smartctl



SMARTCTL(8)                       2004/09/10                       SMARTCTL(8)




NAME

       smartctl - Control and Monitor Utility for SMART Disks



SYNOPSIS

       smartctl [options] device



FULL PATH

       /usr/sbin/smartctl



PACKAGE VERSION

       smartmontools-5.33 released 2004/09/10 at 04:11:35 UTC



DESCRIPTION

       smartctl  controls the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technol-
       ogy (SMART) system built into many ATA-3 and later ATA, IDE and  SCSI-3
       hard  drives. The purpose of SMART is to monitor the reliability of the
       hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out different types
       of  drive  self-tests.   This  version  of  smartctl is compatible with
       ATA/ATAPI-7 and earlier standards (see REFERENCES below)

       smartctl is a command line utility designed to perform SMART tasks such
       as  printing the SMART self-test and error logs, enabling and disabling
       SMART automatic testing, and initiating device self-tests. Note: if the
       user issues a SMART command that is (apparently) not implemented by the
       device, smartctl will print a warning message  but  issue  the  command
       anyway  (see  the -T, --tolerance option below).  This should not cause
       problems: on most devices, unimplemented SMART  commands  issued  to  a
       drive are ignored and/or return an error.

       smartctl also provides support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI
       tape drives and changers.

       The user must specify the device to be controlled  or  interrogated  as
       the final argument to smartctl.  Device paths are as follows:

       LINUX:   Use   the   forms  "/dev/hd[a-t]"  for  IDE/ATA  devices,  and
                "/dev/sd[a-z]" for SCSI devices.  For  SCSI  Tape  Drives  and
                Changers  with  TapeAlert  support use the devices "/dev/nst*"
                and "/dev/sg*".  More general paths (such as devfs  ones)  may
                also be specified.

       DARWIN:  Use  the  forms  /dev/disk[0-9]  or  equivalently disk[0-9] or
                equivalently /dev/rdisk[0-9].  Long forms are also  available:
                please  use ´-h´ to see some examples. Note that there is cur-
                rently no Darwin SCSI support.

       FREEBSD: Use  the  forms  "/dev/ad[0-9]+"  for  IDE/ATA   devices   and
                "/dev/da[0-9]+" for SCSI devices.

       NETBSD/OPENBSD:
                Use  the  form "/dev/wd[0-9]+c" for IDE/ATA devices.  For SCSI
                disk and tape devices, use the device  names  "/dev/sd[0-9]+c"
                and  "/dev/st[0-9]+c"  respectively.   Be  sure to specify the
                correct "whole disk" partition letter for your architecture.

       SOLARIS: Use the forms "/dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?" for IDE/ATA and  SCSI  disk
                devices, and "/dev/rmt/*" for SCSI tape devices.

       WINDOWS: Use  the  forms "/dev/hd[a-j]" for IDE/ATA devices "\\.\Physi-
                calDrive[0-9]" on WinNT4/2000/XP, "/dev/hd[a-d]" for  standard
                IDE/ATA devices on Win95/98/98SE/ME, and "/dev/scsi[0-9][0-f]"
                for SCSI devices on ASPI adapter 0-9,  ID  0-15.   The  prefix
                "/dev/" is optional.

       CYGWIN:  See "WINDOWS" above.

       Based  on  the device path, smartctl will guess the device type (ATA or
       SCSI).  If necessary, the ´-d´ option can be  used  to  over-ride  this
       guess

       Note that the printed output of smartctl displays most numerical values
       in base 10 (decimal), but some values are displayed in  base  16  (hex-
       idecimal).   To  distinguish  them,  the base 16 values are always dis-
       played with a leading "0x", for example: "0xff". This man page  follows
       the same convention.




OPTIONS

       The  options  are grouped below into several categories.  smartctl will
       execute  the  corresponding  commands  in   the   order:   INFORMATION,
       ENABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT TESTS.

       SCSI devices only accept the options -h, -V, -i, -a, -A, -d, -s, -S,-H,
       -t, -C, -l selftest, -l error, -r,  and  -X.   TapeAlert  devices  only
       accept  the options -h, -V, -i, -a, -A, -d, -s, -S, -t, -l selftest, -l
       error, -r, and -H.

       Long options  are  not  supported  on  all   systems.    Use  smartctl
       -h to see the available options.


       SHOW INFORMATION OPTIONS:

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints a usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
              Prints  version, copyright, license, home page and CVS-id infor-
              mation for your copy of  smartctl  to  STDOUT  and  then  exits.
              Please  include  this  information  if you are reporting bugs or
              problems.

       -i, --info
              Prints the device model number, serial number, firmware version,
              and  ATA  Standard  version/revision  information.   Says if the
              device supports SMART, and if so, whether SMART support is  cur-
              rently  enabled  or  disabled.   If  the device supports Logical
              Block Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive  capacity
              in bytes. (If drive is has a user protected area reserved, or is
              "clipped", this may be smaller than the potential maximum  drive
              capacity.)

       -a, --all
              Prints all SMART information about the disk, or TapeAlert infor-
              mation about the tape drive or changer.  For ATA devices this is
              equivalent to
              ´-H -i -c -A -l error -l selftest -l selective´
              and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -A -l error -l selftest´.
              Note  that for ATA disks this does not enable the ´-l directory´
              option.


       RUN-TIME BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:

       -q TYPE, --quietmode=TYPE
              Specifies that smartctl should run in one of the two quiet modes
              described here.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              errorsonly  - only print: For the ´-l error´ option, if nonzero,
              the number of errors recorded in the SMART  error  log  and  the
              power-on  time when they occurred; For the ´-l selftest´ option,
              errors recorded in  the  device  self-test  log;  For  the  ´-H´
              option,   SMART  "disk  failing"  status  or  device  Attributes
              (pre-failure or usage) which failed either now or in  the  past;
              For  the  ´-A´  option, device Attributes (pre-failure or usage)
              which failed either now or in the past.

              silent - print no output.  The only way to learn about what  was
              found  is  to use the exit status of smartctl (see RETURN VALUES
              below).

