perltoc



PERLTOC(1)             Perl Programmers Reference Guide             PERLTOC(1)




NAME

       perltoc - perl documentation table of contents


DESCRIPTION

       This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl
       documentation set.  It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped
       through to locate the proper section you’re looking for.


BASIC DOCUMENTATION

       perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language


       SYNOPSIS
           Overview
           Tutorials
           Reference Manual
           Internals and C Language Interface
           Miscellaneous
           Language-Specific
           Platform-Specific
       DESCRIPTION
       AVAILABILITY
       ENVIRONMENT
       AUTHOR
       FILES
       SEE ALSO
       DIAGNOSTICS
       BUGS
       NOTES

       perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl


       DESCRIPTION
           What is Perl?
           Running Perl programs
           Basic syntax overview
           Perl variable types
               Scalars, Arrays, Hashes

           Variable scoping
           Conditional and looping constructs
               if, while, for, foreach

           Builtin operators and functions
               Arithmetic, Numeric comparison, String comparison, Boolean
               logic, Miscellaneous

           Files and I/O
           Regular expressions
               Simple matching, Simple substitution, More complex regular
               expressions, Parentheses for capturing, Other regexp features

           Writing subroutines
           OO Perl
           Using Perl modules
       AUTHOR

       perlreftut - Marks very short tutorial about references


       DESCRIPTION
       Who Needs Complicated Data Structures?
       The Solution
       Syntax
           Making References
           Using References
           An Example
           Arrow Rule
       Solution
       The Rest
       Summary
       Credits
           Distribution Conditions

       perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook


       DESCRIPTION
           arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of
           hashes, more elaborate constructs

       REFERENCES
       COMMON MISTAKES
       CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
       WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS "use strict"
       DEBUGGING
       CODE EXAMPLES
       ARRAYS OF ARRAYS
           Declaration of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
           Generation of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
           Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
       HASHES OF ARRAYS
           Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS
           Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS
           Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS
       ARRAYS OF HASHES
           Declaration of an ARRAY OF HASHES
           Generation of an ARRAY OF HASHES
           Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF HASHES
       HASHES OF HASHES
           Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
           Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
           Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
       MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
           Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
           Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
           Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
       Database Ties
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl


       DESCRIPTION
           Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays
           Growing Your Own
           Access and Printing
           Slices
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start


       DESCRIPTION
       The Guide
           Simple word matching
           Using character classes
           Matching this or that
           Grouping things and hierarchical matching
           Extracting matches
           Matching repetitions
           More matching
           Search and replace
           The split operator
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
           Acknowledgments

       perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial


       DESCRIPTION
       Part 1: The basics
           Simple word matching
           Using character classes
           Matching this or that
           Grouping things and hierarchical matching
           Extracting matches
           Matching repetitions
           Building a regexp
           Using regular expressions in Perl
       Part 2: Power tools
           More on characters, strings, and character classes
           Compiling and saving regular expressions
           Embedding comments and modifiers in a regular expression
           Non-capturing groupings
           Looking ahead and looking behind
           Using independent subexpressions to prevent backtracking
           Conditional expressions
           A bit of magic: executing Perl code in a regular expression
           Pragmas and debugging
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
           Acknowledgments

       perlboot - Beginners Object-Oriented Tutorial


       DESCRIPTION
           If we could talk to the animals...
           Introducing the method invocation arrow
           Invoking a barnyard
           The extra parameter of method invocation
           Calling a second method to simplify things
           Inheriting the windpipes
           A few notes about @ISA
           Overriding the methods
           Starting the search from a different place
           The SUPER way of doing things
           Where we’re at so far...
           A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it?
           Invoking an instance method
           Accessing the instance data
           How to build a horse
           Inheriting the constructor
           Making a method work with either classes or instances
           Adding parameters to a method
           More interesting instances
           A horse of a different color
           Summary
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT

       perltoot - Toms object-oriented tutorial for perl


       DESCRIPTION
       Creating a Class
           Object Representation
           Class Interface
           Constructors and Instance Methods
           Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
           Destructors
           Other Object Methods
       Class Data
           Accessing Class Data
           Debugging Methods
           Class Destructors
           Documenting the Interface
       Aggregation
       Inheritance
           Overridden Methods
           Multiple Inheritance
           UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
       Alternate Object Representations
           Arrays as Objects
           Closures as Objects
       AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
           Autoloaded Data Methods
           Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
       Metaclassical Tools
           Class::Struct
           Data Members as Variables
       NOTES
           Object Terminology
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
       COPYRIGHT
           Acknowledgments

       perltooc - Toms OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl


       DESCRIPTION
       Class Data in a Can
       Class Data as Package Variables
           Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket
           Inheritance Concerns
           The Eponymous Meta-Object
           Indirect References to Class Data
           Monadic Classes
           Translucent Attributes
       Class Data as Lexical Variables
           Privacy and Responsibility
           File-Scoped Lexicals
           More Inheritance Concerns
           Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key
           Translucency Revisited
       NOTES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       HISTORY

       perlbot - Bago Object Tricks (the BOT)


       DESCRIPTION
       OO SCALING TIPS
       INSTANCE VARIABLES
       SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
       INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
       OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
       OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
       USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
       THINKING OF CODE REUSE
       CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
       INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
       DELEGATION
       SEE ALSO

       perlstyle - Perl style guide


       DESCRIPTION

       perlcheat - Perl 5 Cheat Sheet

       DESCRIPTION
           The sheet
       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary


       DESCRIPTION
           Awk Traps
           C/C++ Traps
           Sed Traps
           Shell Traps
           Perl Traps
           Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
               Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps,
               Numerical Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps -
               scalar, list contexts, Precedence Traps, General Regular
               Expression Traps using s///, etc, Subroutine, Signal, Sorting
               Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps

           Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
               Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontin-
               uance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance,
               BugFix, Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance, Discontin-
               uance

           Parsing Traps
               Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing

           Numerical Traps
               Numerical, Numerical, Numerical, Bitwise string ops

           General data type traps
               (Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar
               String), (Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)

           Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
               (list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list,
               builtin)

           Precedence Traps
               Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence,
               Precedence, Precedence

           General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
               Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression,
               Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression,
               Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression

           Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
               (Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won’t let you specify a
               filehandle

           OS Traps
               (SysV), (SysV)

           Interpolation Traps
               Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation,
               Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation,
               Interpolation

           DBM Traps
               DBM, DBM

           Unclassified Traps
               "require"/"do" trap using returned value, "split" on empty
               string with LIMIT specified

       perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial


       DESCRIPTION
       use strict
       Looking at data and -w and v
       help
       Stepping through code
       Placeholder for a, w, t, T
       REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
       OUTPUT TIPS
       CGI
       GUIs
       SUMMARY
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       CONTRIBUTORS

       perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 2003/01/31
       17:37:17 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           Where to get the perlfaq
           How to contribute to the perlfaq
           What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the
           authors
       Credits
       Author and Copyright Information
           Bundled Distributions
           Disclaimer
       Table of Contents
           perlfaq  - this document, perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl,
           perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl, perlfaq3 -
           Programming Tools, perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation, perlfaq5 - Files
           and Formats, perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions, perlfaq7 - General
           Perl Language Issues, perlfaq8 - System Interaction, perlfaq9 -
           Networking

       The Questions
           perlfaq1: General Questions About Perl
           perlfaq2: Obtaining and Learning about Perl
           perlfaq3: Programming Tools
           perlfaq4: Data Manipulation
           perlfaq5: Files and Formats
           perlfaq6: Regular Expressions
           perlfaq7: General Perl Language Issues
           perlfaq8: System Interaction
           perlfaq9: Networking

       perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.14 $, $Date:
       2003/11/23 08:02:29 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           What is Perl?
           Who supports Perl?  Who develops it?  Why is it free?
           Which version of Perl should I use?
           What are perl4 and perl5?
           What is Ponie?
           What is perl6?
           How stable is Perl?
           Is Perl difficult to learn?
           How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX,
           Scheme, or Tcl?
           Can I do [task] in Perl?
           When shouldn’t I program in Perl?
           What’s the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
           Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
           What is a JAPH?
           Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
           How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version
           5/5.6.1/Perl instead of some other language?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.25 $, $Date:
       2003/10/16 04:57:38 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           What machines support Perl?  Where do I get it?
           How can I get a binary version of Perl?
           I don’t have a C compiler on my system.  How can I compile perl?
           I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts
           don’t work.
           I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic load-
           ing/malloc/linking/... failed.  How do I make it work?
           What modules and extensions are available for Perl?  What is CPAN?
           What does CPAN/src/... mean?
           Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
           Where can I get information on Perl?
           What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet?  Where do I post questions?
           Where should I post source code?
           Perl Books
               References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics

           Perl in Magazines
           Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
           What mailing lists are there for Perl?
           Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
           Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
           Where do I send bug reports?
           What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org? cpan.org?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.37 $, $Date: 2003/11/24
       19:55:50 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           How do I do (anything)?
           How can I use Perl interactively?
           Is there a Perl shell?
           How do I find which modules are installed on my system?
           How do I debug my Perl programs?
           How do I profile my Perl programs?
           How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
           Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
           Is there a ctags for Perl?
           Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?
               Komodo, The Object System, Open Perl IDE, PerlBuilder,
               visiPerl+, OptiPerl, GNU Emacs, MicroEMACS, XEmacs, Jed, Elvis,
               Vile, Vim, Codewright, MultiEdit, SlickEdit, Bash, Ksh, Tcsh,
               Zsh, BBEdit and BBEdit Lite, Alpha

           Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
           Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
           How can I use curses with Perl?
           How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
           How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
           How can I make my Perl program run faster?
           How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
               Don’t slurp!, Use map and grep selectively, Avoid unnecessary
               quotes and stringification, Pass by reference, Tie large vari-
               ables to disk

           Is it safe to return a reference to local or lexical data?
           How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
           How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
           How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
           How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
           How can I compile Perl into Java?
           How can I get "#!perl" to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
           Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?
           Why don’t Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
           Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
           Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
           Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
           I’ve read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can’t embed perl in my C
           program; what am I doing wrong?
           When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it
           mean?
           What’s MakeMaker?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.54 $, $Date: 2003/11/30
       00:50:08 $)


       DESCRIPTION
       Data: Numbers
           Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of
           the numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
           Why is int() broken?
           Why isn’t my octal data interpreted correctly?
           Does Perl have a round() function?  What about ceil() and floor()?
           Trig functions?
           How do I convert between numeric representations/bases/radixes?
               How do I convert hexadecimal into decimal, How do I convert
               from decimal to hexadecimal, How do I convert from octal to
               decimal, How do I convert from decimal to octal, How do I con-
               vert from binary to decimal, How do I convert from decimal to
               binary

           Why doesn’t & work the way I want it to?
           How do I multiply matrices?
           How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
           How can I output Roman numerals?
           Why aren’t my random numbers random?
           How do I get a random number between X and Y?
       Data: Dates
           How do I find the day or week of the year?
           How do I find the current century or millennium?
           How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
           How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
           How can I find the Julian Day?
           How do I find yesterday’s date?
           Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem?  Is Perl Y2K compliant?
       Data: Strings
           How do I validate input?
           How do I unescape a string?
           How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
           How do I expand function calls in a string?
           How do I find matching/nesting anything?
           How do I reverse a string?
           How do I expand tabs in a string?
           How do I reformat a paragraph?
           How can I access or change N characters of a string?
           How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
           How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a
           string?
           How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
           How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside
           [character]?
           How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
           How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?
           How do I extract selected columns from a string?
           How do I find the soundex value of a string?
           How can I expand variables in text strings?
           What’s wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
           Why don’t my <<HERE documents work?
               There must be no space after the << part, There (probably)
               should be a semicolon at the end, You can’t (easily) have any
               space in front of the tag

       Data: Arrays
           What is the difference between a list and an array?
           What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
           How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?
               a), b), c), d), e)

           How can I tell whether a certain element is contained in a list or
           array?
           How do I compute the difference of two arrays?  How do I compute
           the intersection of two arrays?
           How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?
           How do I find the first array element for which a condition is
           true?
           How do I handle linked lists?
           How do I handle circular lists?
           How do I shuffle an array randomly?
           How do I process/modify each element of an array?
           How do I select a random element from an array?
           How do I permute N elements of a list?
           How do I sort an array by (anything)?
           How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
           Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
       Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
           How do I process an entire hash?
           What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating
           over it?
           How do I look up a hash element by value?
           How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
           How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
           How can I always keep my hash sorted?
           What’s the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
           Why don’t my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
           How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
           How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
           How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
           How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
           Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create
           it?
           How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash
           or array of hashes or arrays?
           How can I use a reference as a hash key?
       Data: Misc
           How do I handle binary data correctly?
           How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/inte-
           ger/float?
           How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
           How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
           How do I define methods for every class/object?
           How do I verify a credit card checksum?
           How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.30 $, $Date: 2003/11/23
       08:07:46 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle?  Why must I do this?
           How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a
           line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
           How do I count the number of lines in a file?
           How can I use Perl’s "-i" option from within a program?
           How do I make a temporary file name?
           How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
           How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine?  How do I pass
           filehandles between subroutines?  How do I make an array of file-
           handles?
           How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
           How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
           How can I write() into a string?
           How can I output my numbers with commas added?
           How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
           How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
           Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
           Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
           How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing blanks?
           How can I reliably rename a file?
           How can I lock a file?
           Why can’t I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
           I still don’t get locking.  I just want to increment the number in
           the file.  How can I do this?
           All I want to do is append a small amount of text to the end of a
           file.  Do I still have to use locking?
           How do I randomly update a binary file?
           How do I get a file’s timestamp in perl?
           How do I set a file’s timestamp in perl?
           How do I print to more than one file at once?
           How can I read in an entire file all at once?
           How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
           How can I read a single character from a file?  From the keyboard?
           How can I tell whether there’s a character waiting on a filehandle?
           How do I do a "tail -f" in perl?
           How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
           How do I close a file descriptor by number?
           Why can’t I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths?  Why doesn’t
           ‘C:\temp\foo.exe‘ work?
           Why doesn’t glob("*.*") get all the files?
           Why does Perl let me delete read-only files?  Why does "-i" clobber
           protected files?  Isn’t this a bug in Perl?
           How do I select a random line from a file?
           Why do I get weird spaces when I print an array of lines?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions ($Revision: 1.20 $, $Date: 2003/01/03
       20:05:28 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegi-
           ble and unmaintainable code?
               Comments Outside the Regex, Comments Inside the Regex, Differ-
               ent Delimiters

           I’m having trouble matching over more than one line.  What’s wrong?
           How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves
           on different lines?
           I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn’t work. What’s
           wrong?
           How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS while preserving
           case on the RHS?
           How can I make "\w" match national character sets?
           How can I match a locale-smart version of "/[a-zA-Z]/"?
           How can I quote a variable to use in a regex?
           What is "/o" really for?
           How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a
           file?
           Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
           What does it mean that regexes are greedy?  How can I get around
           it?
           How do I process each word on each line?
           How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
           How can I do approximate matching?
           How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
           Why don’t word-boundary searches with "\b" work for me?
           Why does using $&, $‘, or $’ slow my program down?
           What good is "\G" in a regular expression?
           Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs?  Are they POSIX compliant?
           What’s wrong with using grep in a void context?
           How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
           How do I match a pattern that is supplied by the user?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlfaq7 - General Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.15 $, $Date:
       2003/07/24 02:17:21 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
           What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do I know when
           to use them?
           Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and
           commas?
           How do I skip some return values?
           How do I temporarily block warnings?
           What’s an extension?
           Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
           How do I declare/create a structure?
           How do I create a module?
           How do I create a class?
           How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
           What’s a closure?
           What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
           How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method,
           Regex}?
               Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing
               Regexes, Passing Methods

           How do I create a static variable?
           What’s the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping?
           Between local() and my()?
           How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical
           is in scope?
           What’s the difference between deep and shallow binding?
           Why doesn’t "my($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?
           How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
           What’s the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
           How do I create a switch or case statement?
           How can I catch accesses to undefined variables, functions, or
           methods?
           Why can’t a method included in this same file be found?
           How can I find out my current package?
           How can I comment out a large block of perl code?
           How do I clear a package?
           How can I use a variable as a variable name?
           What does "bad interpreter" mean?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.17 $, $Date: 2003/01/26
       17:44:04 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           How do I find out which operating system I’m running under?
           How come exec() doesn’t return?
           How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?
               Keyboard, Screen, Mouse

           How do I print something out in color?
           How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?
           How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?
           How do I clear the screen?
           How do I get the screen size?
           How do I ask the user for a password?
           How do I read and write the serial port?
               lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-block-
               ing input

           How do I decode encrypted password files?
           How do I start a process in the background?
               STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies

