff
the first character of the <transport-address>
is a ’/’.
AAL5PVC:100 perform the query using AAL5 PDUs sent on the
permanent virtual circuit with VPI=0 and
VCI=100 (decimal) on the first ATM adapter in
PVC:1.10.32 perform the query using AAL5 PDUs sent on the
permanent virtual circuit with VPI=10 (decimal)
and VCI=32 (decimal) on the second ATM adapter
in the machine. Note that "PVC" is a synonym
udp6:hostname:10161 perform the query using UDP/IPv6 datagrams to
port 10161 on hostname (which will be looked up
as an AAAA record).
perform the query using UDP/IPv6 datagrams to
port 161 at address fe80::2d0:b7ff:fe21:c6c0.
tcpipv6:[::1]:1611 connect to port 1611 on the local host (::1 in
IPv6 parlance) using TCP/IPv6 and perform query
over that connection.
Note that not all the transport domains listed above will always be
available; for instance, hosts with no IPv6 support will not be able to
use udp6 transport addresses, and attempts to do so will result in the
error "Unknown host". Likewise, since AAL5 PVC support is only cur-
rently available on Linux, it will fail with the same error on other
MIB PARSING OPTIONS
The Net-SNMP MIB parser mostly adheres to the Structure of Management
Information (SMI). As that specification has changed through time, and
in recognition of the (ahem) diversity in compliance expressed in MIB
files, additional options provide more flexibility in reading MIB
-Pw Show some warning messages in resolving the MIB files. Can be
also set with the configuration token "mibWarningLevel".
-PW Show additional warning messages. Can be also set with the con-
figuration token "mibWarningLevel".
-Pe Show MIB errors. Can be also set with the configuration token
"showMibErrors". An example of an error that would be shown is
if an imported module is not found during MIB parsing.
-Pc Allow ASN.1 comment to extend to the end of the MIB source line
(i.e. disallow the use of "--" to terminate comments). This
overcomes some problems with manually maintained MIB files. Can
be also set with the configuration token "strictCommentTerm".
-Pd Toggles the default of whether or not to save the DESCRIPTIONs
of the MIB objects when parsing. Since the default is to save
the DESCRIPTIONS, specifying -Pd will cause the DESCRIPTIONs not
to be saved during MIB parsing. For example:
snmptranslate -Td -OS -IR system.sysDescr.0
will show a description, while
snmptranslate -Td -OS -IR -Pd system.sysDescr.0
will not show a description. Collecting the DESCRIPTION infor-
mation into the parsed hierarchy increases the memory used by
the size of each DESCRIPTION clause.
-Pu Allow underline characters in symbols. Can be also set with the
configuration token "mibAllowUnderline".
-PR Replace MIB objects using the last read MIB file. The parser
will replace MIB objects in its hierarchy whenever it sees a
sub-identifier and name match. WARNING: Setting this option may
result in an incorrect hierarchy. Can be also set with the con-
figuration token "mibReplaceWithLatest".
Output display can be controlled by passing various parameters to the
-O flag. The following examples should demonstrate this.
The default output looks as follows:
snmpget -c public -v 1 localhost system.sysUpTime.0
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63
-Oq Removes the equal sign and type information:
-OQ Removes the type information:
system.sysUpTime.0 = 1:15:09:27.63
-Of Gives you the complete OID:
.iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.system.sysUpTime.0 = Timet-
icks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63
-Os Deletes all but the last symbolic part of the OID:
sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63
-OS A variation on -Os that adds the name of the MIB that defined
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day,
(from release 5.0, this is now the default output format)
-Ou Prints the OID in the UCD-style (inherited from the original CMU
code), That means removing a series of "standard" prefixes, if
relevant, and breaking down the OID into the displayable pieces.