       -d TYPE, --device=TYPE
              Specifies the type of the device.  The valid arguments  to  this
              option  are  ata,  scsi, and 3ware,N. If this option is not used
              then smartctl will attempt to guess the  device  type  from  the
              device name.

              To  look  at  ATA  disks behind 3ware SCSI RAID controllers, use
              syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
              where in the argument 3ware,N, the integer N is the disk  number
              (3ware  ´port´)  within  the  3ware  ATA  RAID  controller.  The
              allowed values of N are from 0 to 15 inclusive.  The  first  two
              forms,  which  refer to devices /dev/sda-z and /dev/twe0-15, may
              be used with 3ware series  6000,  7000,  and  8000  series  con-
              trollers  that  use  the  3x-xxxx driver.  The final form, which
              refers to devices /dev/twa0-15, must be  used  with  3ware  9000
              series controllers, which use the 3w-9xxx driver.

              Note  that  if  the special character device nodes /dev/twa? and
              /dev/twe? do not exist, or exist with  the  incorrect  major  or
              minor  numbers,  smartctl  will recreate them on the fly.  Typi-
              cally /dev/twa0 refers  to  the  first  9000-series  controller,
              /dev/twa1  refers  to  the second 9000 series controller, and so
              on. Likewise /dev/twe0 refers to the first 6/7/8000-series  con-
              troller,  /dev/twa1  refers  to  the second 6/7/8000 series con-
              troller, and so on.

              Note that for the 6/7/8000  controllers,  any  of  the  physical
              disks  can  be queried or examined using any of the 3ware’s SCSI
              logical device  /dev/sd?   entries.   Thus,  if  logical  device
              /dev/sda  is made up of two physical disks (3ware ports zero and
              one) and logical device /dev/sdb is made up of two other  physi-
              cal  disks  (3ware ports two and three) then you can examine the
              SMART data on any of the four physical disks using  either  SCSI
              device  /dev/sda or /dev/sdb.  If you need to know which logical
              SCSI device a particular physical disk (3ware port)  is  associ-
              ated  with, use the dmesg or SYSLOG output to show which SCSI ID
              corresponds to a particular 3ware unit, and then use  the  3ware
              CLI or 3dm tool to determine which ports (physical disks) corre-
              spond to particular 3ware units.

              If the value of N corresponds to a port that does not  exist  on
              the 3ware controller, or to a port that does not physically have
              a disk attached to it, the behavior of smartctl depends upon the
              specific  controller model, firmware, Linux kernel and platform.
              In some cases you will get a warning  message  that  the  device
              does not exist. In other cases you will be presented with ´void´
              data for a non-existent device.

              Note that if the /dev/sd? addressing form is  used,  then  older
              3w-xxxx  drivers do not pass the "Enable Autosave" (´-S on´) and
              "Enable Automatic Offline" (´-o on´) commands to the  disk,  and
              produce  these  types of harmless syslog error messages instead:
              "3w-xxxx: tw_ioctl(): Passthru size (123392) too big". This  can
              be  fixed  by  upgrading  to version 1.02.00.037 or later of the
              3w-xxxx driver, or by applying a patch to  older  versions.  See
              http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/  for instructions.  Alter-
              natively, use the character device /dev/twe0-15 interface.

              The selective self-test functions  (´-t  select,A-B´)  are  only
              supported  using the character device interface /dev/twa0-15 and
              /dev/twe0-15.  The necessary  WRITE  LOG  commands  can  not  be
              passed through the SCSI interface.

              3ware  controllers  are currently ONLY supported under Linux and
              FreeBSD.


       -T TYPE, --tolerance=TYPE
              Specifies how tolerant smartctl should be of ATA and SMART  com-
              mand failures.

              The  behavior  of  smartctl  depends upon whether the command is
              "optional" or "mandatory". Here "mandatory" means  "required  by
              the ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification if the device implements the SMART
              command  set"  and  "optional"  means  "not  required   by   the
              ATA/ATAPI-5  Specification  even  if  the  device implements the
              SMART command set."  The "mandatory" ATA and SMART commands are:
              (1)  ATA  IDENTIFY  DEVICE,  (2)  SMART ENABLE/DISABLE ATTRIBUTE
              AUTOSAVE, (3) SMART ENABLE/DISABLE, and (4) SMART RETURN STATUS.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              normal  -  exit  on  failure of any mandatory SMART command, and
              ignore all failures of optional SMART  commands.   This  is  the
              default.   Note  that  on  some  devices,  issuing unimplemented
              optional SMART commands doesn´t cause an error.  This can result
              in  misleading  smartctl  messages such as "Feature X not imple-
              mented", followed shortly by "Feature X: enabled".  In most such
              cases,  contrary to the final message, Feature X is not enabled.

              conservative - exit on failure of any optional SMART command.

              permissive - ignore  failure(s)  of  mandatory  SMART  commands.
              This option may be given more than once.  Each additional use of
              this option  will  cause  one  more  additional  failure  to  be
              ignored.   Note that the use of this option can lead to messages
              like "Feature X not implemented", followed  shortly  by  "Error:
              unable  to  enable Feature X".  In a few such cases, contrary to
              the final message, Feature X is enabled.

              verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of ´-T per-
              missive´  options:  ignore  failures  of any number of mandatory
              SMART commands.  Please see the note above.


       -b TYPE, --badsum=TYPE
              Specifies the action smartctl should take if a checksum error is
              detected  in  the:  (1)  Device  Identity  Structure,  (2) SMART
              Self-Test Log Structure, (3) SMART  Attribute  Value  Structure,
              (4)  SMART  Attribute  Threshold Structure, or (5) ATA Error Log
              Structure.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              warn - report the incorrect checksum but carry on  in  spite  of
              it.  This is the default.

              exit - exit smartctl.

              ignore - continue silently without issuing a warning.