           How do I trap control characters/signals?
           How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
           How do I set the time and date?
           How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
           How can I measure time under a second?
           How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception han-
           dling)
           Why doesn’t my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)?  What
           does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean?
           How can I call my system’s unique C functions from Perl?
           Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
           Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
           How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
           Why can’t I get the output of a command with system()?
           How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
           Why doesn’t open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
           What’s wrong with using backticks in a void context?
           How can I call backticks without shell processing?
           Why can’t my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on
           Unix, ^Z on MS-DOS)?
           How can I convert my shell script to perl?
           Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
           How can I write expect in Perl?
           Is there a way to hide perl’s command line from programs such as
           "ps"?
           I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl
           script. How come the change disappeared when I exited the script?
           How do I get my changes to be visible?
               Unix

           How do I close a process’s filehandle without waiting for it to
           complete?
           How do I fork a daemon process?
           How do I find out if I’m running interactively or not?
           How do I timeout a slow event?
           How do I set CPU limits?
           How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
           How do I use an SQL database?
           How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
           How do I open a file without blocking?
           How do I install a module from CPAN?
           What’s the difference between require and use?
           How do I keep my own module/library directory?
           How do I add the directory my program lives in to the mod-
           ule/library search path?
           How do I add a directory to my include path (@INC) at runtime?
           What is socket.ph and where do I get it?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.15 $, $Date: 2003/01/31 17:36:57 $)


       DESCRIPTION
           What is the correct form of response from a CGI script?
           My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser.  (500
           Server Error)
           How can I get better error messages from a CGI program?
           How do I remove HTML from a string?
           How do I extract URLs?
           How do I download a file from the user’s machine?  How do I open a
           file on another machine?
           How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?
           How do I fetch an HTML file?
           How do I automate an HTML form submission?
           How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?
           How do I redirect to another page?
           How do I put a password on my web pages?
           How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?
           How do I make sure users can’t enter values into a form that cause
           my CGI script to do bad things?
           How do I parse a mail header?
           How do I decode a CGI form?
           How do I check a valid mail address?
           How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?
           How do I return the user’s mail address?
           How do I send mail?
           How do I use MIME to make an attachment to a mail message?
           How do I read mail?
           How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address?
           How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?
           How do I fetch/put an FTP file?
           How can I do RPC in Perl?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       perlsyn - Perl syntax


       DESCRIPTION
           Declarations
           Comments
           Simple Statements
           Truth and Falsehood
           Statement Modifiers
           Compound Statements
           Loop Control
           For Loops
           Foreach Loops
           Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
           Goto
           PODs: Embedded Documentation
           Plain Old Comments (Not!)

       perldata - Perl data types


       DESCRIPTION
           Variable names
           Context
           Scalar values
           Scalar value constructors
           List value constructors
           Subscripts
           Slices
           Typeglobs and Filehandles
       SEE ALSO

       perlop - Perl operators and precedence


       DESCRIPTION
           Operator Precedence and Associativity
           Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
           The Arrow Operator
           Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
           Exponentiation
           Symbolic Unary Operators
           Binding Operators
           Multiplicative Operators
           Additive Operators
           Shift Operators
           Named Unary Operators
           Relational Operators
           Equality Operators
           Bitwise And
           Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
           C-style Logical And
           C-style Logical Or
           Range Operators
           Conditional Operator
           Assignment Operators
           Comma Operator
           List Operators (Rightward)
           Logical Not
           Logical And
           Logical or and Exclusive Or
           C Operators Missing From Perl
               unary &, unary *, (TYPE)

           Quote and Quote-like Operators
           Regexp Quote-Like Operators
               ?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/,
               ’STRING’, qq/STRING/, "STRING", qr/STRING/imosx, qx/STRING/,
               ‘STRING‘, qw/STRING/, s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCH-
               LIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds,
               <<EOF

           Gory details of parsing quoted constructs
               Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters,
               Interpolation, "<<’EOF’", "m’’", "s’’’", "tr///", "y///", ’’,
               "q//", "", ‘‘, "qq//", "qx//", "<file*glob>", "?RE?", "/RE/",
               "m/RE/", "s/RE/foo/",, Interpolation of regular expressions,
               Optimization of regular expressions

           I/O Operators
           Constant Folding
           No-ops
           Bitwise String Operators
           Integer Arithmetic
           Floating-point Arithmetic
           Bigger Numbers

       perlsub - Perl subroutines


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Private Variables via my()
           Persistent Private Variables
           Temporary Values via local()
           Lvalue subroutines
               Lvalue subroutines are EXPERIMENTAL

           Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
           When to Still Use local()
           Pass by Reference
           Prototypes
           Constant Functions
           Overriding Built-in Functions
           Autoloading
           Subroutine Attributes
       SEE ALSO

       perlfunc - Perl builtin functions


       DESCRIPTION
           Perl Functions by Category
               Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pat-
               tern matching, Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs,
               Functions for list data, Functions for real %HASHes, Input and
               output functions, Functions for fixed length data or records,
               Functions for filehandles, files, or directories, Keywords
               related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords
               related to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for pro-
               cesses and process groups, Keywords related to perl modules,
               Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness, Low-level
               socket functions, System V interprocess communication func-
               tions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network info,
               Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obso-
               leted in perl5

           Portability
           Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
               -X FILEHANDLE, -X EXPR, -X, abs VALUE, abs, accept NEW-
               SOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind
               SOCKET,NAME, binmode FILEHANDLE, LAYER, binmode FILEHANDLE,
               bless REF,CLASSNAME, bless REF, caller EXPR, caller, chdir
               EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE, chomp( LIST ), chomp, chop
               VARIABLE, chop( LIST ), chop, chown LIST, chr NUMBER, chr,
               chroot FILENAME, chroot, close FILEHANDLE, close, closedir
               DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK, cos EXPR, cos,
               crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK,
               defined EXPR, defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do SUB-
               ROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR, dump LABEL, dump, each HASH, eof FILE-
               HANDLE, eof (), eof, eval EXPR, eval BLOCK, exec LIST, exec
               PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR, exp, fcntl
               FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock FILEHAN-
               DLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILE-
               HANDLE, getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getp-
               pid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, geth-
               ostbyname NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getp-
               wuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr
               ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber
               NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethos-
               tent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent,
               sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN,
               setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent,
               endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsockopt
               SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL,
               goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep EXPR,LIST, hex
               EXPR, hex, import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index STR,SUBSTR,
               int EXPR, int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join
               EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill SIGNAL, LIST, last LABEL, last, lc
               EXPR, lc, lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link OLD-
               FILE,NEWFILE, listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime
               EXPR, lock THING, log EXPR, log, lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map
               BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MASK, mkdir FILENAME,
               msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgrcv
               ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, my EXPR, my TYPE
               EXPR, my EXPR : ATTRS, my TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, next LABEL, next,
               no Module VERSION LIST, no Module VERSION, no Module LIST, no
               Module, oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHAN-
               DLE,MODE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST, open FILEHAN-
               DLE,MODE,REFERENCE, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR,
               ord EXPR, ord, our EXPR, our EXPR TYPE, our EXPR : ATTRS, our
               TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package NAMESPACE, pack-
               age, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos SCALAR,
               pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHAN-
               DLE FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push
               ARRAY,LIST, q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/,
               qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR, quotemeta, rand EXPR, rand, read
               FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
               readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR, readlink,
               readpipe EXPR, recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS, redo LABEL,
               redo, ref EXPR, ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require VERSION,
               require EXPR, require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR, return,
               reverse LIST, rewinddir DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION,
               rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME, rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR,
               seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS, select
               FILEHANDLE, select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl
               ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING,
               send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp
               PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt
               SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY, shift, shmctl
               ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE,
               shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR,
               sin, sleep EXPR, sleep, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL,
               socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME
               LIST, sort BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFF-
               SET,LENGTH,LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFF-
               SET, splice ARRAY, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PAT-
               TERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf FORMAT, LIST, for-
               mat parameter index, flags, vector flag, (minimum) width, pre-
               cision, or maximum width, size, order of arguments, sqrt EXPR,
               sqrt, srand EXPR, srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat,
               study SCALAR, study, sub NAME BLOCK, sub NAME (PROTO) BLOCK,
               sub NAME : ATTRS BLOCK, sub NAME (PROTO) : ATTRS BLOCK, substr
               EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, sub-
               str EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall NUMBER, LIST,
               sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILE-
               NAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sys-
               read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek FILEHANDLE,POSI-
               TION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite FILE-
               HANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
               syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir
               DIRHANDLE, tie VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time,
               times, tr///, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH,
               uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR, ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef
               EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie
               VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module VERSION LIST, use Mod-
               ule VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime
               LIST, values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid
               PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR,
               write, y///

       perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl


       DESCRIPTION
       Open A la shell
           Simple Opens
           Indirect Filehandles
           Pipe Opens
           The Minus File
           Mixing Reads and Writes
           Filters
       Open A la C
           Permissions A la mode
       Obscure Open Tricks
           Re-Opening Files (dups)
           Dispelling the Dweomer
           Paths as Opens
           Single Argument Open
           Playing with STDIN and STDOUT
       Other I/O Issues
           Opening Non-File Files
           Opening Named Pipes
           Opening Sockets
           Binary Files
           File Locking
           IO Layers
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
       HISTORY

       perlpacktut - tutorial on "pack" and "unpack"


       DESCRIPTION
       The Basic Principle
       Packing Text
       Packing Numbers
           Integers
           Unpacking a Stack Frame
           How to Eat an Egg on a Net
           Floating point Numbers
       Exotic Templates
           Bit Strings
           Uuencoding
           Doing Sums
           Unicode
           Another Portable Binary Encoding
       Template Grouping
       Lengths and Widths
           String Lengths
           Dynamic Templates
           Counting Repetitions
       Packing and Unpacking C Structures
           The Alignment Pit
           Alignment, Take 2
           Alignment, Take 3
           Pointers for How to Use Them
       Pack Recipes
       Funnies Section
       Authors

       perlpod - the Plain Old Documentation format


       DESCRIPTION
           Ordinary Paragraph
           Verbatim Paragraph
           Command Paragraph
               "=head1 Heading Text", "=head2 Heading Text", "=head3 Heading
               Text", "=head4 Heading Text", "=over indentlevel", "=item
               stuff...", "=back", "=cut", "=pod", "=begin formatname", "=end
               formatname", "=for formatname text...", "=encoding encoding-
               name"

           Formatting Codes
               "I<text>" -- italic text, "B<text>" -- bold text, "C<code>" --
               code text, "L<name>" -- a hyperlink, "E<escape>" -- a character
               escape, "F<filename>" -- used for filenames, "S<text>" -- text
               contains non-breaking spaces, "X<topic name>" -- an index
               entry, "Z<>" -- a null (zero-effect) formatting code

           The Intent
           Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
           Hints for Writing Pod
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       perlpodspec - Plain Old Documentation: format specification and notes


       DESCRIPTION
       Pod Definitions
       Pod Commands
           "=head1", "=head2", "=head3", "=head4", "=pod", "=cut", "=over",
           "=item", "=back", "=begin formatname", "=end formatname", "=for
           formatname text...", "=encoding encodingname"

       Pod Formatting Codes
           "I<text>" -- italic text, "B<text>" -- bold text, "C<code>" -- code
           text, "F<filename>" -- style for filenames, "X<topic name>" -- an
           index entry, "Z<>" -- a null (zero-effect) formatting code,
           "L<name>" -- a hyperlink, "E<escape>" -- a character escape,
           "S<text>" -- text contains non-breaking spaces

       Notes on Implementing Pod Processors
       About L<...> Codes
           First:, Second:, Third:, Fourth:, Fifth:, Sixth:

       About =over...=back Regions
       About Data Paragraphs and "=begin/=end" Regions
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
               OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh, VMS

           Location of Perl
           Command Switches
               -0[octal/hexadecimal], -a, -C [nnuummbbeerr//lliisstt], -c, -d,
               -d:foo[=bar,baz], -Dletters, -Dnumber, -e commandline, -Fpat-
               tern, -h, -i[extension], -Idirectory, -l[octnum], -m[-]module,
               -M[-]module, -M[-]module ..., -[mM][-]module=arg[,arg]...,
               -n, -p, -P, -s, -S, -t, -T, -u, -U, -v, -V, -V:configvar, -w,
               -W, -X, -x, -x directory

       ENVIRONMENT
           HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLIO, :bytes, :crlf,
           :mmap, :perlio, :pop, :raw, :stdio, :unix, :utf8, :win32, PER-
           LIO_DEBUG, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL (specific to the Win32
           port), PERL_ALLOW_NON_IFS_LSP (specific to the Win32 port),
           PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL, PERL_DL_NONLAZY,
           PERL_ENCODING, PERL_HASH_SEED, PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG, PERL_ROOT
           (specific to the VMS port), PERL_SIGNALS, PERL_UNICODE, SYS$LOGIN
           (specific to the VMS port)

       perldiag - various Perl diagnostics


       DESCRIPTION

       perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings

       DESCRIPTION
           Default Warnings and Optional Warnings
           What’s wrong with -w and $^W
           Controlling Warnings from the Command Line
               -w, -W, -X

           Backward Compatibility
           Category Hierarchy
           Fatal Warnings
           Reporting Warnings from a Module
       TODO
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       perldebug - Perl debugging


       DESCRIPTION
       The Perl Debugger
           Debugger Commands
               h, h [command], h h, p expr, x [maxdepth] expr, V [pkg [vars]],
               X [vars], y [level [vars]], T, s [expr], n [expr], r, <CR>, c
               [line│sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname, -, v
               [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L [abw], S
               [[!]regex], t, t expr, b, b [line] [condition], b subname [con-
               dition], b postpone subname [condition], b load filename, b
               compile subname, B line, B *, a [line] command, A line, A *, w
               expr, W expr, W *, o, o booloption .., o anyoption? .., o
               option=value .., < ?, < [ command ], < *, << command, > ?, >
               command, > *, >> command, { ?, { [ command ], { *, {{ command,
               ! number, ! -number, ! pattern, !! cmd, source file, H -number,
               q or ^D, R, │dbcmd, ││dbcmd, command, m expr, M, man [manpage]

           Configurable Options
               "recallCommand", "ShellBang", "pager", "tkRunning", "signal-
               Level", "warnLevel", "dieLevel", "AutoTrace", "LineInfo",
               "inhibit_exit", "PrintRet", "ornaments", "frame", "maxTrace-
               Len", "windowSize", "arrayDepth", "hashDepth", "dumpDepth",
               "compactDump", "veryCompact", "globPrint", "DumpDBFiles",
               "DumpPackages", "DumpReused", "quote", "HighBit", "undefPrint",
               "UsageOnly", "TTY", "noTTY", "ReadLine", "NonStop"

           Debugger input/output
               Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Line Listing For-
               mat, Frame listing

           Debugging compile-time statements
           Debugger Customization
           Readline Support
           Editor Support for Debugging
           The Perl Profiler
       Debugging regular expressions
       Debugging memory usage
       SEE ALSO
       BUGS

       perlvar - Perl predefined variables


       DESCRIPTION
           Predefined Names
               $ARG, $_, $a, $b, $<digits>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $‘, $POST-
               MATCH, $’, $LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $^N, @LAST_MATCH_END, @+, $*,
               HANDLE->input_line_number(EXPR), $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $,
               IO::Handle->input_record_separator(EXPR), $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARA-
               TOR, $RS, $/, HANDLE->autoflush(EXPR), $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $│,
               IO::Handle->output_field_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARA-
               TOR, $OFS, $,, IO::Handle->output_record_separator EXPR, $OUT-
               PUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUB-
               SCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $#, HANDLE->format_page_num-
               ber(EXPR), $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%, HANDLE->for-
               mat_lines_per_page(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=, HAN-
               DLE->format_lines_left(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-,
               @LAST_MATCH_START, @-, $‘ is the same as "substr($var, 0,
               $-[0])", $& is the same as "substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] -
               $-[0])", $’ is the same as "substr($var, $+[0])", $1 is the
               same as "substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1])", $2 is the same as
               "substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2])", $3 is the same as "substr
               $var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3])", HANDLE->format_name(EXPR), $FOR-
               MAT_NAME, $~, HANDLE->format_top_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_TOP_NAME,
               $^, IO::Handle->format_line_break_characters EXPR, $FOR-
               MAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, IO::Handle->format_formfeed
               EXPR, $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR,
               $?, ${^ENCODING}, $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, %!,
               $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID,
               $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>,
               $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PRO-
               GRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $], $COMPILING, $^C, $DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYS-
               TEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, %^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME,
               $^O, ${^OPEN}, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10,
               0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x100, 0x200, 0x400, $LAST_REG-
               EXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R, $EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S, $BASETIME,
               $^T, ${^TAINT}, ${^UNICODE}, $PERL_VERSION, $^V, $WARNING, $^W,
               ${^WARNING_BITS}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, ARGV, $ARGV, @ARGV,
               ARGVOUT, @F, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV, $ENV{expr}, %SIG, $SIG{expr}