For example, the OID vacmSecruityModel.0.3.119.101.115 is broken
down by default and the string hidden in the OID is shown. The
result would look like: vacmSecurityModel.0."test". The -Ob
option disables this feature.
system.sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63
-On Prints the OID numerically:
.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63
-Oe Removes the symbolic labels from enumerations:
snmpget -c public -v 1 localhost ip.ipForwarding.0
ip.ipForwarding.0 = INTEGER: forwarding(1)
snmpget -c public -v 1 -Oe localhost ip.ipForwarding.0
ip.ipForwarding.0 = INTEGER: 1
-Ob When OIDs contain a index to a table, they are broken into the
displayable pieces and shown to you. For example the OID vacm-
SecurityModel.0.3.119.101.115 is nicely broken down by default
and the string hidden in the OID is shown to you as vacmSecuri-
tyModel.0."wes". The -Ob option disables this feature and dis-
plays it as vacmSecurityModel.0.3.119.101.115 again.
-OE This modifies the index strings to include a \ to escape the
quotes, to allow them to be reused in shell commands, such as
-OX This modifies the output of index OIDs, to look more "program
like". Square brackets are placed around each index, and the
DISPLAY-HINT information and string conversions are used to for-
mat each index. If you take an entry from the
IPV6-MIB::ipv6RouteTable, it is indexed with an IPv6 address and
two integers, and if you are used to IPv6 addresses you will
know that decimal OIDs are not the preferred notation. Compare:
snmpgetnext -OS host IPV6-MIB:ipv6RouteTable
= INTEGER: 2
snmpgetnext -OSX host IPV6-MIB:ipv6RouteTable
-Oa If a string-valued object definition does not include a Display
Hint, then the library attempts to determine whether it is an
ascii or binary string, and displays the value accordingly.
This flag bypasses this check, and displays all strings as
ASCII. Note that this does not affect objects that do have a
-Ox This works similarly to ’-Oa’, but displays strings as Hex.
-OT If hexadecimal code is printed, this will also print any print-
able characters after the hexadecimal codes.
-Ov Output only the variable value, not the OID:
snmpget -c public -v 1 -Ov localhost ip.ipForwarding.0
-OU Do not print the UNITS suffix at the end of the value.
-Ot Output timeticks values as raw numbers:
system.sysUpTime.0 = 14096763
Note that most of these options can be turned on or off by default by
tuning the snmp.conf file. See the snmp.conf(5) manual page for
The mechanism and destination to use for logging of warning and error
messages can be controlled by passing various parameters to the -L
-Le Log messages to the standard error stream.
Log messages to the specified file.
-Lo Log messages to the standard output stream.
Log messages via syslog, using the specified facility (’d’ for
LOG_DAEMON, ’u’ for LOG_USER, or ’0’-’7’ for LOG_LOCAL0 through
There are also "upper case" versions of each of these options, which
allow the corresponding logging mechanism to be restricted to certain
priorities of message. Using standard error logging as an example:
will log messages of priority ’pri’ and above to standard error.
will log messages with priority between ’p1’ and ’p2’ (inclu-
sive) to standard error.
For -LF and -LS the priority specification comes before the file or
facility token. The priorities recognised are:
0 or ! for LOG_EMERG,
1 or a for LOG_ALERT,
2 or c for LOG_CRIT,
3 or e for LOG_ERR,
4 or w for LOG_WARNING,
5 or n for LOG_NOTICE,
6 or i for LOG_INFO, and
7 or d for LOG_DEBUG.
Normal output is (or will be!) logged at a priority level of LOG_NOTICE
The -I flag specifies various options that control how your input to
the program is parsed. By default, all input parsing methods are used:
First the OID is parsed regularly, then -IR is used, then -Ib is used,
unless one of the following flags is specified which will force it to
only use one method.
-IR The -IR flag specifies random access lookup, so that if the
entire OID path is not specified, it will search for a node in
the MIB tree with the given name. Normally, you would have to
specify the vacmSecurityModel OID above as .iso.org.dod.inter-
but the use of the -IR flag allows you to shorten that to just
vacmSecurityModel.0."wes". (Though this OID really needs to be
quoted - ’vacmSecurityModel.0."wes"’ - to prevent the shell from
swallowing the double quotes).