       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended  primarily  to help smartmontools developers understand
              the behavior of smartmontools on non-conforming or  poorly  con-
              forming  hardware.   This  option  reports  details  of smartctl
              transactions with the device.  The option can be  used  multiple
              times.   When  used  just once, it shows a record of the ioctl()
              transactions with the device.  When used  more  than  once,  the
              detail  of  these  ioctl()  transactions are reported in greater
              detail.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI  devices.
              Invoking this once shows the SCSI commands in hex and the corre-
              sponding status. Invoking it a second time adds a hex listing of
              the first 64 bytes of data send to, or received from the device.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
              of  detail that should be reported.  The argument should be fol-
              lowed by a comma then the integer with no spaces.  For  example,
              ataioctl,2  The  default  level is 1, so ´-r ataioctl,1´ and ´-r
              ataioctl´ are equivalent.


       SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:

              Note: if multiple options are used to both enable and disable  a
              feature,  then  both  the  enable  and  disable commands will be
              issued.  The enable command will always  be  issued  before  the
              corresponding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
              Enables  or  disables  SMART  on device.  The valid arguments to
              this option are on and off.  Note that the command ´-s on´ (per-
              haps  used  with with the ´-o on´ and ´-S on´ options) should be
              placed in a start-up script for your  machine,  for  example  in
              rc.local or rc.sysinit.  In principle the SMART feature settings
              are preserved over power-cycling, but  it  doesn´t  hurt  to  be
              sure. It is not necessary (or useful) to enable SMART to see the
              TapeAlert messages.

       -o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
              Enables or disables SMART automatic offline  test,  which  scans
              the drive every four hours for disk defects. This command can be
              given during normal system operation.  The  valid  arguments  to
              this option are on and off.

              Note  that the SMART automatic offline test command is listed as
              "Obsolete" in every version of the ATA and ATA/ATAPI  Specifica-
              tions.   It  was  originally  part of the SFF-8035i Revision 2.0
              specification, but was never  part  of  any  ATA  specification.
              However  it  is  implemented  and  used  by  many vendors. [Good
              documentation can be found  in  IBM´s  Official  Published  Disk
              Specifications.   For example the IBM Travelstar 40GNX Hard Disk
              Drive Specifications (Revision 1.1, 22 April 2002, Publication #
              1541,  Document  S07N-7715-02)  page  164. You can also read the
              SFF-8035i Specification -- see REFERENCES below.]  You can  tell
              if automatic offline testing is supported by seeing if this com-
              mand enables and disables it, as indicated by the ´Auto  Offline
              Data  Collection´  part  of  the SMART capabilities report (dis-
              played with ´-c´).

              SMART provides three basic categories  of  testing.   The  first
              category,  called "online" testing, has no effect on the perfor-
              mance of the device.  It is turned on by the ´-s on´ option.

              The second category of testing is called "offline" testing. This
              type  of test can, in principle, degrade the device performance.
              The ´-o on´ option causes this offline  testing  to  be  carried
              out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis.  Normally, the
              disk will suspend offline testing while disk accesses are taking
              place, and then automatically resume it when the disk would oth-
              erwise be idle, so in practice it has little effect.  Note  that
              a one-time offline test can also be carried out immediately upon
              receipt of a user command.  See the ´-t offline´  option  below,
              which  causes  a one-time offline test to be carried out immedi-
              ately.

              The choice (made by the SFF-8035i and ATA specification authors)
              of  the  word testing for these first two categories is unfortu-
              nate, and often leads to confusion.  In  fact  these  first  two
              categories  of  online  and offline testing could have been more
              accurately described as online and offline data collection.

              The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
              collection) are reflected in the values of the SMART Attributes.
              Thus, if problems or errors are detected, the  values  of  these
              Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
              errors may also appear in the SMART error log. These are visible
              with the ´-A´ and ´-l error´ options respectively.

              Some  SMART  attribute  values  are updated only during off-line
              data collection activities; the rest are updated  during  normal
              operation  of  the  device  or  during both normal operation and
              off-line testing.  The Attribute value  table  produced  by  the
              ´-A´ option indicates this in the UPDATED column.  Attributes of
              the first type are labeled "Offline" and Attributes of the  sec-
              ond type are labeled "Always".

              The  third  category of testing (and the only category for which
              the word ´testing´ is really an appropriate  choice)  is  "self"
              testing.   This  third  type  of test is only performed (immedi-
              ately) when a command to run it is issued.  The  ´-t´  and  ´-X´
              options  can  be  used  to  carry out and abort such self-tests;
              please see below for further details.

              Any errors detected in the self testing will  be  shown  in  the
              SMART  self-test  log, which can be examined using the ´-l self-
              test´ option.

              Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection
              with  the second category just described, e.g. for the "offline"
              testing.  The words "Self-test" are used in connection with  the
              third category.

       -S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
              Enables  or  disables  SMART  autosave of device vendor-specific
              Attributes. The valid arguments to this option are on  and  off.
              Note that this feature is preserved across disk power cycles, so
              you should only need to issue it once.

              For SCSI devices this toggles the value of  the  Global  Logging
              Target  Save Disabled (GLTSD) bit in the Control Mode Page. Some
              disk manufacturers set this bit by default. This prevents  error
              counters, power-up hours and other useful data from being placed
              in non-volatile storage, so these values may be  reset  to  zero
              the  next  time the device is power-cycled.  If the GLTSD bit is
              set then ´smartctl -a´ will issue a warning. Use on to clear the
              GLTSD  bit and thus enable saving counters to non-volatile stor-
              age. For extreme streaming-video  type  applications  you  might
              consider using off to set the GLTSD bit.


       SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:

       -H, --health
              Check: Ask the device to report its SMART health status or pend-
              ing TapeAlert messages.  SMART status is  based  on  information
              that  it  has gathered from online and offline tests, which were
              used to determine/update  its  SMART  vendor-specific  Attribute
              values.  TapeAlert  status  is obtained by reading the TapeAlert
              log page.

              If the device reports failing health status, this  means  either
              that the device has already failed, or that it is predicting its
              own failure within the next 24 hours.  If this happens, use  the
              ´-a´  option  to get more information, and get your data off the
              disk and someplace safe as soon as you can.