           Error Indicators
           Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names
       BUGS

       perlre - Perl regular expressions


       DESCRIPTION
           i, m, s, x

           Regular Expressions
               [1], [2], [3], cntrl, graph, print, punct, xdigit

           Extended Patterns
               "(?#text)", "(?imsx-imsx)", "(?:pattern)", "(?imsx-imsx:pat-
               tern)", "(?=pattern)", "(?!pattern)", "(?<=pattern)", "(?<!pat-
               tern)", "(?{ code })", "(??{ code })", "(?>pattern)", "(?(con-
               dition)yes-pattern│no-pattern)", "(?(condition)yes-pattern)"

           Backtracking
           Version 8 Regular Expressions
           Warning on \1 vs $1
           Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring
           Combining pieces together
               "ST", "S│T", "S{REPEAT_COUNT}", "S{min,max}", "S{min,max}?",
               "S?", "S*", "S+", "S??", "S*?", "S+?", "(?>S)", "(?=S)",
               "(?<=S)", "(?!S)", "(?<!S)", "(??{ EXPR })", "(?(condi-
               tion)yes-pattern│no-pattern)"

           Creating custom RE engines
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       perlreref - Perl Regular Expressions Reference


       DESCRIPTION
           OPERATORS
           SYNTAX
           ESCAPE SEQUENCES
           CHARACTER CLASSES
           ANCHORS
           QUANTIFIERS
           EXTENDED CONSTRUCTS
           VARIABLES
           FUNCTIONS
           TERMINOLOGY
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO
       THANKS

       perlref - Perl references and nested data structures


       NOTE
       DESCRIPTION
           Making References
           Using References
           Symbolic references
           Not-so-symbolic references
           Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
           Function Templates
       WARNING
       SEE ALSO

       perlform - Perl formats


       DESCRIPTION
           Text Fields
           Numeric Fields
           The Field @* for Variable Width Multi-Line Text
           The Field ^* for Variable Width One-line-at-a-time Text
           Specifying Values
           Using Fill Mode
           Suppressing Lines Where All Fields Are Void
           Repeating Format Lines
           Top of Form Processing
           Format Variables
       NOTES
           Footers
           Accessing Formatting Internals
       WARNINGS

       perlobj - Perl objects


       DESCRIPTION
           An Object is Simply a Reference
           A Class is Simply a Package
           A Method is Simply a Subroutine
           Method Invocation
           Indirect Object Syntax
           Default UNIVERSAL methods
               isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )

           Destructors
           Summary
           Two-Phased Garbage Collection
       SEE ALSO

       perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Tying Scalars
               TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, UNTIE
               this, DESTROY this

           Tying Arrays
               TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index,
               value, FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this,
               count, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, PUSH
               this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this, UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE
               this, offset, length, LIST, UNTIE this, DESTROY this

           Tying Hashes
               USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this,
               key, STORE this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this,
               EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, SCALAR
               this, UNTIE this, DESTROY this

           Tying FileHandles
               TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST,
               PRINTF this, LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this,
               CLOSE this, UNTIE this, DESTROY this

           UNTIE this
           The "untie" Gotcha
       SEE ALSO
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       perldbmfilter - Perl DBM Filters


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, fil-
           ter_fetch_value

           The Filter
           An Example -- the NULL termination problem.
           Another Example -- Key is a C int.
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, safe
       subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)


       DESCRIPTION
       Signals
           Handling the SIGHUP Signal in Daemons
       Named Pipes
           Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)
               Long running opcodes, Interrupting IO, Restartable system
               calls, Signals as "faults", Signals triggered by operating sys-
               tem state

       Using open() for IPC
           Filehandles
           Background Processes
           Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
           Safe Pipe Opens
           Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
           Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
       Sockets: Client/Server Communication
           Internet Line Terminators
           Internet TCP Clients and Servers
           Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
       TCP Clients with IO::Socket
           A Simple Client
               "Proto", "PeerAddr", "PeerPort"

           A Webget Client
           Interactive Client with IO::Socket
       TCP Servers with IO::Socket
           Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse

       UDP: Message Passing
       SysV IPC
       NOTES
       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       perlfork - Perls fork() emulation


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes
               $$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that
               accept filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(),
               Open handles to files, directories and network sockets

           Resource limits
           Killing the parent process
           Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes
           CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS
               BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet
               implemented, Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter
               embedded in larger application, Thread-safety of extensions

       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Storing numbers
       Numeric operators and numeric conversions
       Flavors of Perl numeric operations
           Arithmetic operators, ++, Arithmetic operators during "use inte-
           ger", Other mathematical operators, Bitwise operators, Bitwise
           operators during "use integer", Operators which expect an integer,
           Operators which expect a string

       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       perlthrtut - tutorial on threads in Perl


       DESCRIPTION
       Status
       What Is A Thread Anyway?
       Threaded Program Models
           Boss/Worker
           Work Crew
           Pipeline
       What kind of threads are Perl threads?
       Thread-Safe Modules
       Thread Basics
           Basic Thread Support
           A Note about the Examples
           Creating Threads
           Waiting For A Thread To Exit
           Ignoring A Thread
       Threads And Data
           Shared And Unshared Data
           Thread Pitfalls: Races
       Synchronization and control
           Controlling access: lock()
           A Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
           Queues: Passing Data Around
           Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access
           Basic semaphores
           Advanced Semaphores
           cond_wait() and cond_signal()
           Giving up control
       General Thread Utility Routines
           What Thread Am I In?
           Thread IDs
           Are These Threads The Same?
           What Threads Are Running?
       A Complete Example
       Different implementations of threads
       Performance considerations
       Process-scope Changes
       Thread-Safety of System Libraries
       Conclusion
       Bibliography
           Introductory Texts
           OS-Related References
           Other References
       Acknowledgements
       AUTHOR
       Copyrights

       perlothrtut - old tutorial on threads in Perl


       DESCRIPTION
       What Is A Thread Anyway?
       Threaded Program Models
           Boss/Worker
           Work Crew
           Pipeline
       Native threads
       What kind of threads are perl threads?
       Threadsafe Modules
       Thread Basics
           Basic Thread Support
           Creating Threads
           Giving up control
           Waiting For A Thread To Exit
           Errors In Threads
           Ignoring A Thread
       Threads And Data
           Shared And Unshared Data
           Thread Pitfall: Races
           Controlling access: lock()
           Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
           Queues: Passing Data Around
       Threads And Code
           Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access
               Basic semaphores, Advanced Semaphores

           Attributes: Restricting Access To Subroutines
           Subroutine Locks
           Methods
           Locking A Subroutine
       General Thread Utility Routines
           What Thread Am I In?
           Thread IDs
           Are These Threads The Same?
           What Threads Are Running?
       A Complete Example
       Conclusion
       Bibliography
           Introductory Texts
           OS-Related References
           Other References
       Acknowledgements
       AUTHOR
       Copyrights

       perlport - Writing portable Perl


       DESCRIPTION
           Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl
           already is portable

       ISSUES
           Newlines
           Numbers endianness and Width
           Files and Filesystems
           System Interaction
           Command names versus file pathnames
           Networking
           Interprocess Communication (IPC)
           External Subroutines (XS)
           Standard Modules
           Time and Date
           Character sets and character encoding
           Internationalisation
           System Resources
           Security
           Style
       CPAN Testers
           Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results:
           http://testers.cpan.org/

       PLATFORMS
           Unix
           DOS and Derivatives
           Mac OS
           VMS
           VOS
           EBCDIC Platforms
           Acorn RISC OS
           Other perls
       FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
           Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
               -X FILEHANDLE, -X EXPR, -X, binmode FILEHANDLE, chmod LIST,
               chown LIST, chroot FILENAME, chroot, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbm-
               close HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, dump LABEL, exec LIST,
               exit EXPR, exit, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, flock FILE-
               HANDLE,OPERATION, fork, getlogin, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpri-
               ority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, getnetbyname
               NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE,
               getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent,
               getgrent, gethostbyname, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent,
               getservent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setpro-
               toent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, end-
               hostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt
               SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNC-
               TION,SCALAR, kill SIGNAL, LIST, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, lstat
               FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget
               KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS,
               open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITE-
               HANDLE, readlink EXPR, readlink, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIME-
               OUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop
               KEY,OPSTRING, setgrent, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority
               WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setpwent, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPT-
               NAME,OPTVAL, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread
               ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, sockatmark
               SOCKET, socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, stat
               FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall
               LIST, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, system LIST,
               times, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, umask
               EXPR, umask, utime LIST, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS

       CHANGES
           v1.48, 02 February 2001, v1.47, 22 March 2000, v1.46, 12 February
           2000, v1.45, 20 December 1999, v1.44, 19 July 1999, v1.43, 24 May
           1999, v1.42, 22 May 1999, v1.41, 19 May 1999, v1.40, 11 April 1999,
           v1.39, 11 February 1999, v1.38, 31 December 1998, v1.37, 19 Decem-
           ber 1998, v1.36, 9 September 1998, v1.35, 13 August 1998, v1.33, 06
           August 1998, v1.32, 05 August 1998, v1.30, 03 August 1998, v1.23,
           10 July 1998

       Supported Platforms
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

       perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and localiza-
       tion)


       DESCRIPTION
       PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
       USING LOCALES
           The use locale pragma
           The setlocale function
           Finding locales
           LOCALE PROBLEMS
           Temporarily fixing locale problems
           Permanently fixing locale problems
           Permanently fixing your system’s locale configuration
           Fixing system locale configuration
           The localeconv function
           I18N::Langinfo
       LOCALE CATEGORIES
           Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
           Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
           Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
           Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
           LC_TIME
           Other categories
       SECURITY
       ENVIRONMENT
           PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY,
           LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG

       NOTES
           Backward compatibility
           I18N:Collate obsolete
           Sort speed and memory use impacts
           write() and LC_NUMERIC
           Freely available locale definitions
           I18n and l10n
           An imperfect standard
       Unicode and UTF-8
       BUGS
           Broken systems
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction


       DESCRIPTION
           Unicode
           Perl’s Unicode Support
           Perl’s Unicode Model
           Unicode and EBCDIC
           Creating Unicode
           Handling Unicode
           Legacy Encodings
           Unicode I/O
           Displaying Unicode As Text
           Special Cases
           Advanced Topics
           Miscellaneous
           Questions With Answers
           Hexadecimal Notation
           Further Resources
       UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS
       SEE ALSO
       ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
       AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE

       perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl


       DESCRIPTION
           Important Caveats
               Input and Output Layers, Regular Expressions, "use utf8" still
               needed to enable UTF-8/UTF-EBCDIC in scripts, BOM-marked
               scripts and UTF-16 scripts autodetected, "use encoding" needed
               to upgrade non-Latin-1 byte strings

           Byte and Character Semantics
           Effects of Character Semantics
           Scripts
           Blocks
           User-Defined Character Properties
           Character Encodings for Input and Output
           Unicode Regular Expression Support Level
           Unicode Encodings
           Security Implications of Unicode
           Unicode in Perl on EBCDIC
           Locales
           When Unicode Does Not Happen
           Forcing Unicode in Perl (Or Unforcing Unicode in Perl)
           Using Unicode in XS
       BUGS
           Interaction with Locales
           Interaction with Extensions
           Speed
           Porting code from perl-5.6.X
       SEE ALSO

       perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms


       DESCRIPTION
       COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
           ASCII
           ISO 8859
           Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
           EBCDIC
           13 variant characters
           0037
           1047
           POSIX-BC
           Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
           Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
           Unicode and UTF
           Using Encode
       SINGLE OCTET TABLES
           recipe 0, recipe 1, recipe 2, recipe 3, recipe 4, recipe 5, recipe
           6

       IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
       CONVERSIONS
           tr///
           iconv
           C RTL
       OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
       FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
           chr(), ord(), pack(), print(), printf(), sort(), sprintf(),
           unpack()

       REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
       SOCKETS
       SORTING
           Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
           MONO CASE then sort data.
           Convert, sort data, then re convert.
           Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
       TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
           URL decoding and encoding
           uu encoding and decoding
           Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
           Caesarian ciphers
       Hashing order and checksums
       I18N AND L10N
       MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
       OS ISSUES
           OS/400
               PASE, IFS access

           OS/390, z/OS
               chcp, dataset access, OS/390, z/OS iconv, locales

           VM/ESA?
           POSIX-BC?
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO
       REFERENCES
       HISTORY
       AUTHOR

       perlsec - Perl security


       DESCRIPTION
           Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
           Switches On the "#!" Line
           Taint mode and @INC
           Cleaning Up Your Path
           Security Bugs
           Protecting Your Programs
           Unicode
           Algorithmic Complexity Attacks
       SEE ALSO

       perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)


       DESCRIPTION
           Packages
           Symbol Tables
           BEGIN, CHECK, INIT and END
           Perl Classes
           Perl Modules
           Making your module threadsafe
       SEE ALSO

       perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones


       THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
           Pragmatic Modules
               attributes, attrs, autouse, base, bigint, bignum, bigrat, blib,
               bytes, charnames, constant, diagnostics, encoding, fields,
               filetest, if, integer, less, lib, locale, open, ops, overload,
               re, sigtrap, sort, strict, subs, threads, threads::shared,
               utf8, vars, vmsish, warnings, warnings::register

           Standard Modules
               AnyDBM_File, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, B,
               B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC,
               B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint,
               B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash, B::Terse, B::Xref, Bench-
               mark, ByteLoader, CGI, CGI::Apache, CGI::Carp, CGI::Cookie,
               CGI::Fast, CGI::Pretty, CGI::Push, CGI::Switch, CGI::Util,
               CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp, Carp::Heavy,
               Class::ISA, Class::Struct, Config, Cwd, DB, DB_File,
               Data::Dumper, Devel::DProf, Devel::PPPort, Devel::Peek,
               Devel::SelfStubber, Digest, Digest::MD5, Digest::base, DirHan-
               dle, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, Encode, Encode::Alias,
               Encode::Byte, Encode::CJKConstants, Encode::CN, Encode::CN::HZ,
               Encode::Config, Encode::EBCDIC, Encode::Encoder, Encode::Encod-
               ing, Encode::Guess, Encode::JP, Encode::JP::H2Z,
               Encode::JP::JIS7, Encode::KR, Encode::KR::2022_KR,
               Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::PerlIO, Encode::Supported,
               Encode::Symbol, Encode::TW, Encode::Unicode, Encode::Uni-
               code::UTF7, English, Env, Errno, Exporter, Exporter::Heavy,
               ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Command::MM, ExtUtils::Constant,
               ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtU-
               tils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM, ExtUtils::MM_Any, ExtU-
               tils::MM_BeOS, ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin, ExtUtils::MM_DOS, ExtU-
               tils::MM_MacOS, ExtUtils::MM_NW5, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtU-
               tils::MM_UWIN, ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::MM_VMS, ExtU-
               tils::MM_Win32, ExtUtils::MM_Win95, ExtUtils::MY, ExtU-
               tils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ, ExtUtils::Make-
               Maker::Tutorial, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes, ExtUtils::Make-
               Maker::vmsish, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtU-
               tils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::Packlist, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal,
               Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare,
               File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Path,
               File::Spec, File::Spec::Cygwin, File::Spec::Epoc,
               File::Spec::Functions, File::Spec::Mac, File::Spec::OS2,
               File::Spec::Unix, File::Spec::VMS, File::Spec::Win32,
               File::Temp, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, Filter::Simple,
               Filter::Util::Call, FindBin, GDBM_File, Getopt::Long,
               Getopt::Std, Hash::Util, I18N::Collate, I18N::LangTags,
               I18N::LangTags::List, I18N::Langinfo, IO, IO::Dir, IO::File,
               IO::Handle, IO::Pipe, IO::Poll, IO::Seekable, IO::Select,
               IO::Socket, IO::Socket::INET, IO::Socket::UNIX, IPC::Open2,
               IPC::Open3, IPC::SysV, IPC::SysV::Msg, IPC::SysV::Semaphore,
               List::Util, Locale::Constants, Locale::Country, Locale::Cur-
               rency, Locale::Language, Locale::Maketext, Locale::Make-
               text::TPJ13, Locale::Script, MIME::Base64, MIME::Base64::Quot-
               edPrint, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::BigInt::Calc,
               Math::BigRat, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Memoize, Memoize::Any-
               DBM_File, Memoize::Expire, Memoize::ExpireFile, Memo-
               ize::ExpireTest, Memoize::NDBM_File, Memoize::SDBM_File, Memo-
               ize::Storable, NDBM_File, NEXT, Net::Cmd, Net::Config,
               Net::Domain, Net::FTP, Net::NNTP, Net::Netrc, Net::POP3,
               Net::Ping, Net::SMTP, Net::Time, Net::hostent, Net::libnetFAQ,
               Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::servent, O, ODBM_File, Opcode,
               POSIX, PerlIO, PerlIO::encoding, PerlIO::scalar, PerlIO::via,
               PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint, Pod::Checker, Pod::Find, Pod::Func-
               tions, Pod::Html, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Man,
               Pod::ParseLink, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Parser, Pod::Perl-
               doc::ToChecker, Pod::Perldoc::ToMan, Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff,
               Pod::Perldoc::ToPod, Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf, Pod::Perldoc::ToText,
               Pod::Perldoc::ToTk, Pod::Perldoc::ToXml, Pod::PlainText,
               Pod::Plainer, Pod::Select, Pod::Text, Pod::Text::Color,
               Pod::Text::Overstrike, Pod::Text::Termcap, Pod::Usage,
               SDBM_File, Safe, Scalar::Util, Search::Dict, SelectSaver, Self-
               Loader, Shell, Socket, Storable, Switch, Symbol, Sys::Hostname,
               Sys::Syslog, Term::ANSIColor, Term::Cap, Term::Complete,
               Term::ReadLine, Test, Test::Builder, Test::Harness, Test::Har-
               ness::Assert, Test::Harness::Iterator, Test::Harness::Straps,
               Test::More, Test::Simple, Test::Tutorial, Text::Abbrev,
               Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs,
               Text::Wrap, Thread, Thread::Queue, Thread::Semaphore,
               Thread::Signal, Thread::Specific, Tie::Array, Tie::File,
               Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::Memoize, Tie::RefHash,
               Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::HiRes, Time::Local,
               Time::gmtime, Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, Uni-
               code::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Unicode::UCD, User::grent,
               User::pwent, Win32, XS::APItest, XS::Typemap, XSLoader