Additionally, see the RANDOM ACCESS MIBS section below.
-Ib The -Ib flag indicates that the expression you gave it is actu-
ally a regular expression that should be used to search for the
best match possible in the MIB tree. This would allow you to
specify the node vacmSecurityModel MIB node as something as
generic as vacmsecuritymodel (since case insensitive searches
are done) or vacm.*model. Note that multiple matches are obvi-
ously possible (.* matches everything), and the best result is
currently calculated as the one that matches the closest to the
beginning of the node name and the highest in the tree. A cur-
rent side effect of this option is that you cannot specify
indexes or multiple nodes, since the ’.’ is treated as part of
the regular expression.
-Iu Use the traditional UCD-style input approach of assuming that
OIDs are rooted at the ’mib-2’ point in the tree (unless they
start with an explicit ’.’) If random access lookup is in
effect (which is the default for most commands), then this will
only affect OIDs specified with a leading numberic subidentifier
(and no initial ’.’) Thus an input of "snmpcmd ... 1" would
refer to ’iso’ (from v5.0 onwards) while "snmpcmd -Iu ... 1"
would refer to ’system’.
-Ir By default, indices into tables and values to be assigned to
objects are checked against range and type specified in the MIB.
The -Ir flag disables this check. This flag is mostly useful
when you are testing an agent. For normal operation it is use-
ful to get your requests checked before they are sent to the
remote agent (the diagnostic that the library can provide is
also much more precise).
-Ih By default, the library will use DISPLAY-HINT information when
assigning values. This flag disables this behaviour. The result
is that instead of
snmpset localhost HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystemDate.0 =
you will have to write
snmpset localhost HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystemData.0 x "07 D2 0C
0A 02 04 06 08"
Add the specified suffix to each textual OID given on the com-
mand line. It is useful to specify a common index value when
you want to retrieve multiple objects from the same row of a ta-
Add the specified prefix to each textual OID given on the com-
mand line. Useful to specify an explicit MIB module name for
all objects being retrieved (or for incurably lazy typists)
RANDOM ACCESS MIBS
In previous releases of the UCD-SNMP package (and if using the -Iu
option), an object identifier such as system.sysDescr.0 will be lookup
in a single "well known" place, built into the SNMP library (or speci-
fied by the PREFIX environment variable). The standard place is:
.iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2. The identifier may alternatively be
a complete object identifier, this is designated by a leading "dot" if
using UCD-input style, and is the first thing tried otherwise. To sim-
plify the specification of object identifiers the library supports ran-
dom access to the identifiers in the MIBs. This is requested by the -IR
option to the SNMP applications. Additionally, -Os prints OIDs in this
manner. Using this, system.sysDescr.0 may also be entered as sysDe-
scr.0. To search only a single MIB for the identifier (if it appears
in more than one), specify it as SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0. (use -OS to
print output OIDs in this manner, though this is the default as from
v5.0). This notation will also ensure that the specified MIB is loaded,
i.e. it need not be mentioned in the -m option (or MIBS environment
PREFIX The standard prefix for object identifiers (if using UCD-style
output). Defaults to .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2
MIBS The list of MIBs to load. Defaults to SNMPv2-TC:SNMPv2-MIB:IF-
MIB:IP-MIB:TCP-MIB:UDP-MIB:SNMP-VACM-MIB. Overridden by the -m
The list of directories to search for MIBs. Defaults to
/usr/share/snmp/mibs. Overridden by the -M option.
Agent configuration file. See snmpd.conf(5).
Application configuration files. See snmp.conf(5).
snmpget(1), snmpgetnext(1), snmpset(1), snmpbulkget(1), snmpbulk-
walk(1), snmpwalk(1), snmptable(1), snmpnetstat(1), snmpdelta(1),
snmptrap(1), snmpinform(1), snmpusm(1), snmpstatus(1), snmptest(1),
4th Berkeley Distribution 09 Jan 2004 SNMPCMD(1)
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