       -c, --capabilities
              Prints only the generic SMART  capabilities.   These  show  what
              SMART  features  are implemented and how the device will respond
              to some of the different SMART commands.  For example  it  shows
              if  the device logs errors, if it supports offline surface scan-
              ning, and so on.  If the device can carry out  self-tests,  this
              option  also  shows  the  estimated  time  required to run those
              tests.

              Note that the time required to run  the  Self-tests  (listed  in
              minutes)  are fixed.  However the time required to run the Imme-
              diate Offline Test (listed in seconds) is variable.  This  means
              that if you issue a command to perform an Immediate Offline test
              with the ´-t offline´ option, then the time may jump to a larger
              value  and then count down as the Immediate Offline Test is car-
              ried out.  Please see REFERENCES below for  further  information
              about the the flags and capabilities described by this option.

       -A, --attributes
              Prints   only   the   vendor  specific  SMART  Attributes.   The
              Attributes are numbered from 1 to 253 and  have  specific  names
              and ID numbers. For example Attribute 12 is "power cycle count":
              how many times has the disk been powered up.

              Each Attribute has a "Raw"  value,  printed  under  the  heading
              "RAW_VALUE",  and a "Normalized" value printed under the heading
              "VALUE".  [Note: smartctl prints these values in  base-10.]   In
              the  example  just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute 12 would
              be  the  actual  number  of  times  that  the  disk   has   been
              power-cycled,  for  example  365  if the disk has been turned on
              once per day for exactly one year.  Each vendor uses  their  own
              algorithm to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in
              the range from 1 to 254.  Please keep in mind that smartctl only
              reports the different Attribute types, values, and thresholds as
              read from the device.  It does  not  carry  out  the  conversion
              between  "Raw"  and  "Normalized"  values:  this  is done by the
              disk´s firmware.

              The conversion from Raw value to a quantity with physical  units
              is  not specified by the SMART standard. In most cases, the val-
              ues printed by smartctl are sensible.  For example the  tempera-
              ture Attribute generally has its raw value equal to the tempera-
              ture in Celsius.  However in some cases vendors use unusual con-
              ventions.  For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop reports its
              power-on hours in minutes, not hours. Some IBM disks track three
              temperatures rather than one, in their raw values.  And so on.

              Each  Attribute  also has a Threshold value (whose range is 0 to
              255) which is printed under the heading "THRESH".  If  the  Nor-
              malized value is less than or equal to the Threshold value, then
              the Attribute is said to have failed.  If  the  Attribute  is  a
              pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

              Each  Attribute also has a "Worst" value shown under the heading
              "WORST".  This is the smallest (closest to failure)  value  that
              the disk has recorded at any time during its lifetime when SMART
              was enabled.  [Note however that some vendors firmware may actu-
              ally   increase   the   "Worst"   value   for  some  "rate-type"
              Attributes.]

              The Attribute table printed  out  by  smartctl  also  shows  the
              "TYPE"  of  the  Attribute.  Attributes  are one of two possible
              types: Pre-failure or Old age.  Pre-failure Attributes are  ones
              which, if less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
              pending disk failure.  Old age, or usage  Attributes,  are  ones
              which  indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal aging
              and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal to the
              threshold.   Please  note: the fact that an Attribute is of type
              ’Pre-fail’ does not mean that your disk is about  to  fail!   It
              only  has  this  meaning  if  the Attribute´s current Normalized
              value is less than or equal to the threshold value.

              If the Attribute´s current Normalized  value  is  less  than  or
              equal to the threshold value, then the "WHEN_FAILED" column will
              display "FAILING_NOW". If not, but the worst recorded  value  is
              less than or equal to the threshold value, then this column will
              display "In_the_past".  If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry
              (indicated  by  a  dash: ´-´) then this Attribute is OK now (not
              failing) and has also never failed in the past.

              The table column labeled "UPDATED" shows if the SMART  Attribute
              values  are  updated  during  both normal operation and off-line
              testing, or only during offline testing.  The former are labeled
              "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

              So  to  summarize:  the  Raw  Attribute values are the ones that
              might have a real physical interpretation, such as  "Temperature
              Celsius",  "Hours",  or  "Start-Stop Cycles".  Each manufacturer
              converts these, using their detailed  knowledge  of  the  disk´s
              operations  and failure modes, to Normalized Attribute values in
              the range 1-254.  The current and  worst  (lowest  measured)  of
              these  Normalized Attribute values are stored on the disk, along
              with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
              indicate that the disk is going to fail, or that it has exceeded
              its design age or aging limit.  smartctl does not calculate  any
              of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it merely reports
              them from the SMART data on the device.

              Note that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4, the meaning  of
              these  Attribute  fields has been made entirely vendor-specific.
              However most ATA/ATAPI-5 disks seem to respect their meaning, so
              we have retained the option of printing the Attribute values.

              For SCSI devices the "attributes" are obtained from the tempera-
              ture and start-stop cycle counter log pages. Certain vendor spe-
              cific  attributes  are  listed if recognised. The attributes are
              output in a relatively  free  format  (compared  with  ATA  disk
              attributes).

       -l TYPE, --log=TYPE
              Prints  either the SMART Error Log, the SMART Self-Test Log, the
              SMART Selective Self-Test Log [ATA only], or the  Log  Directory
              [ATA only].  The valid arguments to this option are:

              error - prints only the SMART error log.  SMART disks maintain a
              log of the most recent five  non-trivial  errors.  For  each  of
              these  errors,  the  disk  power-on  lifetime at which the error
              occurred is recorded, as is the device  status  (idle,  standby,
              etc) at the time of the error.  For some common types of errors,
              the Error Register (ER) and  Status  Register  (SR)  values  are
              decoded and printed as text. The meanings of these are:
                 ABRT:  Command ABoRTed
                 AMNF:  Address Mark Not Found
                 CCTO:  Command Completion Timed Out
                 EOM:   End Of Media
                 ICRC:  Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
                 IDNF:  IDentity Not Found
                 ILI:   (packet command-set specific)
                 MC:    Media Changed
                 MCR:   Media Change Request
                 NM:    No Media
                 obs:   obsolete
                 TK0NF: TracK 0 Not Found
                 UNC:   UNCorrectable Error in Data
                 WP:    Media is Write Protected
              In  addition,  up  to  the  last five commands that preceded the
              error are listed, along with a timestamp measured from the start
              of  the corresponding power cycle. This is displayed in the form
              Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec where D is the number of days, HH is hours,  MM
              is minutes, SS is seconds and msec is milliseconds.  [Note: this
              time stamp wraps after 2^32 milliseconds, or 49 days 17 hours  2
              minutes  and  47.296  seconds.]   The key ATA disk registers are
              also recorded in the log.  The final column of the error log  is
              a text-string description of the ATA command defined by the Com-
              mand Register (CR) and Feature Register (FR)  values.   Commands
              that  are  obsolete  in the most current (ATA-7) spec are listed
              like this: READ LONG (w/ retry)  [OBS-4],  indicating  that  the
              command  became  obsolete  with  or  in the ATA-4 specification.
              Similarly, the notation [RET-N] is used to indicate that a  com-
              mand  was retired in the ATA-N specification.  Some commands are
              not defined in any version of the ATA specification but  are  in
              common use nonetheless; these are marked [NS], meaning non-stan-
              dard.

              The ATA Specification (ATA-5 Revision  1c,  Section  8.41.6.8.2)
              says:  "Error  log  structures  shall  include  UNC errors, IDNF
              errors for which the address requested was valid, servo  errors,
              write  fault  errors,  etc.  Error log data structures shall not
              include errors attributed to the receipt of faulty commands such
              as  command codes not implemented by the device or requests with
              invalid parameters or invalid  addresses."  The  definitions  of
              these terms are:
              UNC (UNCorrectable): data is uncorrectable.  This refers to data
              which has been read from the  disk,  but  for  which  the  Error
              Checking  and  Correction  (ECC)  codes  are  inconsistent.   In
              effect, this means that the data can not be read.
              IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be found.
              For READ LOG type commands, IDNF can also indicate that a device
              data log structure checksum was incorrect.

              If the command that caused the error was a READ  or  WRITE  com-
              mand,  then  the  Logical Block Address (LBA) at which the error
              occurred will be printed in base 10 and base 16.  The LBA  is  a
              linear  address,  which  counts  512-byte  sectors  on the disk,
              starting from zero.  (Because of the limitations  of  the  SMART
              error  log, if the LBA is greater than 0xfffffff, then either no
              error log entry will be made, or the error log entry  will  have
              an  incorrect  LBA.  This  may happen for drives with a capacity
              greater than 128 GiB or 137 GB.) On Linux systems the  smartmon-
              tools  web  page  has  instructions about how to convert the LBA
              address to the name of the disk file  containing  the  erroneous
              disk sector.

              Please  note  that  some manufacturers ignore the ATA specifica-
              tions, and make entries in the error log if the device  receives
              a command which is not implemented or is not valid.

              error  [SCSI]  -  prints  the error counter log pages for reads,
              write and verifies.  The verify row is only output if it has  an
              element other than zero.

              selftest - prints the SMART self-test log.  The disk maintains a
              self-test log showing the results of the self tests,  which  can
              be  run  using the ´-t´ option described below.  For each of the
              most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log  shows  the  type  of
              test (short or extended, off-line or captive) and the final sta-
              tus of the test.  If the test  did  not  complete  successfully,
              then the percentage of the test remaining is shown.  The time at
              which the test took place, measured in hours of  disk  lifetime,
              is also printed.  If any errors were detected, the Logical Block
              Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in decimal notation.
              On  Linux  systems  the  smartmontools web page has instructions
              about how to convert this LBA address to the name  of  the  disk
              file containing the erroneous block.

              selftest  [SCSI]  -  the  self-test  log for a SCSI device has a
              slightly different format than for an ATA device.  For  each  of
              the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
              the status (final or in progress) of the  test.  SCSI  standards
              use  the  terms "foreground" and "background" (rather than ATA´s
              corresponding "captive" and "off-line") and "short"  and  "long"
              (rather  than  ATA´s  corresponding  "short"  and "extended") to
              describe the type of the test.  The printed  segment  number  is
              only  relevant when a test fails in the third or later test seg-
              ment.  It identifies the test that failed and consists of either
              the  number  of  the segment that failed during the test, or the
              number of the test that failed and the number of the segment  in
              which  the  test  was  run,  using  a  vendor-specific method of
              putting both numbers into a  single  byte.   The  Logical  Block
              Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in hexadecimal nota-
              tion.  On Linux systems the smartmontools web page has  instruc-
              tions  about  how to convert this LBA address to the name of the
              disk file containing the erroneous block.  If provided, the SCSI
              Sense Key (SK), Additional Sense Code (ASC) and Additional Sense
              Code Qualifier (ASQ) are also printed. The self tests can be run
              using the ´-t´ option described below (using the ATA test termi-
              nology).

              selective [ATA] - Some ATA-7 disks (example: Maxtor) also  main-
              tain  a  selective  self-test  log.   Please see the ´-t select´
              option below for a description  of  selective  self-tests.   The
              selective  self-test  log  shows  the  start/end  Logical  Block
              Addresses (LBA) of each  of  the  five  test  spans,  and  their
              current test status.  If the span is being tested or the remain-
              der of the disk is being read-scanned, the current  65536-sector
              block  of  LBAs  being  tested is also displayed.  The selective
              self-test log also shows if a read-scan of the remainder of  the
              disk  will be carried out after the selective self-test has com-
              pleted (see ´-t afterselect´ option) and the time  delay  before
              restarting this read-scan if it is interrupted (see ´-t pending´
              option). This is a  new  smartmontools  feature;  please  report
              unusual or incorrect behavior to the smartmontools-support mail-
              ing list.

              directory - if the device supports the General  Purpose  Logging
              feature  set  (ATA-6  and  ATA-7  only) then this prints the Log
              Directory (the log at address 0).  The Log Directory shows  what
              logs are available and their length in sectors (512 bytes).  The
              contents of the logs at address 1 [Summary SMART error log]  and
              at address 6 [SMART self-test log] may be printed using the pre-
              viously-described error and selftest arguments to  this  option.
              [Please  note:  this  is  a new, experimental feature.  We would
              like to add support for printing the contents  of  extended  and
              comprehensive SMART self-test and error logs.  If your disk sup-
              ports these, and you would like to assist,  please  contact  the
              smartmontools developers.]