           Extension Modules
       CPAN
           Africa
               South Africa

           Asia
               China, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Russian Federation,
               Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand

           Central America
               Costa Rica

           Europe
               Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,
               Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
               Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
               Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slo-
               vakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine,
               United Kingdom

           North America
               Canada, Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Mexico, United
               States, Alabama, California, Colorado, Delaware, District of
               Columbia, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan,
               Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon,
               Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington,
               Wisconsin

           Oceania
               Australia, New Zealand, United States

           South America
               Argentina, Brazil, Chile

           RSYNC Mirrors
       Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
           Guidelines for Module Creation
           Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
           Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
       NOTE

       perlmodstyle - Perl module style guide


       INTRODUCTION
       QUICK CHECKLIST
           Before you start
           The API
           Stability
           Documentation
           Release considerations
       BEFORE YOU START WRITING A MODULE
           Has it been done before?
           Do one thing and do it well
           What’s in a name?
       DESIGNING AND WRITING YOUR MODULE
           To OO or not to OO?
           Designing your API
               Write simple routines to do simple things, Separate functional-
               ity from output, Provide sensible shortcuts and defaults, Nam-
               ing conventions, Parameter passing

           Strictness and warnings
           Backwards compatibility
           Error handling and messages
       DOCUMENTING YOUR MODULE
           POD
           README, INSTALL, release notes, changelogs
               perl Makefile.PL, make, make test, make install, perl Build.PL,
               perl Build, perl Build test, perl Build install

       RELEASE CONSIDERATIONS
           Version numbering
           Pre-requisites
           Testing
           Packaging
           Licensing
       COMMON PITFALLS
           Reinventing the wheel
           Trying to do too much
           Inappropriate documentation
       SEE ALSO
           perlstyle, perlnewmod, perlpod, podchecker, Packaging Tools, Test-
           ing tools, http://pause.perl.org/, Any good book on software engi-
           neering

       AUTHOR

       perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

       DESCRIPTION
           PREAMBLE
               DECOMPRESS the file, UNPACK the file into a directory, BUILD
               the module (sometimes unnecessary), INSTALL the module

       PORTABILITY
       HEY
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution


       DESCRIPTION
           Warning
           What should I make into a module?
           Step-by-step: Preparing the ground
               Look around, Check it’s new, Discuss the need, Choose a name,
               Check again

           Step-by-step: Making the module
               Start with module-starter or h2xs, Use strict and warnings, Use
               Carp, Use Exporter - wisely!, Use plain old documentation,
               Write tests, Write the README

           Step-by-step: Distributing your module
               Get a CPAN user ID, "perl Makefile.PL; make test; make dist",
               Upload the tarball, Announce to the modules list, Announce to
               clpa, Fix bugs!

       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       perlutil - utilities packaged with the Perl distribution


       DESCRIPTION
           DOCUMENTATION
               perldoc, pod2man and pod2text, pod2html and pod2latex,
               pod2usage, podselect, podchecker, splain, roffitall

           CONVERTORS
               a2p, s2p, find2perl

           Administration
               libnetcfg

           Development
               perlbug, h2ph, c2ph and pstruct, h2xs, dprofpp, perlcc

           SEE ALSO

       perlcompile - Introduction to the Perl Compiler-Translator

       DESCRIPTION
           Layout
               B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Lint, B::Deparse, B::Xref

       Using The Back Ends
           The Cross Referencing Back End
               i, &, s, r

           The Decompiling Back End
           The Lint Back End
           The Simple C Back End
           The Bytecode Back End
           The Optimized C Back End
       Module List for the Compiler Suite
           B, O, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C,
           B::CC, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint,
           B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash, B::Terse, B::Xref

       KNOWN PROBLEMS
       AUTHOR

       perlfilter - Source Filters


       DESCRIPTION
       CONCEPTS
       USING FILTERS
       WRITING A SOURCE FILTER
       WRITING A SOURCE FILTER IN C
           Decryption Filters

       CREATING A SOURCE FILTER AS A SEPARATE EXECUTABLE
       WRITING A SOURCE FILTER IN PERL
       USING CONTEXT: THE DEBUG FILTER
       CONCLUSION
       THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR
           Some Filters Clobber the "DATA" Handle

       REQUIREMENTS
       AUTHOR
       Copyrights

       perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program


       DESCRIPTION
           PREAMBLE
               Use C from Perl?, Use a Unix program from Perl?, Use Perl from
               Perl?, Use C from C?, Use Perl from C?

           ROADMAP
           Compiling your C program
           Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program
           Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program
           Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program
           Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C pro-
           gram
           Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program
           Maintaining a persistent interpreter
           Execution of END blocks
           Maintaining multiple interpreter instances
           Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C
           program
       Embedding Perl under Win32
       Hiding Perl_
       MORAL
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       perldebguts - Guts of Perl debugging


       DESCRIPTION
       Debugger Internals
           Writing Your Own Debugger
       Frame Listing Output Examples
       Debugging regular expressions
           Compile-time output
               "anchored" STRING "at" POS, "floating" STRING "at" POS1..POS2,
               "matching floating/anchored", "minlen", "stclass" TYPE,
               "noscan", "isall", "GPOS", "plus", "implicit", "with eval",
               "anchored(TYPE)"

           Types of nodes
           Run-time output
       Debugging Perl memory usage
           Using $ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS}
               "buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX)", Free/Used, "Total
               sbrk(): SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS", "pad: 0", "heads: 2192",
               "chain: 0", "tail: 6144"

           Example of using -DL switch
               717, 002, 054, 602, 702, 704

           -DL details
               "!!!", "!!", "!"

           Limitations of -DL statistics
       SEE ALSO

       perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for writing XSUBs


       DESCRIPTION
       SPECIAL NOTES
           make
           Version caveat
           Dynamic Loading versus Static Loading
       TUTORIAL
           EXAMPLE 1
           EXAMPLE 2
           What has gone on?
           Writing good test scripts
           EXAMPLE 3
           What’s new here?
           Input and Output Parameters
           The XSUBPP Program
           The TYPEMAP file
           Warning about Output Arguments
           EXAMPLE 4
           What has happened here?
           Anatomy of .xs file
           Getting the fat out of XSUBs
           More about XSUB arguments
           The Argument Stack
           Extending your Extension
           Documenting your Extension
           Installing your Extension
           EXAMPLE 5
           New Things in this Example
           EXAMPLE 6
           New Things in this Example
           EXAMPLE 7 (Coming Soon)
           EXAMPLE 8 (Coming Soon)
           EXAMPLE 9 Passing open files to XSes
           Troubleshooting these Examples
       See also
       Author
           Last Changed

       perlxs - XS language reference manual


       DESCRIPTION
           Introduction
           On The Road
           The Anatomy of an XSUB
           The Argument Stack
           The RETVAL Variable
           Returning SVs, AVs and HVs through RETVAL
           The MODULE Keyword
           The PACKAGE Keyword
           The PREFIX Keyword
           The OUTPUT: Keyword
           The NO_OUTPUT Keyword
           The CODE: Keyword
           The INIT: Keyword
           The NO_INIT Keyword
           Initializing Function Parameters
           Default Parameter Values
           The PREINIT: Keyword
           The SCOPE: Keyword
           The INPUT: Keyword
           The IN/OUTLIST/IN_OUTLIST/OUT/IN_OUT Keywords
           The "length(NAME)" Keyword
           Variable-length Parameter Lists
           The C_ARGS: Keyword
           The PPCODE: Keyword
           Returning Undef And Empty Lists
           The REQUIRE: Keyword
           The CLEANUP: Keyword
           The POSTCALL: Keyword
           The BOOT: Keyword
           The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword
           The PROTOTYPES: Keyword
           The PROTOTYPE: Keyword
           The ALIAS: Keyword
           The OVERLOAD: Keyword
           The FALLBACK: Keyword
           The INTERFACE: Keyword
           The INTERFACE_MACRO: Keyword
           The INCLUDE: Keyword
           The CASE: Keyword
           The & Unary Operator
           Inserting POD, Comments and C Preprocessor Directives
           Using XS With C++
           Interface Strategy
           Perl Objects And C Structures
           The Typemap
           Safely Storing Static Data in XS
               MY_CXT_KEY, typedef my_cxt_t, START_MY_CXT, MY_CXT_INIT,
               dMY_CXT, MY_CXT

       EXAMPLES
       XS VERSION
       AUTHOR

       perlclib - Internal replacements for standard C library functions


       DESCRIPTION
           Conventions
               "t", "p", "n", "s"

           File Operations
           File Input and Output
           File Positioning
           Memory Management and String Handling
           Character Class Tests
           stdlib.h functions
           Miscellaneous functions
       SEE ALSO

       perlguts - Introduction to the Perl API


       DESCRIPTION
       Variables
           Datatypes
           What is an "IV"?
           Working with SVs
           Offsets
           What’s Really Stored in an SV?
           Working with AVs
           Working with HVs
           Hash API Extensions
           AVs, HVs and undefined values
           References
           Blessed References and Class Objects
           Creating New Variables
               GV_ADDMULTI, GV_ADDWARN

           Reference Counts and Mortality
           Stashes and Globs
           Double-Typed SVs
           Magic Variables
           Assigning Magic
           Magic Virtual Tables
           Finding Magic
           Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays
           Localizing changes
               "SAVEINT(int i)", "SAVEIV(IV i)", "SAVEI32(I32 i)", "SAVE-
               LONG(long i)", SAVESPTR(s), SAVEPPTR(p), "SAVEFREESV(SV *sv)",
               "SAVEMORTALIZESV(SV *sv)", "SAVEFREEOP(OP *op)", SAVEFREEPV(p),
               "SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv)", "SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char *key, I32
               length)", "SAVEDESTRUCTOR(DESTRUCTORFUNC_NOCONTEXT_t f, void
               *p)", "SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(DESTRUCTORFUNC_t f, void *p)", "SAVES-
               TACK_POS()", "SV* save_scalar(GV *gv)", "AV* save_ary(GV *gv)",
               "HV* save_hash(GV *gv)", "void save_item(SV *item)", "void
               save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg)", "SV* save_svref(SV
               **sptr)", "void save_aptr(AV **aptr)", "void save_hptr(HV
               **hptr)"

       Subroutines
           XSUBs and the Argument Stack
           Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs
           Memory Allocation
           PerlIO
           Putting a C value on Perl stack
           Scratchpads
           Scratchpads and recursion
       Compiled code
           Code tree
           Examining the tree
           Compile pass 1: check routines
           Compile pass 1a: constant folding
           Compile pass 2: context propagation
           Compile pass 3: peephole optimization
           Pluggable runops
       Examining internal data structures with the "dump" functions
       How multiple interpreters and concurrency are supported
           Background and PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
           So what happened to dTHR?
           How do I use all this in extensions?
           Should I do anything special if I call perl from multiple threads?
           Future Plans and PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS
       Internal Functions
           A, p, d, s, n, r, f, M, o, x, m, X, E, b

           Formatted Printing of IVs, UVs, and NVs
           Pointer-To-Integer and Integer-To-Pointer
           Source Documentation
       Unicode Support
           What is Unicode, anyway?
           How can I recognise a UTF-8 string?
           How does UTF-8 represent Unicode characters?
           How does Perl store UTF-8 strings?
           How do I convert a string to UTF-8?
           Is there anything else I need to know?
       Custom Operators
       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO

       perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C


       DESCRIPTION
           An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program

       THE CALL_ FUNCTIONS
           call_sv, call_pv, call_method, call_argv

       FLAG VALUES
           G_VOID
           G_SCALAR
           G_ARRAY
           G_DISCARD
           G_NOARGS
           G_EVAL
           G_KEEPERR
           Determining the Context
       KNOWN PROBLEMS
       EXAMPLES
           No Parameters, Nothing returned
           Passing Parameters
           Returning a Scalar
           Returning a list of values
           Returning a list in a scalar context
           Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list
           Using G_EVAL
           Using G_KEEPERR
           Using call_sv
           Using call_argv
           Using call_method
           Using GIMME_V
           Using Perl to dispose of temporaries
           Strategies for storing Callback Context Information
               1. Ignore the problem - Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a
               sequence of callbacks - hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to
               map to the Perl callback

           Alternate Stack Manipulation
           Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       DATE

       perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API


       DESCRIPTION
       "Gimme" Values
           GIMME, GIMME_V, G_ARRAY, G_DISCARD, G_EVAL, G_NOARGS, G_SCALAR,
           G_VOID

       Array Manipulation Functions
           AvFILL, av_clear, av_delete, av_exists, av_extend, av_fetch,
           av_fill, av_len, av_make, av_pop, av_push, av_shift, av_store,
           av_undef, av_unshift, get_av, newAV, sortsv

       Callback Functions
           call_argv, call_method, call_pv, call_sv, ENTER, eval_pv, eval_sv,
           FREETMPS, LEAVE, SAVETMPS

       Character classes
           isALNUM, isALPHA, isDIGIT, isLOWER, isSPACE, isUPPER, toLOWER,
           toUPPER

       Cloning an interpreter
           perl_clone

       CV Manipulation Functions
           CvSTASH, get_cv

       Embedding Functions
           cv_undef, load_module, nothreadhook, perl_alloc, perl_construct,
           perl_destruct, perl_free, perl_parse, perl_run, require_pv

       Functions in file pp_pack.c
           packlist, pack_cat, unpackstring, unpack_str

       Global Variables
           PL_modglobal, PL_na, PL_sv_no, PL_sv_undef, PL_sv_yes

       GV Functions
           GvSV, gv_fetchmeth, gv_fetchmethod, gv_fetchmethod_autoload,
           gv_fetchmeth_autoload, gv_stashpv, gv_stashsv

       Handy Values
           Nullav, Nullch, Nullcv, Nullhv, Nullsv

       Hash Manipulation Functions
           get_hv, HEf_SVKEY, HeHASH, HeKEY, HeKLEN, HePV, HeSVKEY, HeS-
           VKEY_force, HeSVKEY_set, HeVAL, HvNAME, hv_clear, hv_clear_place-
           holders, hv_delete, hv_delete_ent, hv_exists, hv_exists_ent,
           hv_fetch, hv_fetch_ent, hv_iterinit, hv_iterkey, hv_iterkeysv,
           hv_iternext, hv_iternextsv, hv_iternext_flags, hv_iterval,
           hv_magic, hv_scalar, hv_store, hv_store_ent, hv_undef, newHV

       Magical Functions
           mg_clear, mg_copy, mg_find, mg_free, mg_get, mg_length, mg_magical,
           mg_set, SvGETMAGIC, SvLOCK, SvSETMAGIC, SvSetMagicSV, SvSetMag-
           icSV_nosteal, SvSetSV, SvSetSV_nosteal, SvSHARE, SvUNLOCK

       Memory Management
           Copy, CopyD, Move, MoveD, New, Newc, Newz, Poison, Renew, Renewc,
           Safefree, savepv, savepvn, savesharedpv, StructCopy, Zero, ZeroD

       Miscellaneous Functions
           fbm_compile, fbm_instr, form, getcwd_sv, strEQ, strGE, strGT,
           strLE, strLT, strNE, strnEQ, strnNE, sv_nolocking, sv_nosharing,
           sv_nounlocking

       Numeric functions
           grok_bin, grok_hex, grok_number, grok_numeric_radix, grok_oct,
           scan_bin, scan_hex, scan_oct

       Optree Manipulation Functions
           cv_const_sv, newCONSTSUB, newXS

       Pad Data Structures
           pad_sv

       Stack Manipulation Macros
           dMARK, dORIGMARK, dSP, EXTEND, MARK, mPUSHi, mPUSHn, mPUSHp,
           mPUSHu, mXPUSHi, mXPUSHn, mXPUSHp, mXPUSHu, ORIGMARK, POPi, POPl,
           POPn, POPp, POPpbytex, POPpx, POPs, PUSHi, PUSHMARK, PUSHmortal,
           PUSHn, PUSHp, PUSHs, PUSHu, PUTBACK, SP, SPAGAIN, XPUSHi, XPUSHmor-
           tal, XPUSHn, XPUSHp, XPUSHs, XPUSHu, XSRETURN, XSRETURN_EMPTY,
           XSRETURN_IV, XSRETURN_NO, XSRETURN_NV, XSRETURN_PV, XSRETURN_UNDEF,
           XSRETURN_UV, XSRETURN_YES, XST_mIV, XST_mNO, XST_mNV, XST_mPV,
           XST_mUNDEF, XST_mYES

       SV Flags
           svtype, SVt_IV, SVt_NV, SVt_PV, SVt_PVAV, SVt_PVCV, SVt_PVHV,
           SVt_PVMG

       SV Manipulation Functions
           get_sv, looks_like_number, newRV_inc, newRV_noinc, NEWSV, newSV,
           newSViv, newSVnv, newSVpv, newSVpvf, newSVpvn, newSVpvn_share,
           newSVrv, newSVsv, newSVuv, SvCUR, SvCUR_set, SvEND, SvGROW, SvIOK,
           SvIOKp, SvIOK_notUV, SvIOK_off, SvIOK_on, SvIOK_only,
           SvIOK_only_UV, SvIOK_UV, SvIsCOW, SvIsCOW_shared_hash, SvIV, SvIVx,
           SvIVX, SvLEN, SvNIOK, SvNIOKp, SvNIOK_off, SvNOK, SvNOKp,
           SvNOK_off, SvNOK_on, SvNOK_only, SvNV, SvNVx, SvNVX, SvOK, SvOOK,
           SvPOK, SvPOKp, SvPOK_off, SvPOK_on, SvPOK_only, SvPOK_only_UTF8,
           SvPV, SvPVbyte, SvPVbytex, SvPVbytex_force, SvPVbyte_force,
           SvPVbyte_nolen, SvPVutf8, SvPVutf8x, SvPVutf8x_force,
           SvPVutf8_force, SvPVutf8_nolen, SvPVx, SvPVX, SvPV_force,
           SvPV_force_nomg, SvPV_nolen, SvREFCNT, SvREFCNT_dec, SvREFCNT_inc,
           SvROK, SvROK_off, SvROK_on, SvRV, SvSTASH, SvTAINT, SvTAINTED,
           SvTAINTED_off, SvTAINTED_on, SvTRUE, SvTYPE, SvUOK, SvUPGRADE,
           SvUTF8, SvUTF8_off, SvUTF8_on, SvUV, SvUVx, SvUVX, sv_2bool,
           sv_2cv, sv_2io, sv_2iv, sv_2mortal, sv_2nv, sv_2pvbyte,
           sv_2pvbyte_nolen, sv_2pvutf8, sv_2pvutf8_nolen, sv_2pv_flags,
           sv_2pv_nolen, sv_2uv, sv_backoff, sv_bless, sv_catpv, sv_catpvf,
           sv_catpvf_mg, sv_catpvn, sv_catpvn_flags, sv_catpvn_mg, sv_cat-
           pvn_nomg, sv_catpv_mg, sv_catsv, sv_catsv_flags, sv_catsv_mg,
           sv_catsv_nomg, sv_chop, sv_clear, sv_cmp, sv_cmp_locale, sv_col-
           lxfrm, sv_copypv, sv_dec, sv_derived_from, sv_eq, sv_force_normal,
           sv_force_normal_flags, sv_free, sv_gets, sv_grow, sv_inc,
           sv_insert, sv_isa, sv_isobject, sv_iv, sv_len, sv_len_utf8,
           sv_magic, sv_magicext, sv_mortalcopy, sv_newmortal, sv_newref,
           sv_nv, sv_pos_b2u, sv_pos_u2b, sv_pv, sv_pvbyte, sv_pvbyten,
           sv_pvbyten_force, sv_pvn, sv_pvn_force, sv_pvn_force_flags,
           sv_pvutf8, sv_pvutf8n, sv_pvutf8n_force, sv_reftype, sv_replace,
           sv_report_used, sv_reset, sv_rvweaken, sv_setiv, sv_setiv_mg,
           sv_setnv, sv_setnv_mg, sv_setpv, sv_setpvf, sv_setpvf_mg, sv_setp-
           viv, sv_setpviv_mg, sv_setpvn, sv_setpvn_mg, sv_setpv_mg,
           sv_setref_iv, sv_setref_nv, sv_setref_pv, sv_setref_pvn,
           sv_setref_uv, sv_setsv, sv_setsv_flags, sv_setsv_mg, sv_setsv_nomg,
           sv_setuv, sv_setuv_mg, sv_taint, sv_tainted, sv_true, sv_unmagic,
           sv_unref, sv_unref_flags, sv_untaint, sv_upgrade, sv_usepvn,
           sv_usepvn_mg, sv_utf8_decode, sv_utf8_downgrade, sv_utf8_encode,
           sv_utf8_upgrade, sv_utf8_upgrade_flags, sv_uv, sv_vcatpvf, sv_vcat-
           pvfn, sv_vcatpvf_mg, sv_vsetpvf, sv_vsetpvfn, sv_vsetpvf_mg

       Unicode Support
           bytes_from_utf8, bytes_to_utf8, ibcmp_utf8, is_utf8_char,
           is_utf8_string, is_utf8_string_loc, pv_uni_display, sv_cat_decode,
           sv_recode_to_utf8, sv_uni_display, to_utf8_case, to_utf8_fold,
           to_utf8_lower, to_utf8_title, to_utf8_upper, utf8n_to_uvchr,
           utf8n_to_uvuni, utf8_distance, utf8_hop, utf8_length,
           utf8_to_bytes, utf8_to_uvchr, utf8_to_uvuni, uvchr_to_utf8,
           uvuni_to_utf8_flags

       Variables created by "xsubpp" and "xsubpp" internal functions
           ax, CLASS, dAX, dITEMS, dXSARGS, dXSI32, items, ix, newXSproto,
           RETVAL, ST, THIS, XS, XS_VERSION, XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK

       Warning and Dieing
           croak, warn

       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO

       perlintern - autogenerated documentation of purely internal Perl func-
       tions


       DESCRIPTION
       CV reference counts and CvOUTSIDE
           CvWEAKOUTSIDE

       Functions in file pad.h
           CX_CURPAD_SAVE, CX_CURPAD_SV, PAD_BASE_SV, PAD_CLONE_VARS,
           PAD_COMPNAME_FLAGS, PAD_COMPNAME_GEN, PAD_COMPNAME_OURSTASH,
           PAD_COMPNAME_PV, PAD_COMPNAME_TYPE, PAD_DUP, PAD_RESTORE_LOCAL,
           PAD_SAVE_LOCAL, PAD_SAVE_SETNULLPAD, PAD_SETSV, PAD_SET_CUR,
           PAD_SET_CUR_NOSAVE, PAD_SV, PAD_SVl, SAVECLEARSV, SAVECOMPPAD,
           SAVEPADSV

       Functions in file pp_ctl.c
           find_runcv

       Global Variables
           PL_DBsingle, PL_DBsub, PL_DBtrace, PL_dowarn, PL_last_in_gv,
           PL_ofs_sv, PL_rs

       GV Functions
           is_gv_magical

       IO Functions
           start_glob

       Pad Data Structures
           CvPADLIST, cv_clone, cv_dump, do_dump_pad, intro_my, pad_add_anon,
           pad_add_name, pad_alloc, pad_block_start, pad_check_dup, pad_find-
           lex, pad_findmy, pad_fixup_inner_anons, pad_free, pad_leavemy,
           pad_new, pad_push, pad_reset, pad_setsv, pad_swipe, pad_tidy,
           pad_undef

       Stack Manipulation Macros
           djSP, LVRET

       SV Manipulation Functions
           report_uninit, sv_add_arena, sv_clean_all, sv_clean_objs,
           sv_free_arenas

       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO

       perliol - C API for Perls implementation of IO in Layers.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           History and Background
           Basic Structure
           Layers vs Disciplines
           Data Structures
           Functions and Attributes
           Per-instance Data
           Layers in action.
           Per-instance flag bits
               PERLIO_F_EOF, PERLIO_F_CANWRITE,  PERLIO_F_CANREAD, PER-
               LIO_F_ERROR, PERLIO_F_TRUNCATE, PERLIO_F_APPEND, PERLIO_F_CRLF,
               PERLIO_F_UTF8, PERLIO_F_UNBUF, PERLIO_F_WRBUF, PERLIO_F_RDBUF,
               PERLIO_F_LINEBUF, PERLIO_F_TEMP, PERLIO_F_OPEN, PERLIO_F_FAST-
               GETS

           Methods in Detail
               fsize, name, size, kind, PERLIO_K_BUFFERED, PERLIO_K_RAW, PER-
               LIO_K_CANCRLF, PERLIO_K_FASTGETS, PERLIO_K_MULTIARG, Pushed,
               Popped, Open, Binmode, Getarg, Fileno, Dup, Read, Write, Seek,
               Tell, Close, Flush, Fill, Eof, Error,    Clearerr, Setlinebuf,
               Get_base, Get_bufsiz, Get_ptr, Get_cnt, Set_ptrcnt

           Utilities
           Implementing PerlIO Layers
               C implementations, Perl implementations

           Core Layers
               "unix", "perlio", "stdio", "crlf", "mmap", "pending", "raw",
               "utf8"

           Extension Layers
               ":encoding", ":scalar", ":via"

       TODO

       perlapio - perls IO abstraction interface.

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           1. USE_STDIO, 2. USE_SFIO, 3. USE_PERLIO, PPeerrllIIOO_ssttddiinn(()), PPeerr--
           llIIOO_ssttddoouutt(()), PPeerrllIIOO_ssttddeerrrr(()), PerlIO_open(path, mode), Per-
           lIO_fdopen(fd,mode), PerlIO_reopen(path,mode,f), Per-
           lIO_printf(f,fmt,...), PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a), PerlIO_std-
           outf(fmt,...), PerlIO_read(f,buf,count), PerlIO_write(f,buf,count),
           PerlIO_close(f), PerlIO_puts(f,s), PerlIO_putc(f,c), Per-
           lIO_ungetc(f,c), PerlIO_getc(f), PerlIO_eof(f), PerlIO_error(f),
           PerlIO_fileno(f), PerlIO_clearerr(f), PerlIO_flush(f), Per-
           lIO_seek(f,offset,whence), PerlIO_tell(f), PerlIO_getpos(f,p), Per-
           lIO_setpos(f,p), PerlIO_rewind(f), PPeerrllIIOO_ttmmppffiillee(()), PerlIO_set-
           linebuf(f)

           Co-existence with stdio
               PerlIO_importFILE(f,mode), PerlIO_exportFILE(f,mode), Per-
               lIO_releaseFILE(p,f), PerlIO_findFILE(f)

           "Fast gets" Functions
               PerlIO_fast_gets(f), PerlIO_has_cntptr(f), PerlIO_get_cnt(f),
               PerlIO_get_ptr(f), PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c), Per-
               lIO_canset_cnt(f), PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c), PerlIO_has_base(f),
               PerlIO_get_base(f), PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)

           Other Functions
               PerlIO_apply_layers(f,mode,layers), PerlIO_bin-
               mode(f,ptype,imode,layers), ’<’ read, ’>’ write, ’+’
               read/write, PerlIO_debug(fmt,...)

       perlhack - How to hack at the Perl internals


       DESCRIPTION
           Does concept match the general goals of Perl?, Where is the imple-
           mentation?, Backwards compatibility, Could it be a module instead?,
           Is the feature generic enough?, Does it potentially introduce new
           bugs?, Does it preclude other desirable features?, Is the implemen-
           tation robust?, Is the implementation generic enough to be
           portable?, Is the implementation tested?, Is there enough documen-
           tation?, Is there another way to do it?, Does it create too much
           work?, Patches speak louder than words

           Keeping in sync
               rsync’ing the source tree, Using rsync over the LAN, Using
               pushing over the NFS, rsync’ing the patches

           Why rsync the source tree
               It’s easier to rsync the source tree, It’s more reliable

           Why rsync the patches
               It’s easier to rsync the patches, It’s a good reference, Find-
               ing a start point, Finding how to fix a bug, Finding the source
               of misbehaviour

           Working with the source
           Perlbug administration
           Submitting patches
               perlguts, perlxstut and perlxs, perlapi, Porting/pumpkin.pod,
               The perl5-porters FAQ

           Finding Your Way Around
               Core modules, Tests, Documentation, Configure, Interpreter

           Elements of the interpreter
               Startup, Parsing, Optimization, Running

           Internal Variable Types
           Op Trees
           Stacks
               Argument stack, Mark stack, Save stack

           Millions of Macros
           The .i Targets
           Poking at Perl
           Using a source-level debugger
               run [args], break function_name, break source.c:xxx, step,
               next, continue, finish, ’enter’, print

           gdb macro support
           Dumping Perl Data Structures
           Patching
           Patching a core module
           Adding a new function to the core
           Writing a test
               t/base/, t/cmd/, t/comp/, t/io/, t/lib/, t/op/, t/pod/, t/run/,
               t/uni/, t/win32/, t/x2p, t/base t/comp, t/cmd t/run t/io t/op,
               t/lib ext lib

           Special Make Test Targets
               coretest, test.deparse, test.taintwarn, minitest, test.valgrind
               check.valgrind utest.valgrind ucheck.valgrind, test.third
               check.third utest.third ucheck.third, test.torture torturetest,
               utest ucheck test.utf8 check.utf8, minitest.utf16 test.utf16,
               test_harness

           Running tests by hand
               PERL_CORE=1, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL=2, PERL, PERL_SKIP_TTY_TEST

       EXTERNAL TOOLS FOR DEBUGGING PERL
           Rational Software’s Purify
           Purify on Unix
               -Accflags=-DPURIFY, -Doptimize=’-g’, -Uusemymalloc, -Dusemulti-
               plicity

           Purify on NT
               DEFINES, USE_MULTI = define, #PERL_MALLOC = define, CFG = Debug

           valgrind
           Compaq’s/Digital’s/HP’s Third Degree
           PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL
           Profiling
           Gprof Profiling
               -a, -b, -e routine, -f routine, -s, -z

           GCC gcov Profiling
           Pixie Profiling
               -h, -l, -p[rocedures], -h[eavy], -i[nvocations], -l[ines],
               -testcoverage, -z[ero]

           Miscellaneous tricks
           CONCLUSION
               The Road goes ever on and on, down from the door where it
               began.