       -v N,OPTION, --vendorattribute=N,OPTION
              Sets  a  vendor-specific  display  OPTION for Attribute N.  This
              option may be used  multiple  times.  Valid  arguments  to  this
              option are:

              help  - Prints (to STDOUT) a list of all valid arguments to this
              option, then exits.

              9,minutes - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in  minutes.
              Its  raw value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is
              hours, and Y is minutes in  the  range  0-59  inclusive.   Y  is
              always  printed  with  two  digits,  for example "06" or "31" or
              "00".

              9,seconds - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in  seconds.
              Its  raw value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym+Zs".  Here X
              is hours, Y is minutes in the range 0-59  inclusive,  and  Z  is
              seconds in the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y and Z are always printed
              with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".

              9,halfminutes - Raw Attribute number 9 is  power-on  time,  mea-
              sured  in units of 30 seconds.  This format is used by some Sam-
              sung disks.  Its  raw  value  will  be  displayed  in  the  form
              "Xh+Ym".   Here  X  is hours, and Y is minutes in the range 0-59
              inclusive.  Y is always printed with  two  digits,  for  example
              "06" or "31" or "00".

              9,temp  - Raw Attribute number 9 is the disk temperature in Cel-
              sius.

              192,emergencyretractcyclect - Raw Attribute number  192  is  the
              Emergency Retract Cycle Count.

              193,loadunload  -  Raw Attribute number 193 contains two values.
              The first is the number of load cycles.  The second is the  num-
              ber  of  unload cycles.  The difference between these two values
              is the number of times that the drive was  unexpectedly  powered
              off  (also  called an emergency unload). As a rule of thumb, the
              mechanical stress created by one emergency unload is  equivalent
              to that created by one hundred normal unloads.

              194,10xCelsius  - Raw Attribute number 194 is ten times the disk
              temperature in Celsius.  This is  used  by  some  Samsung  disks
              (example: model SV1204H with RK100-13 firmware).

              194,unknown  - Raw Attribute number 194 is NOT the disk tempera-
              ture, and its interpretation is unknown. This is primarily  use-
              ful for the -P (presets) option.

              198,offlinescanuncsectorct  -  Raw  Attribute  number 198 is the
              Offline Scan UNC Sector Count.

              200,writeerrorcount - Raw Attribute  number  200  is  the  Write
              Error Count.

              201,detectedtacount  -  Raw Attribute number 201 is the Detected
              TA Count.

              220,temp - Raw Attribute number 220 is the disk  temperature  in
              Celsius.

              Note: a table of hard drive models, listing which Attribute cor-
              responds  to  temperature,  can  be   found   at:   http://core-
              dump.free.fr/linux/hddtemp.db

              N,raw8  -  Print  the  Raw  value  of  Attribute  N as six 8-bit
              unsigned base-10 integers.  This may be useful for decoding  the
              meaning  of  the Raw value.  The form ´N,raw8´ prints Raw values
              for ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for  example)
              ´123,raw8´  only  prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
              form.

              N,raw16 - Print the Raw value of Attribute  N  as  three  16-bit
              unsigned  base-10 integers.  This may be useful for decoding the
              meaning of the Raw value.  The form ´N,raw16´ prints Raw  values
              for  ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for example)
              ´123,raw16´ only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in  this
              form.

              N,raw48  -  Print  the  Raw  value  of  Attribute  N as a 48-bit
              unsigned base-10 integer.  This may be useful for  decoding  the
              meaning  of the Raw value.  The form ´N,raw48´ prints Raw values
              for ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for  example)
              ´123,raw48´  only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
              form.


       -F TYPE, --firmwarebug=TYPE
              Modifies the behavior of smartctl to compensate for  some  known
              and  understood  device  firmware  bug.   The  arguments to this
              option are exclusive, so that only the  final  option  given  is
              used.  The valid values are:

              none  - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA specifica-
              tions.  This is the default, unless the device has  presets  for
              ´-F´ in the device database (see note below).

              samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware
              Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities  in
              the  SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA
              specification).  Enabling this option tells smartctl to evaluate
              these  quantities  in byte-reversed order.  Some signs that your
              disk needs this option are (1) no self-test  log  printed,  even
              though  you  have  run self-tests; (2) very large numbers of ATA
              errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible
              values for the ATA error log timestamps.

              samsung2 - In more recent Samsung disks (firmware revisions end-
              ing in "-23") the number of ATA errors reported is byte swapped.
              Enabling this option tells smartctl to evaluate this quantity in
              byte-reversed order.

              Note that an explicit ´-F´  option  on  the  command  line  will
              over-ride  any  preset  values  for  ´-F´  (see  the ´-P´ option
              below).


       -P TYPE, --presets=TYPE
              Specifies whether smartctl should use any  preset  options  that
              are available for this drive. By default, if the drive is recog-
              nized in the smartmontools database, then the presets are  used.

              smartctl  can  automatically  set  appropriate options for known
              drives.  For example, the Maxtor 4D080H4  uses  Attribute  9  to
              stores  power-on  time  in  minutes whereas most drives use that
              Attribute to store the power-on time in hours.  The command-line
              option ´-v 9,minutes´ ensures that smartctl correctly interprets
              Attribute 9 in this case, but that option is preset for the Max-
              tor  4D080H4  and  so  need  not be specified by the user on the
              smartctl command line.