       AUTHOR

       perlbook - Perl book information

       DESCRIPTION

       perltodo - Perl TO-DO List


       DESCRIPTION
       assertions
       iCOW
       (?{...}) closures in regexps
       A re-entrant regexp engine
       pragmata
           lexical pragmas
           use less ’memory’
       prototypes and functions
           _ prototype character
           inlining autoloaded constants
           Finish off lvalue functions
       Unicode and UTF8
           Implicit Latin 1 => Unicode translation
           UTF8 caching code
           Unicode in Filenames
           Unicode in %ENV
       Regexps
           regexp optimiser optional
           common suffices/prefices in regexps (trie optimization)
       POD
           POD -> HTML conversion still sucks
       Misc medium sized projects
           UNITCHECK
           optional optimizer
           You WANT *how* many
           lexical aliases
           no 6
           IPv6
           entersub XS vs Perl
           @INC source filter to Filter::Simple
           bincompat functions
           Use fchown/fchmod internally
       Tests
           Make Schwern poorer
           test B
           Improve tests for Config.pm
           common test code for timed bailout
       Installation
           compressed man pages
           Make Config.pm cope with differences between build and installed
           perl
           Relocatable perl
           make HTML install work
           put patchlevel in -v
       Incremental things
           autovivification
           fix tainting bugs
           Make tainting consistent
           Dual life everything
       Vague things
           threads
           POSIX memory footprint
           Optimize away @_
           switch ops
           Attach/detach debugger from running program
           A decent benchmark
           readpipe(LIST)

       perldoc - Look up Perl documentation in Pod format.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OPTIONS
           -h, -v, -t, -u, -m module, -l, -F, -f perlfunc, -q perlfaq-search-
           regexp, -T, -d destination-filename, -o output-formatname, -M mod-
           ule-name, -w option:value or -w option, -X, PageNameModule-
           NameProgramName, -n some-formatter, -r, -i, -V

       SECURITY
       ENVIRONMENT
       AUTHOR

       perlhist - the Perl history records


       DESCRIPTION
       INTRODUCTION
       THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN
           PUMPKIN?
       THE RECORDS
           SELECTED RELEASE SIZES
           SELECTED PATCH SIZES
       THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS

       perldelta - what is new for perl v5.8.5


       DESCRIPTION
       Incompatible Changes
       Core Enhancements
       Modules and Pragmata
       Utility Changes
       New Documentation
       Performance Enhancements
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
       Selected Bug Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Changed Internals
       New Tests
       Known Problems
       Platform Specific Problems
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO

       perl586delta, perldelta - what is new for perl v5.8.5


       DESCRIPTION
       Incompatible Changes
       Core Enhancements
       Modules and Pragmata
       Utility Changes
       New Documentation
       Performance Enhancements
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
       Selected Bug Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Changed Internals
       New Tests
       Known Problems
       Platform Specific Problems
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO

       perl585delta - what is new for perl v5.8.5


       DESCRIPTION
       Incompatible Changes
       Core Enhancements
       Modules and Pragmata
       Utility Changes
           Perl’s debugger
           h2ph
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
       Selected Bug Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Changed Internals
       Known Problems
       Platform Specific Problems
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO

       perl584delta - what is new for perl v5.8.4


       DESCRIPTION
       Incompatible Changes
       Core Enhancements
           Malloc wrapping
           Unicode Character Database 4.0.1
           suidperl less insecure
           format
       Modules and Pragmata
           Updated modules
               Attribute::Handlers, B, Benchmark, CGI, Carp, Cwd, Exporter,
               File::Find, IO, IPC::Open3, Local::Maketext, Math::BigFloat,
               Math::BigInt, Math::BigRat, MIME::Base64, ODBM_File, POSIX,
               Shell, Socket, Storable, Switch, Sys::Syslog, Term::ANSIColor,
               Time::HiRes, Unicode::UCD, Win32, base, open, threads, utf8

       Performance Enhancements
       Utility Changes
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
       Selected Bug Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Changed Internals
       Future Directions
       Platform Specific Problems
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO

       perl583delta - what is new for perl v5.8.3


       DESCRIPTION
       Incompatible Changes
       Core Enhancements
       Modules and Pragmata
           CGI, Cwd, Digest, Digest::MD5, Encode, File::Spec, FindBin,
           List::Util, Math::BigInt, PodParser, Pod::Perldoc, POSIX, Uni-
           code::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Test::Harness, threads::shared

       Utility Changes
       New Documentation
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
       Selected Bug Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Changed Internals
       Configuration and Building
       Platform Specific Problems
       Known Problems
       Future Directions
       Obituary
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO

       perl582delta - what is new for perl v5.8.2


       DESCRIPTION
       Incompatible Changes
       Core Enhancements
           Hash Randomisation
           Threading
       Modules and Pragmata
           Updated Modules And Pragmata
               Devel::PPPort, Digest::MD5, I18N::LangTags, libnet,
               MIME::Base64, Pod::Perldoc, strict, Tie::Hash, Time::HiRes,
               Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, UNIVERSAL

       Selected Bug Fixes
       Changed Internals
       Platform Specific Problems
       Future Directions
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO

       perl581delta - what is new for perl v5.8.1


       DESCRIPTION
       Incompatible Changes
           Hash Randomisation
           UTF-8 On Filehandles No Longer Activated By Locale
           Single-number v-strings are no longer v-strings before "=>"
           (Win32) The -C Switch Has Been Repurposed
           (Win32) The /d Switch Of cmd.exe
       Core Enhancements
           UTF-8 no longer default under UTF-8 locales
           Unsafe signals again available
           Tied Arrays with Negative Array Indices
           local ${$x}
           Unicode Character Database 4.0.0
           Deprecation Warnings
           Miscellaneous Enhancements
       Modules and Pragmata
           Updated Modules And Pragmata
               base, B::Bytecode, B::Concise, B::Deparse, Benchmark,
               ByteLoader, bytes, CGI, charnames, CPAN, Data::Dumper, DB_File,
               Devel::PPPort, Digest::MD5, Encode, fields, libnet, Math::Big-
               Int, MIME::Base64, NEXT, Net::Ping, PerlIO::scalar, podlators,
               Pod::LaTeX, PodParsers, Pod::Perldoc, Scalar::Util, Storable,
               strict, Term::ANSIcolor, Test::Harness, Test::More, Test::Sim-
               ple, Text::Balanced, Time::HiRes, threads, threads::shared,
               Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Win32::GetFolderPath,
               Win32::GetOSVersion

       Utility Changes
       New Documentation
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
           Platform-specific enhancements
       Selected Bug Fixes
           Closures, eval and lexicals
           Generic fixes
           Platform-specific fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
           Changed "A thread exited while %d threads were running"
           Removed "Attempt to clear a restricted hash"
           New "Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine"
           Changed "Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator"
           New "Missing control char name in \c"
           New "Newline in left-justified string for %s"
           New "Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator"
           New "Pseudo-hashes are deprecated"
           New "read() on %s filehandle %s"
           New "5.005 threads are deprecated"
           New "Tied variable freed while still in use"
           New "To%s: illegal mapping ’%s’"
           New "Use of freed value in iteration"
       Changed Internals
       New Tests
       Known Problems
           Tied hashes in scalar context
           Net::Ping 450_service and 510_ping_udp failures
           B::C
       Platform Specific Problems
           EBCDIC Platforms
           Cygwin 1.5 problems
           HP-UX: HP cc warnings about sendfile and sendpath
           IRIX: t/uni/tr_7jis.t falsely failing
           Mac OS X: no usemymalloc
           Tru64: No threaded builds with GNU cc (gcc)
           Win32: sysopen, sysread, syswrite
       Future Directions
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO

       perl58delta - what is new for perl v5.8.0


       DESCRIPTION
       Highlights In 5.8.0
       Incompatible Changes
           Binary Incompatibility
           64-bit platforms and malloc
           AIX Dynaloading
           Attributes for "my" variables now handled at run-time
           Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS
           IEEE-format Floating Point Default on OpenVMS Alpha
           New Unicode Semantics (no more "use utf8", almost)
           New Unicode Properties
           REF(...) Instead Of SCALAR(...)
           pack/unpack D/F recycled
           glob() now returns filenames in alphabetical order
           Deprecations
       Core Enhancements
           Unicode Overhaul
           PerlIO is Now The Default
           ithreads
           Restricted Hashes
           Safe Signals
           Understanding of Numbers
           Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings [561]
           Miscellaneous Changes
       Modules and Pragmata
           New Modules and Pragmata
           Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
       Utility Changes
       New Documentation
       Performance Enhancements
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
           Generic Improvements
           New Or Improved Platforms
       Selected Bug Fixes
           Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Changed Internals
       Security Vulnerability Closed [561]
       New Tests
       Known Problems
           The Compiler Suite Is Still Very Experimental
           Localising Tied Arrays and Hashes Is Broken
           Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
           Modifying $_ Inside for(..)
           mod_perl 1.26 Doesn’t Build With Threaded Perl
           lib/ftmp-security tests warn ’system possibly insecure’
           libwww-perl (LWP) fails base/date #51
           PDL failing some tests
           Perl_get_sv
           Self-tying Problems
           ext/threads/t/libc
           Failure of Thread (5.005-style) tests
           Timing problems
           Tied/Magical Array/Hash Elements Do Not Autovivify
           Unicode in package/class and subroutine names does not work
       Platform Specific Problems
           AIX
           Alpha systems with old gccs fail several tests
           AmigaOS
           BeOS
           Cygwin "unable to remap"
           Cygwin ndbm tests fail on FAT
           DJGPP Failures
           FreeBSD built with ithreads coredumps reading large directories
           FreeBSD Failing locale Test 117 For ISO 8859-15 Locales
           IRIX fails ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t or Digest::MD5
           HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured
           Linux with glibc 2.2.5 fails t/op/int subtest #6 with -Duse64bitint
           Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
           Mac OS X
           Mac OS X dyld undefined symbols
           OS/2 Test Failures
           op/sprintf tests 91, 129, and 130
           SCO
           Solaris 2.5
           Solaris x86 Fails Tests With -Duse64bitint
           SUPER-UX (NEC SX)
           Term::ReadKey not working on Win32
           UNICOS/mk
           UTS
           VOS (Stratus)
           VMS
           Win32
           XML::Parser not working
           z/OS (OS/390)
           Unicode Support on EBCDIC Still Spotty
           Seen In Perl 5.7 But Gone Now
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perl573delta - whats new for perl v5.7.3


       DESCRIPTION
       Changes
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perl572delta - whats new for perl v5.7.2


       DESCRIPTION
       Security Vulnerability Closed
       Incompatible Changes
           64-bit platforms and malloc
           AIX Dynaloading
           Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS
           Different Definition of the Unicode Character Classes \p{In...}
           Deprecations
       Core Enhancements
       Modules and Pragmata
           New Modules and Distributions
           Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
       Utility Changes
       New Documentation
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
           New Or Improved Platforms
           Generic Improvements
       Selected Bug Fixes
           Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Source Code Enhancements
           MAGIC constants
           Better commented code
           Regex pre-/post-compilation items matched up
           gcc -Wall
       New Tests
       Known Problems
           AIX
           Amiga Perl Invoking Mystery
           lib/ftmp-security tests warn ’system possibly insecure’
           Cygwin intermittent failures of lib/Memoize/t/expire_file 11 and 12
           HP-UX lib/io_multihomed Fails When LP64-Configured
           HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured
           Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
           OS/390
           op/sprintf tests 129 and 130
           Failure of Thread tests
           UNICOS
           UTS
           VMS
           Win32
           Localising a Tied Variable Leaks Memory
           Self-tying of Arrays and Hashes Is Forbidden
           Variable Attributes are not Currently Usable for Tieing
           Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
           The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
           The Long Double Support is Still Experimental
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perl571delta - whats new for perl v5.7.1


       DESCRIPTION
       Security Vulnerability Closed
       Incompatible Changes
       Core Enhancements
           AUTOLOAD Is Now Lvaluable
           PerlIO is Now The Default
           Signals Are Now Safe
       Modules and Pragmata
           New Modules
           Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
       Performance Enhancements
       Utility Changes
       New Documentation
           perlclib
           perliol
           README.aix
           README.bs2000
           README.macos
           README.mpeix
           README.solaris
           README.vos
           Porting/repository.pod
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
           New Or Improved Platforms
           Generic Improvements
               d_cmsghdr, d_fcntl_can_lock, d_fsync, d_getitimer, d_getpagsz,
               d_msghdr_s, need_va_copy, d_readv, d_recvmsg, d_sendmsg,
               sig_size, d_sockatmark, d_strtoq, d_u32align, d_ualarm,
               d_usleep

       Selected Bug Fixes
           Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Changed Internals
       New Tests
       Known Problems
           AIX vac 5.0.0.0 May Produce Buggy Code For Perl
           lib/ftmp-security tests warn ’system possibly insecure’
           lib/io_multihomed Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
           Test lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
           lib/b test 19
           Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
           sigaction test 13 in VMS
           sprintf tests 129 and 130
           Failure of Thread tests
           Localising a Tied Variable Leaks Memory
           Self-tying of Arrays and Hashes Is Forbidden
           Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
           The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perl570delta - whats new for perl v5.7.0


       DESCRIPTION
       Security Vulnerability Closed
       Incompatible Changes
       Core Enhancements
       Modules and Pragmata
           New Modules
           Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
       Utility Changes
       New Documentation
       Performance Enhancements
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
           Generic Improvements
       Selected Bug Fixes
           Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
       New or Changed Diagnostics
       Changed Internals
       Known Problems
           Unicode Support Still Far From Perfect
           EBCDIC Still A Lost Platform
           Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
           ftmp-security tests warn ’system possibly insecure’
           Test lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
           Long Doubles Still Don’t Work In Solaris
           Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
           Storable tests fail in some platforms
           Threads Are Still Experimental
           The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perl561delta - whats new for perl v5.6.x


       DESCRIPTION
       Summary of changes between 5.6.0 and 5.6.1
           Security Issues
           Core bug fixes
               "UNIVERSAL::isa()", Memory leaks, Numeric conversions,
               qw(a\\b), caller(), Bugs in regular expressions, "slurp" mode,
               Autovivification of symbolic references to special variables,
               Lexical warnings, Spurious warnings and errors, glob(), Taint-
               ing, sort(), #line directives, Subroutine prototypes, map(),
               Debugger, PERL5OPT, chop(), Unicode support, 64-bit support,
               Compiler, Lvalue subroutines, IO::Socket, File::Find, xsubpp,
               "no Module;", Tests

           Core features
           Configuration issues
           Documentation
           Bundled modules
               B::Concise, File::Temp, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Text::Overstrike, CGI,
               CPAN, Class::Struct, DB_File, Devel::Peek, File::Find,
               Getopt::Long, IO::Poll, IPC::Open3, Math::BigFloat, Math::Com-
               plex, Net::Ping, Opcode, Pod::Parser, Pod::Text, SDBM_File,
               Sys::Syslog, Tie::RefHash, Tie::SubstrHash

           Platform-specific improvements
               NCR MP-RAS, NonStop-UX

       Core Enhancements
           Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency
           Lexically scoped warning categories
           Unicode and UTF-8 support
           Support for interpolating named characters
           "our" declarations
           Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals
           Improved Perl version numbering system
           New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes
           File and directory handles can be autovivified
           open() with more than two arguments
           64-bit support
           Large file support
           Long doubles
           "more bits"
           Enhanced support for sort() subroutines
           "sort $coderef @foo" allowed
           File globbing implemented internally
           Support for CHECK blocks
           POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported
           Better pseudo-random number generator
           Improved "qw//" operator
           Better worst-case behavior of hashes
           pack() format ’Z’ supported
           pack() format modifier ’!’ supported
           pack() and unpack() support counted strings
           Comments in pack() templates
           Weak references
           Binary numbers supported
           Lvalue subroutines
           Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references
           Boolean assignment operators are legal lvalues
           exists() is supported on subroutine names
           exists() and delete() are supported on array elements
           Pseudo-hashes work better
           Automatic flushing of output buffers
           Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations
           Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle
           eof() has the same old magic as <>
           binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes
           "-T" filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as "text"
           system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure
           Improved diagnostics
           Diagnostics follow STDERR
           More consistent close-on-exec behavior
           syswrite() ease-of-use
           Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators
           Bit operators support full native integer width
           Improved security features
           More functional bareword prototype (*)
           "require" and "do" may be overridden
           $^X variables may now have names longer than one character
           New variable $^C reflects "-c" switch
           New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string
           Optional Y2K warnings
           Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings
       Modules and Pragmata
           Modules
               attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames,
               Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek,
               Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare,
               File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions,
               Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex,
               Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, pod-
               checker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect,
               Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File,
               Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local,
               Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters

           Pragmata
       Utility Changes
           dprofpp
           find2perl
           h2xs
           perlcc
           perldoc
           The Perl Debugger
       Improved Documentation
           perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod,
           perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perlfork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perl-
           hack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, per-
           lopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perluni-
           code.pod

       Performance enhancements
           Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized
           Optimized assignments to lexical variables
           Faster subroutine calls
           delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
           -Dusethreads means something different
           New Configure flags
           Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring
           Long Doubles
           -Dusemorebits
           -Duselargefiles
           installusrbinperl
           SOCKS support
           "-A" flag
           Enhanced Installation Directories
           gcc automatically tried if ’cc’ does not seem to be working
       Platform specific changes
           Supported platforms
           DOS
           OS390 (OpenEdition MVS)
           VMS
           Win32
       Significant bug fixes
           <HANDLE> on empty files
           "eval ’...’" improvements
           All compilation errors are true errors
           Implicitly closed filehandles are safer
           Behavior of list slices is more consistent
           "(\$)" prototype and $foo{a}
           "goto &sub" and AUTOLOAD
           "-bareword" allowed under "use integer"
           Failures in DESTROY()
           Locale bugs fixed
           Memory leaks
           Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls
           Taint failures under "-U"
           END blocks and the "-c" switch
           Potential to leak DATA filehandles
       New or Changed Diagnostics
           "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, "my sub" not
           yet implemented, "our" variable %s redeclared, ’!’ allowed only
           after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A
           or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric
           type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecog-
           nized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should
           probably be written as "%s", %s() called too early to check proto-
           type, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is
           not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subrou-
           tine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved
           word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join
           self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored,
           Bareword found in conditional, Binary number >
           0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size >
           32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can’t check
           filesystem of script "%s", Can’t declare class for non-scalar %s in
           "%s", Can’t declare %s in "%s", Can’t ignore signal CHLD, forcing
           to default, Can’t modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can’t read
           CRTL environ, Can’t remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can’t return %s
           from lvalue subroutine, Can’t weaken a nonreference, Character
           class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside
           character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s,
           CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated,
           defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did
           you mean "local" instead of "our"?), Document contains no data,
           entering effective %s failed, false [] range "%s" in regexp, File-
           handle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s,
           Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal num-
           ber > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s",
           Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: │%s│, Illegal binary digit
           %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec,
           Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s
           attributes: %s, invalid [] range "%s" in regexp, Invalid separator
           character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in
           subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs
           returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing
           %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in
           "my sub", No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for
           variable %s in "our", No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset
           information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number >
           037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen
           errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around
           "%s" list, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string, Pos-
           sible Y2K bug: %s, pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME :
           ATTRS" instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in
           pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of
           freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can’t take
           arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching
           effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can’t reset CRTL environ
           elements (%s), This Perl can’t set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s),
           Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode ’%s’, Unknown process
           %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c
           passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list,
           Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in
           subroutine attribute list, Unterminated subroutine attribute list,
           Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long, Version number must be a con-
           stant number