              The argument show will show any preset options  for  your  drive
              and  the  argument  showall  will  show  all known drives in the
              smartmontools database, along with  their  preset  options.   If
              there  are  no presets for your drive and you think there should
              be (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get smartctl  to
              display  correct  values)  then please contact the smartmontools
              developers so that this information can be added to  the  smart-
              montools  database.   Contact  information is at the end of this
              man page.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              use - if a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets  for
              it.   This  is the default. Note that presets will NOT over-ride
              additional  Attribute  interpretation  (´-v  N,something´)  com-
              mand-line options or explicit ´-F´ command-line options..

              ignore - do not use presets.

              show  -  show if the drive is recognized in the database, and if
              so, its presets, then exit.

              showall - list all recognized drives, and the presets  that  are
              set for them, then exit.


       SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND SELF-TEST OPTIONS:

       -t TEST, --test=TEST
              Executes  TEST immediately.  The ´-C´ option can be used in con-
              junction with this option to run the short or long (and also for
              ATA devices, selective or conveyance) self-tests in captive mode
              (known as "foreground mode" for SCSI devices).  Note  that  only
              one test type can be run at a time, so only one test type should
              be specified per command line.  Note also that if a computer  is
              shutdown  or  power  cycled  during  a self-test, no harm should
              result.  The self-test will either be  aborted  or  will  resume
              automatically.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              offline  -  runs SMART Immediate Offline Test.  This immediately
              starts the test described above.  This command can be given dur-
              ing normal system operation.  The effects of this test are visi-
              ble only in that it updates the SMART Attribute values,  and  if
              errors  are found they will appear in the SMART error log, visi-
              ble with the ´-l error´ option. [In the  case  of  SCSI  devices
              runs  the default self test in foreground. No entry is placed in
              the self test log.]

              If the ´-c´ option to smartctl shows that  the  device  has  the
              "Suspend  Offline  collection  upon new command" capability then
              you can track the progress of the Immediate Offline  test  using
              the  ´-c´  option to smartctl.  If the ´-c´ option show that the
              device has the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capa-
              bility then most commands will abort the Immediate Offline Test,
              so you should not try to track the progress  of  the  test  with
              ´-c´, as it will abort the test.

              short  - runs SMART Short Self Test (usually under ten minutes).
              [Note: in the case of SCSI devices, this command option runs the
              "Background short" self-test.]  This command can be given during
              normal system operation (unless run in captive mode  -  see  the
              ´-C´ option below).  This is a test in a different category than
              the immediate or automatic  offline  tests.   The  "Self"  tests
              check  the  electrical and mechanical performance as well as the
              read performance of the disk.  Their results are reported in the
              Self  Test  Error  Log,  readable with the ´-l selftest´ option.
              Note that on some disks the progress of  the  self-test  can  be
              monitored  by watching this log during the self-test; with other
              disks use the ´-c´ option to monitor progress.

              long - runs SMART Extended Self Test (tens of minutes).   [Note:
              in the case of SCSI devices, this command option runs the "Back-
              ground long" self-test.]  This is a  longer  and  more  thorough
              version  of the Short Self Test described above.  Note that this
              command can be given during normal system operation (unless  run
              in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              conveyance  - [ATA ONLY] runs a SMART Conveyance Self Test (min-
              utes).  This self-test routine is intended  to  identify  damage
              incurred  during transporting of the device. This self-test rou-
              tine should take on the order of minutes to complete.  Note that
              this command can be given during normal system operation (unless
              run in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              select,N-M

              - [ATA ONLY] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE]  runs  a  SMART
              Selective  Self  Test,  to  test  a  range of disk Logical Block
              Addresses (LBAs), rather than the entire disk.   Each  range  of
              LBAs  that  is  checked is called a "span" and is specified by a
              starting LBA (N) and an ending LBA (M) with N less than or equal
              to M.  For example the command:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
              runs  a  self  test on one span consisting of LBAs ten to twenty
              (inclusive). The ´-t´ option can be given up to five  times,  to
              test up to five spans.  For example the command:
                smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/hda
              runs  a  self test on two spans.  The first span consists of 101
              LBAs and the second span consists of 1001 LBAs.  Note  that  the
              spans can overlap partially or completely, for example:
                smartctl -t select,0-10 -t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
              The  results  of  the  selective self-test can be obtained (both
              during and after the test) by printing the SMART self-test  log,
              using the ´-l selftest´ option to smartctl.

              Selective  self tests are particularly useful as disk capacities
              increase: an extended self test (smartctl -t long) can take sev-
              eral  hours.  Selective self-tests are helpful if (based on SYS-
              LOG error messages, previous failed self-tests, or  SMART  error
              log  entries)  you  suspect  that a disk is having problems at a
              particular range of Logical Block Addresses (LBAs).

              Selective self-tests can be run during normal  system  operation
              (unless done in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              [Note:  this new experimental smartmontools feature is currently
              only available under Linux.  The Linux kernel must  be  compiled
              with  the  configuration  option CONFIG_IDE_TASKFILE_IO enabled.
              Please report unusual or incorrect  behavior  to  the  smartmon-
              tools-support mailing list.]

              afterselect,on - [ATA ONLY] perform an offline read scan after a
              Selective Self-test has completed.  This  option  must  be  used
              together  with  one  or more of the select,N-M options above. If
              the LBAs that have been specified  in  the  Selective  self-test
              pass the test with no errors found, then read scan the remainder
              of the disk.  If the device is powered-cycled  while  this  read
              scan is in progress, the read scan will be automatically resumed
              after a time specified by the pending timer  (see  below).   The
              value  of this option is preserved between selective self-tests.

              afterselect,off - [ATA ONLY] do not read scan the  remainder  of
              the disk after a Selective self-test has completed.  This option
              must be use together with one or more of the select,N-M  options
              above.   The value of this option is preserved between selective
              self-tests.

              pending,N - [ATA ONLY] set the pending offline read  scan  timer
              to N minutes.  Here N is an integer in the range from 0 to 65535
              inclusive.  If the device is powered  off  during  a  read  scan
              after  a Selective self-test, then resume the test automatically
              N minutes after power-up.  This option must be use together with
              one  or  more of the select,N-M options above. The value of this
              option is preserved between selective self-tests.


       -C, --captive
              Runs self-tests in captive mode.  This has no  effect  with  ´-t
              offline´  or  if the ´-t´ option is not used. [Note: in the case
              of SCSI devices, this  command  option  runs  the  self-test  in
              "Foreground" mode.]

              WARNING:  Tests  run  in captive mode may busy out the drive for
              the length of the test.  Only run captive tests on drives  with-
              out any mounted partitions!


       -X, --abort
              Aborts  non-captive  SMART  Self  Tests.  Note that this command
              will abort the Offline Immediate Test routine only if your  disk
              has  the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capability.



EXAMPLES

       smartctl -a /dev/hda
       Print all SMART information for drive /dev/hda (Primary Master).

       smartctl -s off /dev/hdd
       Disable SMART on drive /dev/hdd (Secondary Slave).

       smartctl --smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/hda
       Enable SMART on drive /dev/hda, enable automatic offline testing  every
       four  hours, and enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.  This is a good
       start-up line for your system´s init files.  You can issue this command
       on a running system.

       smartctl -t long /dev/hdc
       Begin an extended self-test of drive /dev/hdc.  You can issue this com-
       mand on a running system.  The results can be seen in the self-test log
       visible with the ´-l selftest´ option after it has completed.

       smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/hda
       Enable  SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate offline test of drive
       /dev/hda.  You can issue this command on a running system.  The results
       are  only  used  to  update the SMART Attributes, visible with the ´-A´
       option.  If any device errors occur, they are logged to the SMART error
       log, which can be seen with the ´-l error´ option.

       smartctl -A -v 9,minutes /dev/hda
       Shows  the  vendor  Attributes,  when the disk stores its power-on time
       internally in minutes rather than hours.

       smartctl -q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/hda
       Produces output only if the device returns failing SMART status, or  if
       some of the logged self-tests ended with errors.

       smartctl -q silent -a /dev/hda
       Examine all SMART data for device /dev/hda, but produce no printed out-
       put.  You must use the exit status (the $?  shell variable) to learn if
       any  Attributes  are  out  of bound, if the SMART status is failing, if
       there are errors recorded in the self-test log, or if there are  errors
       recorded in the disk error log.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d 3ware,3 /dev/sdb
       Start a short self-test on the fourth ATA disk connected to  the  3ware
       RAID controller card which is the second SCSI device /dev/sdb.
       smartctl -t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pending,45 /dev/hda
       Run  a  selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.  After the
       these LBAs have been tested, read-scan the remainder of the  disk.   If
       the  disk is power-cycled during the read-scan, resume the scan 45 min-
       utes after power to the device is restored.



RETURN VALUES

       The return values of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.  If all is well
       with  the  disk,  the  return value (exit status) of smartctl is 0 (all
       bits turned off).  If a problem occurs, or an error,  potential  error,
       or  fault  is  detected,  then  a non-zero status is returned.  In this
       case, the eight different bits in the return value have  the  following
       meanings  for  ATA disks; some of these values may also be returned for
       SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 1: Device open failed, or device did not return an IDENTIFY  DEVICE
              structure.

       Bit 2: Some  SMART  command to the disk failed, or there was a checksum
              error in a SMART data structure (see ´-b´ option above).

       Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK FAILING".

       Bit 4: SMART status check returned  "DISK  OK"  but  we  found  prefail
              Attributes <= threshold.

       Bit 5: SMART  status  check  returned  "DISK OK" but we found that some
              (usage or prefail) Attributes have been  <=  threshold  at  some
              time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The device self-test log contains records of errors.

              To  test  within the shell for whether or not the different bits
              are turned on or off, you can use the  following  type  of  con-
              struction (this is bash syntax):
              smartstat=$(($? & 8))
              This  looks  at  only  at  bit  3  of the exit status $?  (since
              8=2^3).  The shell variable $smartstat will be nonzero if  SMART
              status check returned "disk failing" and zero otherwise.




NOTES

       The  TapeAlert  log  page  flags are cleared for the initiator when the
       page is read. This means that each alert  condition  is  reported  only
       once  by  smartctl for each initiator for each activation of the condi-
       tion.




AUTHOR

       Bruce Allen smartmontools-support@lists.sourceforge.net
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department




CONTRIBUTORS

       The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
       Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
       Christian Franke (Windows interface)
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
       Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
       Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
       Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
       Frederic L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
       Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
       Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
       David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
       Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.




CREDITS

       This  code  was derived from the smartsuite package, written by Michael
       Cornwell, and from the previous UCSC smartsuite  package.   It  extends
       these  to  cover  ATA-5 disks.  This code was originally developed as a
       Senior Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems  Laboratory
       (now  part  of the Storage Systems Research Center), Jack Baskin School
       of    Engineering,    University    of    California,    Santa    Cruz.
       http://ssrc.soe.ucsc.edu/ .


HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS:

       Please  see  the following web site for updates, further documentation,
       bug reports and patches:
       http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/



SEE ALSO:

       smartd(8), badblocks(8), ide-smart(8).


REFERENCES FOR SMART

       An introductory article about smartmontools is  Monitoring  Hard  Disks
       with  SMART,  by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages 74-77.
       This is http://www.linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6983 online.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART  works,  and  what  it
       does,  a good place to start is Section 8.41 of the "AT Attachment with
       Packet Interface-5" (ATA/ATAPI-5) specification.   This  documents  the
       SMART  functionality  which  the smartmontools utilities provide access
       to.    You   can   find   Revision    1    of    this    document    at
       http://www.t13.org/project/d1321r1c.pdf .

       Future  versions  of  the specifications (ATA/ATAPI-6 and ATA/ATAPI-7),
       and later revisions (2, 3) of the ATA/ATAPI-5 specification are  avail-
       able from http://www.t13.org/#FTP_site .

       The  functioning of SMART was originally defined by the SFF-8035i revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.  Links to these doc-
       uments may be found in the References section of the smartmontools home
       page at http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ .



CVS ID OF THIS PAGE:

       $Id: smartctl.8.in,v 1.64 2004/09/10 04:13:41 ballen4705 Exp $



smartmontools-5.33                2004/09/10                       SMARTCTL(8)

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