       New tests
       Incompatible Changes
           Perl Source Incompatibilities
               CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has
               changed, Format of $English::PERL_VERSION is different, Liter-
               als of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed
               pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys
               has changed, "undef" fails on read only values, Close-on-exec
               bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to
               mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), each(), values() and
               "\(%h)", vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS,
               Text of some diagnostic output has changed, "%@" has been
               removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator,
               Semantics of bareword prototype "(*)" have changed, Semantics
               of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms, More
               builtins taint their results

           C Source Incompatibilities
               "PERL_POLLUTE", "PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT", "PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC"

           Compatible C Source API Changes
               "PATCHLEVEL" is now "PERL_VERSION"

           Binary Incompatibilities
       Known Problems
           Localizing a tied hash element may leak memory
           Known test failures
           EBCDIC platforms not fully supported
           UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run
           Arrow operator and arrays
           Experimental features
               Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak ref-
               erences, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Inter-
               nal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular
               expression code constructs:

       Obsolete Diagnostics
           Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions,
           Ill-formed logical name │%s│ in prime_env_iter, In string, @%s now
           must be written as \@%s, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp
           too big, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated

       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perl56delta - whats new for perl v5.6.0


       DESCRIPTION
       Core Enhancements
           Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency
           Lexically scoped warning categories
           Unicode and UTF-8 support
           Support for interpolating named characters
           "our" declarations
           Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals
           Improved Perl version numbering system
           New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes
           File and directory handles can be autovivified
           open() with more than two arguments
           64-bit support
           Large file support
           Long doubles
           "more bits"
           Enhanced support for sort() subroutines
           "sort $coderef @foo" allowed
           File globbing implemented internally
           Support for CHECK blocks
           POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported
           Better pseudo-random number generator
           Improved "qw//" operator
           Better worst-case behavior of hashes
           pack() format ’Z’ supported
           pack() format modifier ’!’ supported
           pack() and unpack() support counted strings
           Comments in pack() templates
           Weak references
           Binary numbers supported
           Lvalue subroutines
           Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references
           Boolean assignment operators are legal lvalues
           exists() is supported on subroutine names
           exists() and delete() are supported on array elements
           Pseudo-hashes work better
           Automatic flushing of output buffers
           Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations
           Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle
           eof() has the same old magic as <>
           binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes
           "-T" filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as "text"
           system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure
           Improved diagnostics
           Diagnostics follow STDERR
           More consistent close-on-exec behavior
           syswrite() ease-of-use
           Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators
           Bit operators support full native integer width
           Improved security features
           More functional bareword prototype (*)
           "require" and "do" may be overridden
           $^X variables may now have names longer than one character
           New variable $^C reflects "-c" switch
           New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string
           Optional Y2K warnings
           Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings
       Modules and Pragmata
           Modules
               attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames,
               Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Dump-
               value, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare,
               File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions,
               Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex,
               Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, pod-
               checker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect,
               Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File,
               Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local,
               Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters

           Pragmata
       Utility Changes
           dprofpp
           find2perl
           h2xs
           perlcc
           perldoc
           The Perl Debugger
       Improved Documentation
           perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod,
           perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perlfork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perl-
           hack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, per-
           lopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perluni-
           code.pod

       Performance enhancements
           Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized
           Optimized assignments to lexical variables
           Faster subroutine calls
           delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster
       Installation and Configuration Improvements
           -Dusethreads means something different
           New Configure flags
           Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring
           Long Doubles
           -Dusemorebits
           -Duselargefiles
           installusrbinperl
           SOCKS support
           "-A" flag
           Enhanced Installation Directories
       Platform specific changes
           Supported platforms
           DOS
           OS390 (OpenEdition MVS)
           VMS
           Win32
       Significant bug fixes
           <HANDLE> on empty files
           "eval ’...’" improvements
           All compilation errors are true errors
           Implicitly closed filehandles are safer
           Behavior of list slices is more consistent
           "(\$)" prototype and $foo{a}
           "goto &sub" and AUTOLOAD
           "-bareword" allowed under "use integer"
           Failures in DESTROY()
           Locale bugs fixed
           Memory leaks
           Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls
           Taint failures under "-U"
           END blocks and the "-c" switch
           Potential to leak DATA filehandles
       New or Changed Diagnostics
           "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, "my sub" not
           yet implemented, "our" variable %s redeclared, ’!’ allowed only
           after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A
           or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric
           type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecog-
           nized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should
           probably be written as "%s", %s() called too early to check proto-
           type, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is
           not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subrou-
           tine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved
           word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join
           self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored,
           Bareword found in conditional, Binary number >
           0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size >
           32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can’t check
           filesystem of script "%s", Can’t declare class for non-scalar %s in
           "%s", Can’t declare %s in "%s", Can’t ignore signal CHLD, forcing
           to default, Can’t modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can’t read
           CRTL environ, Can’t remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can’t return %s
           from lvalue subroutine, Can’t weaken a nonreference, Character
           class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside
           character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s,
           CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated,
           defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did
           you mean "local" instead of "our"?), Document contains no data,
           entering effective %s failed, false [] range "%s" in regexp, File-
           handle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s,
           Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal num-
           ber > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s",
           Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: │%s│, Illegal binary digit
           %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec,
           Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s
           attributes: %s, invalid [] range "%s" in regexp, Invalid separator
           character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in
           subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs
           returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing
           %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in
           "my sub", No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for
           variable %s in "our", No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset
           information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number >
           037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen
           errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around
           "%s" list, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string, Pos-
           sible Y2K bug: %s, pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME :
           ATTRS" instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in
           pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of
           freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can’t take
           arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching
           effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can’t reset CRTL environ
           elements (%s), This Perl can’t set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s),
           Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode ’%s’, Unknown process
           %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c
           passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list,
           Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in
           subroutine attribute list, Unterminated subroutine attribute list,
           Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long, Version number must be a con-
           stant number

       New tests
       Incompatible Changes
           Perl Source Incompatibilities
               CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has
               changed, Format of $English::PERL_VERSION is different, Liter-
               als of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed
               pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys
               has changed, "undef" fails on read only values, Close-on-exec
               bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to
               mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), each(), values() and
               "\(%h)", vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS,
               Text of some diagnostic output has changed, "%@" has been
               removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator,
               Semantics of bareword prototype "(*)" have changed, Semantics
               of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms, More
               builtins taint their results

           C Source Incompatibilities
               "PERL_POLLUTE", "PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT", "PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC"

           Compatible C Source API Changes
               "PATCHLEVEL" is now "PERL_VERSION"

           Binary Incompatibilities
       Known Problems
           Thread test failures
           EBCDIC platforms not supported
           In 64-bit HP-UX the lib/io_multihomed test may hang
           NEXTSTEP 3.3 POSIX test failure
           Tru64 (aka Digital UNIX, aka DEC OSF/1) lib/sdbm test failure with
           gcc
           UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run
           Arrow operator and arrays
           Experimental features
               Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak ref-
               erences, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Inter-
               nal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular
               expression code constructs:

       Obsolete Diagnostics
           Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions,
           Ill-formed logical name │%s│ in prime_env_iter, In string, @%s now
           must be written as \@%s, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp
           too big, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated

       Reporting Bugs
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perl5005delta - whats new for perl5.005


       DESCRIPTION
       About the new versioning system
       Incompatible Changes
           WARNING:  This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.
           Default installation structure has changed
           Perl Source Compatibility
           C Source Compatibility
           Binary Compatibility
           Security fixes may affect compatibility
           Relaxed new mandatory warnings introduced in 5.004
           Licensing
       Core Changes
           Threads
           Compiler
           Regular Expressions
               Many new and improved optimizations, Many bug fixes, New regu-
               lar expression constructs, New operator for precompiled regular
               expressions, Other improvements, Incompatible changes

           Improved malloc()
           Quicksort is internally implemented
           Reliable signals
           Reliable stack pointers
           More generous treatment of carriage returns
           Memory leaks
           Better support for multiple interpreters
           Behavior of local() on array and hash elements is now well-defined
           "%!" is transparently tied to the Errno module
           Pseudo-hashes are supported
           "EXPR foreach EXPR" is supported
           Keywords can be globally overridden
           $^E is meaningful on Win32
           "foreach (1..1000000)" optimized
           "Foo::" can be used as implicitly quoted package name
           "exists $Foo::{Bar::}" tests existence of a package
           Better locale support
           Experimental support for 64-bit platforms
           prototype() returns useful results on builtins
           Extended support for exception handling
           Re-blessing in DESTROY() supported for chaining DESTROY() methods
           All "printf" format conversions are handled internally
           New "INIT" keyword
           New "lock" keyword
           New "qr//" operator
           "our" is now a reserved word
           Tied arrays are now fully supported
           Tied handles support is better
           4th argument to substr
           Negative LENGTH argument to splice
           Magic lvalues are now more magical
           <> now reads in records
       Supported Platforms
           New Platforms
           Changes in existing support
       Modules and Pragmata
           New Modules
               B, Data::Dumper, Dumpvalue, Errno, File::Spec, ExtU-
               tils::Installed, ExtUtils::Packlist, Fatal, IPC::SysV, Test,
               Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Thread, attrs, fields, re

           Changes in existing modules
               Benchmark, Carp, CGI, Fcntl, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, POSIX,
               DB_File, MakeMaker, CPAN, Cwd

       Utility Changes
       Documentation Changes
       New Diagnostics
           Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &,
           Bad index while coercing array into hash, Bareword "%s" refers to
           nonexistent package, Can’t call method "%s" on an undefined value,
           Can’t check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid, Can’t coerce
           array into hash, Can’t goto subroutine from an eval-string, Can’t
           localize pseudo-hash element, Can’t use %%! because Errno.pm is not
           available, Cannot find an opnumber for "%s", Character class syntax
           [. .] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [:
           :] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [= =]
           is reserved for future extensions, %s: Eval-group in insecure
           regular expression, %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re ’eval’, %s:
           Eval-group not allowed at run time, Explicit blessing to ’’ (assum-
           ing package main), Illegal hex digit ignored, No such array field,
           No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s, Out of memory during
           ridiculously large request, Range iterator outside integer range,
           Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method ’%s’ %s,
           Reference found where even-sized list expected, Undefined value
           assigned to typeglob, Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated,
           perl: warning: Setting locale failed

       Obsolete Diagnostics
           Can’t mktemp(), Can’t write to temp file for -e: %s, Cannot open
           temporary file, regexp too big

       Configuration Changes
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perl5004delta - whats new for perl5.004


       DESCRIPTION
       Supported Environments
       Core Changes
           List assignment to %ENV works
           Change to "Can’t locate Foo.pm in @INC" error
           Compilation option: Binary compatibility with 5.003
           $PERL5OPT environment variable
           Limitations on -M, -m, and -T options
           More precise warnings
           Deprecated: Inherited "AUTOLOAD" for non-methods
           Previously deprecated %OVERLOAD is no longer usable
           Subroutine arguments created only when they’re modified
           Group vector changeable with $)
           Fixed parsing of $$<digit>, &$<digit>, etc.
           Fixed localization of $<digit>, $&, etc.
           No resetting of $. on implicit close
           "wantarray" may return undef
           "eval EXPR" determines value of EXPR in scalar context
           Changes to tainting checks
               No glob() or <*>, No spawning if tainted $CDPATH, $ENV,
               $BASH_ENV, No spawning if tainted $TERM doesn’t look like a
               terminal name

           New Opcode module and revised Safe module
           Embedding improvements
           Internal change: FileHandle class based on IO::* classes
           Internal change: PerlIO abstraction interface
           New and changed syntax
               $coderef->(PARAMS)

           New and changed builtin constants
               __PACKAGE__

           New and changed builtin variables
               $^E, $^H, $^M

           New and changed builtin functions
               delete on slices, flock, printf and sprintf, keys as an lvalue,
               my() in Control Structures, pack() and unpack(), sysseek(), use
               VERSION, use Module VERSION LIST, prototype(FUNCTION), srand,
               $_ as Default, "m//gc" does not reset search position on fail-
               ure, "m//x" ignores whitespace before ?*+{}, nested "sub{}"
               closures work now, formats work right on changing lexicals

           New builtin methods
               isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )

           TIEHANDLE now supported
               TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST,
               READ this LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, DESTROY this

           Malloc enhancements
               -DPERL_EMERGENCY_SBRK, -DPACK_MALLOC, -DTWO_POT_OPTIMIZE

           Miscellaneous efficiency enhancements
       Support for More Operating Systems
           Win32
           Plan 9
           QNX
           AmigaOS
       Pragmata
           use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), use blib, use blib ’dir’,
           use constant NAME => VALUE, use locale, use ops, use vmsish

       Modules
           Required Updates
           Installation directories
           Module information summary
           Fcntl
           IO
           Math::Complex
           Math::Trig
           DB_File
           Net::Ping
           Object-oriented overrides for builtin operators
       Utility Changes
           pod2html
               Sends converted HTML to standard output

           xsubpp
               "void" XSUBs now default to returning nothing

       C Language API Changes
           "gv_fetchmethod" and "perl_call_sv", "perl_eval_pv", Extended API
           for manipulating hashes

       Documentation Changes
           perldelta, perlfaq, perllocale, perltoot, perlapio, perlmodlib,
           perldebug, perlsec

       New Diagnostics
           "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope, %s argu-
           ment is not a HASH element or slice, Allocation too large: %lx,
           Allocation too large, Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s),
           Attempt to free nonexistent shared string, Attempt to use reference
           as lvalue in substr, Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package,
           Can’t redefine active sort subroutine %s, Can’t use bareword ("%s")
           as %s ref while "strict refs" in use, Cannot resolve method ‘%s’
           overloading ‘%s’ in package ‘%s’, Constant subroutine %s redefined,
           Constant subroutine %s undefined, Copy method did not return a ref-
           erence, Died, Exiting pseudo-block via %s, Identifier too long,
           Illegal character %s (carriage return), Illegal switch in PERL5OPT:
           %s, Integer overflow in hex number, Integer overflow in octal num-
           ber, internal error: glob failed, Invalid conversion in %s: "%s",
           Invalid type in pack: ’%s’, Invalid type in unpack: ’%s’, Name
           "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo, Null picture in formline,
           Offset outside string, Out of memory!, Out of memory during request
           for %s, panic: frexp, Possible attempt to put comments in qw()
           list, Possible attempt to separate words with commas, Scalar value
           @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}, Stub found while resolving
           method ‘%s’ overloading ‘%s’ in %s, Too late for "-T" option, untie
           attempted while %d inner references still exist, Unrecognized char-
           acter %s, Unsupported function fork, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean
           "${$}<digit>" is deprecated, Value of %s can be "0"; test with
           defined(), Variable "%s" may be unavailable, Variable "%s" will not
           stay shared, Warning: something’s wrong, Ill-formed logical name
           │%s│ in prime_env_iter, Got an error from DosAllocMem, Malformed
           PERLLIB_PREFIX, PERL_SH_DIR too long, Process terminated by SIG%s

       BUGS
       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       perlartistic - the Perl Artistic License


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       The "Artistic License"
           Preamble
           Definitions
               "Package", "Standard Version", "Copyright Holder", "You", "Rea-
               sonable copying fee", "Freely Available"

           Conditions
               a), b), c), d), a), b), c), d)

       perlgpl - the GNU General Public License, version 2


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

       perlaix, README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems


       DESCRIPTION
           Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
           OS level
           Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
           The IBM ANSI C Compiler
           The usenm option
           Using GNU’s gcc for building perl
           Using Large Files with Perl
           Threaded Perl
           64-bit Perl
           AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
       AUTHOR
       DATE

       perlamiga - Perl under Amiga OS


       NOTE
       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on AmigaOS
               Unix emulation for AmigaOS: ixemul.library, Version of Amiga OS

           Starting Perl programs under AmigaOS
           Shortcomings of Perl under AmigaOS
       INSTALLATION
       Accessing documentation
           Manpages for Perl on AmigaOS
           Perl HTML Documentation on AmigaOS
           Perl GNU Info Files on AmigaOS
           Perl LaTeX Documentation on AmigaOS
       BUILDING PERL ON AMIGAOS
           Build Prerequisites for Perl on AmigaOS
           Getting the Perl Source for AmigaOS
           Making Perl on AmigaOS
           Testing Perl on AmigaOS
           Installing the built Perl on AmigaOS
       PERL 5.8.0 BROKEN IN AMIGAOS
       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO

       perlapollo, README.apollo - Perl version 5 on Apollo DomainOS


       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR

       perlbeos, README.beos - Perl version 5 on BeOS


       DESCRIPTION
           General Issues with Perl on BeOS
           BeOS Release-specific Notes
               R4 x86, R4 PPC

           Contact Information
           Update 2002-05-30

       perlbs2000, README.BS2000 - building and installing Perl for BS2000.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           gzip on BS2000
           bison on BS2000
           Unpacking Perl Distribution on BS2000
           Compiling Perl on BS2000
           Testing Perl on BS2000
           Installing Perl on BS2000
           Using Perl in the Posix-Shell of BS2000
           Using Perl in "native" BS2000
           Floating point anomalies on BS2000
           Using PerlIO and different encodings on ASCII and EBCDIC partitions
       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO
           Mailing list
       HISTORY

       perlce - Perl for WinCE


       DESCRIPTION
       BUILD
           Tools & SDK
               Microsoft Embedded Visual Tools, Microsoft Visual C++, Rainer
               Keuchel’s celib-sources, Rainer Keuchel’s console-sources

           Make
               go to ./wince subdirectory, edit file compile.bat, run   com-
               pile.bat, run
                 compile.bat dist

       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       AUTHORS

       perlcygwin, README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin


       SYNOPSIS
       PREREQUISITES FOR COMPILING PERL ON CYGWIN
           Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don’t leave UNIX without it)
           Cygwin Configuration
               "PATH", nroff, Permissions

       CONFIGURE PERL ON CYGWIN
           Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin
           Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin
               "-lcrypt", "-lgdbm" ("use GDBM_File"), "-ldb" ("use DB_File"),
               "-lcygipc" ("use IPC::SysV"), "-lutil"

           Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin
               "-Uusedl", "-Uusemymalloc", "-Uuseperlio", "-Dusemultiplicity",
               "-Duse64bitint", "-Duselongdouble", "-Dusethreads", "-Duse-
               largefiles", "-Dmksymlinks"

           Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin
               dlsym(), Win9x and "d_eofnblk", Compiler/Preprocessor defines

       MAKE ON CYGWIN
           Errors on Cygwin
           ld2 on Cygwin
       TEST ON CYGWIN
           File Permissions on Cygwin
           NDBM_File and ODBM_File do not work on FAT filesystems
           "fork()" failures in io_* tests
           Script Portability on Cygwin
               Pathnames, Text/Binary, PerlIO, .exe, "chown()", Miscellaneous

       INSTALL PERL ON CYGWIN
       MANIFEST ON CYGWIN
           Documentation, Build, Configure, Make, Install, Tests, Compiled
           Perl Source, Compiled Module Source, Perl Modules/Scripts

       BUGS ON CYGWIN
       AUTHORS
       HISTORY

       perldgux - Perl under DG/UX.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUILDING PERL ON DG/UX
           Non-threaded Perl on DG/UX
           Threaded Perl on DG/UX
           Testing Perl on DG/UX
           Installing the built perl on DG/UX
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       perldos - Perl under DOS, W31, W95.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on DOS
               DJGPP, Pthreads

           Shortcomings of Perl under DOS
           Building Perl on DOS
           Testing Perl on DOS
           Installation of Perl on DOS
       BUILDING AND INSTALLING MODULES ON DOS
           Building Prerequisites for Perl on DOS
           Unpacking CPAN Modules on DOS
           Building Non-XS Modules on DOS
           Building XS Modules on DOS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       perlepoc, README.epoc - Perl for EPOC


       SYNOPSIS
       INTRODUCTION
       INSTALLING PERL ON EPOC
       STARTING PERL ON EPOC
           Editors on Epoc
           Features of Perl on Epoc
           Restrictions of Perl on Epoc
           Compiling Perl 5 on the EPOC cross compiling environment
       SUPPORT STATUS OF PERL ON EPOC
       AUTHOR
       LAST UPDATE

       perlfreebsd, README.freebsd - Perl version 5 on FreeBSD systems


       DESCRIPTION
           FreeBSD core dumps from readdir_r with ithreads
           $^X doesn’t always contain a full path in FreeBSD
           Perl will no longer be part of "base FreeBSD"
       AUTHOR

       perlhpux, README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX)
       systems


       DESCRIPTION
           Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
           Using perl from HP’s porting centre
           Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
           PA-RISC
           Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
           PA-RISC 1.0
           PA-RISC 1.1
           PA-RISC 2.0
           Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
           Itanium & Itanium 2
           Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
           The HP ANSI C Compiler
           The GNU C Compiler
           Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
           Threaded Perl on HP-UX
           64-bit Perl on HP-UX
           Oracle on HP-UX
           GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
           NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
           perl -P and // and HP-UX
           HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
       nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
       AUTHOR
       DATE

       perlhurd, README.hurd - Perl version 5 on Hurd


       DESCRIPTION
           Known Problems with Perl on Hurd
       AUTHOR

       perlirix, README.irix - Perl version 5 on Irix systems


       DESCRIPTION
           Building 32-bit Perl in Irix
           Building 64-bit Perl in Irix
           About Compiler Versions of Irix
           Linker Problems in Irix
           Malloc in Irix
           Building with threads in Irix
           Irix 5.3
       AUTHOR

       perlmachten, README.machten - Perl version 5 on Power MachTen systems


       DESCRIPTION
           Perl version 5.8.x and greater not supported
           Compiling Perl 5.6.x on MachTen
           Failures during "make test" on MachTen
               op/lexassign.t, pragma/warnings.t

           Building external modules on MachTen
       AUTHOR
       DATE

       perlmacos, README.macos - Perl under Mac OS (Classic)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR
       DATE

       perlmacosx, README.macosx - Perl under Mac OS X


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Installation Prefix
           libperl and Prebinding
           Updating Panther
           Known problems
           MacPerl
           Carbon
           Cocoa
       Starting From Scratch
       AUTHOR
       DATE

       perlmint, README.mint - Perl version 5 on Atari MiNT


       DESCRIPTION
       Known problems with Perl on MiNT
       AUTHOR

       perlmpeix, README.mpeix - Perl/iX for HP e3000 MPE


       SYNOPSIS
       NOTE
       Binary distribution from HP
       What’s New in Perl for MPE/iX
       Welcome to Perl/iX
       System Requirements for Perl/iX
       How to Obtain Perl/iX
       Perl/iX Distribution Contents Highlights
           README, INSTALL, LIBSHP3K, PERL, .cpan/, lib/, man/, pub-
           lic_html/feedback.cgi, src/perl-5.6.0-mpe

       How to Compile Perl/iX
            4,  6

       Getting Started with Perl/iX
       MPE/iX Implementation Considerations
       Known Perl/iX Bugs Under Investigation
       Perl/iX To-Do List
       Perl/iX Change History
       AUTHOR

       perlnetware - Perl for NetWare


       DESCRIPTION
       BUILD
           Tools & SDK
           Setup
               SetNWBld.bat, Buildtype.bat

           Make
           Interpreter
           Extensions
       INSTALL
       BUILD NEW EXTENSIONS
       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       AUTHORS
       DATE

       perlos2 - Perl under OS/2, DOS, Win0.3*, Win0.95 and WinNT.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Target
           Other OSes
           Prerequisites
               EMX, RSX, HPFS, pdksh

           Starting Perl programs under OS/2 (and DOS and...)
           Starting OS/2 (and DOS) programs under Perl
       Frequently asked questions
           "It does not work"
           I cannot run external programs
           I cannot embed perl into my program, or use perl.dll from my pro-
           gram.
               Is your program EMX-compiled with "-Zmt -Zcrtdll"?, Did you use
               ExtUtils::Embed?

           ‘‘ and pipe-"open" do not work under DOS.
           Cannot start "find.exe "pattern" file"
       INSTALLATION
           Automatic binary installation
               "PERL_BADLANG", "PERL_BADFREE", Config.pm

           Manual binary installation
               Perl VIO and PM executables (dynamically linked), Perl_ VIO
               executable (statically linked), Executables for Perl utilities,
               Main Perl library, Additional Perl modules, Tools to compile
               Perl modules, Manpages for Perl and utilities, Manpages for
               Perl modules, Source for Perl documentation, Perl manual in
               .INF format, Pdksh

           Warning
       Accessing documentation
           OS/2 .INF file
           Plain text
           Manpages
           HTML
           GNU "info" files
           PDF files
           "LaTeX" docs
       BUILD
           The short story
           Prerequisites
           Getting perl source
           Application of the patches
           Hand-editing
           Making
           Testing
               A lot of "bad free", Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT,
               op/fs.t, op/stat.t

           Installing the built perl
           "a.out"-style build
       Building a binary distribution
       Building custom .EXE files
           Making executables with a custom collection of statically loaded
           extensions
           Making executables with a custom search-paths
       Build FAQ
           Some "/" became "\" in pdksh.
           ’errno’ - unresolved external
           Problems with tr or sed
           Some problem (forget which ;-)
           Library ... not found
           Segfault in make
           op/sprintf test failure
       Specific (mis)features of OS/2 port
           "setpriority", "getpriority"
           "system()"
           "extproc" on the first line
           Additional modules:
           Prebuilt methods:
               "File::Copy::syscopy", "DynaLoader::mod2fname",  "Cwd::cur-
               rent_drive()",
                "Cwd::sys_chdir(name)",  "Cwd::change_drive(name)",
               "Cwd::sys_is_absolute(name)", "Cwd::sys_is_rooted(name)",
               "Cwd::sys_is_relative(name)", "Cwd::sys_cwd(name)",
               "Cwd::sys_abspath(name, dir)",  "Cwd::extLibpath([type])",
               "Cwd::extLibpath_set( path [, type ] )", "OS2::Error(do_harder-
               ror,do_exception)", "OS2::Errors2Drive(drive)", OS2::SysInfo(),
               OS2::BootDrive(), "OS2::MorphPM(serve)", "OS2::UnMor-
               phPM(serve)", "OS2::Serve_Messages(force)", "OS2::Process_Mes-
               sages(force [, cnt])", "OS2::_control87(new,mask)",
               OS2::get_control87(), "OS2::set_con-
               trol87_em(new=MCW_EM,mask=MCW_EM)", "OS2::DLLname([how [,
               \&xsub]])"

           Prebuilt variables:
               $OS2::emx_rev, $OS2::emx_env, $OS2::os_ver, $OS2::is_aout,
               $OS2::can_fork, $OS2::nsyserror

           Misfeatures
           Modifications
               "popen", "tmpnam", "tmpfile", "ctermid", "stat", "mkdir",
               "rmdir", "flock"

           Identifying DLLs
           Centralized management of resources
               "HAB", "HMQ", Treating errors reported by OS/2 API, "CheckOSEr-
               ror(expr)", "CheckWinError(expr)", "SaveWinError(expr)", "Save-
               CroakWinError(expr,die,name1,name2)", "WinError_2_Perl_rc",
               "FillWinError", "FillOSError(rc)", Loading DLLs and ordinals in
               DLLs

       Perl flavors
           perl.exe
           perl_.exe
           perl__.exe
           perl___.exe
           Why strange names?
           Why dynamic linking?
           Why chimera build?
       ENVIRONMENT
           "PERLLIB_PREFIX"
           "PERL_BADLANG"
           "PERL_BADFREE"
           "PERL_SH_DIR"
           "USE_PERL_FLOCK"
           "TMP" or "TEMP"
       Evolution
           Text-mode filehandles
           Priorities
           DLL name mangling: pre 5.6.2
           DLL name mangling: 5.6.2 and beyond
               Global DLLs, specific DLLs, "BEGINLIBPATH" and "ENDLIBPATH", .
               from "LIBPATH"

           DLL forwarder generation
           Threading
           Calls to external programs
           Memory allocation
           Threads
               "COND_WAIT", os2.c

       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       perlos390, README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and
       z/OS


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Tools
           Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
           Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
           Configure Perl on OS/390
           Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
           Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
           Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
           Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
           Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
           Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
           Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO
           Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
       HISTORY

       perlos400, README.os400 - Perl version 5 on OS/400


       DESCRIPTION
           Compiling Perl for OS/400 PASE
           Installing Perl in OS/400 PASE
           Using Perl in OS/400 PASE
           Known Problems
           Perl on ILE
       AUTHORS

       perlplan9 - Plan 9-specific documentation for Perl


       DESCRIPTION
           Invoking Perl
           What’s in Plan 9 Perl
           What’s not in Plan 9 Perl
           Perl5 Functions not currently supported in Plan 9 Perl
           Signals in Plan 9 Perl
       COMPILING AND INSTALLING PERL ON PLAN 9
           Installing Perl Documentation on Plan 9
       BUGS
       Revision date
       AUTHOR

       perlqnx, README.qnx - Perl version 5 on QNX


       DESCRIPTION
           Required Software for Compiling Perl on QNX4
               /bin/sh, ar, nm, cpp, make

           Outstanding Issues with Perl on QNX4
           QNX auxiliary files
               qnx/ar, qnx/cpp

           Outstanding issues with perl under QNX6
       AUTHOR

       perlsolaris, README.solaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems


       DESCRIPTION
           Solaris Version Numbers.
       RESOURCES
           Solaris FAQ, Precompiled Binaries, Solaris Documentation

       SETTING UP
           File Extraction Problems on Solaris.
           Compiler and Related Tools on Solaris.
           Environment for Compiling perl on Solaris
       RUN CONFIGURE.
           64-bit perl on Solaris.
           Threads in perl on Solaris.
           Malloc Issues with perl on Solaris.
       MAKE PROBLEMS.
           Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld, ld.so.1: ./perl:
           fatal: relocation error:, dlopen: stub interception failed, #error
           "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified", sh: ar: not found

       MAKE TEST
           op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris
           nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
       PREBUILT BINARIES OF PERL FOR SOLARIS.
       RUNTIME ISSUES FOR PERL ON SOLARIS.
           Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris.
       SOLARIS-SPECIFIC MODULES.
       SOLARIS-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WITH MODULES.
           Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris
           BSD::Resource on Solaris
           Net::SSLeay on Solaris
       SunOS 4.x
       AUTHOR
       LAST MODIFIED

       perltru64, README.tru64 - Perl version 5 on Tru64 (formerly known as
       Digital UNIX formerly known as DEC OSF/1) systems


       DESCRIPTION
           Compiling Perl 5 on Tru64
           Using Large Files with Perl on Tru64
           Threaded Perl on Tru64
           Long Doubles on Tru64
           DB_File tests failing on Tru64
           64-bit Perl on Tru64
           Warnings about floating-point overflow when compiling Perl on Tru64
       Testing Perl on Tru64
       ext/ODBM_File/odbm Test Failing With Static Builds
       Perl Fails Because Of Unresolved Symbol sockatmark
       AUTHOR

       perluts - Perl under UTS


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUILDING PERL ON UTS
       Installing the built perl on UTS
       AUTHOR

       perlvmesa, README.vmesa - building and installing Perl for VM/ESA.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Unpacking Perl Distribution on VM/ESA
           Setup Perl and utilities on VM/ESA
           Configure Perl on VM/ESA
           Testing Anomalies of Perl on VM/ESA
           Usage Hints for Perl on VM/ESA
       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO
           Mailing list for Perl on VM/ESA

       perlvms - VMS-specific documentation for Perl


       DESCRIPTION
       Installation
       Organization of Perl Images
           Core Images
           Perl Extensions
           Installing static extensions
           Installing dynamic extensions
       File specifications
           Syntax
           Wildcard expansion
           Pipes
       PERL5LIB and PERLLIB
       Command line
           I/O redirection and backgrounding
           Command line switches
               -i, -S, -u

       Perl functions
           File tests, backticks, binmode FILEHANDLE, crypt PLAINTEXT, USER,
           dump, exec LIST, fork, getpwent, getpwnam, getpwuid, gmtime, kill,
           qx//, select (system call), stat EXPR, system LIST, time, times,
           unlink LIST, utime LIST, waitpid PID,FLAGS

       Perl variables
           %ENV, CRTL_ENV, CLISYM_[LOCAL], Any other string, $!, $^E, $?, $│

       Standard modules with VMS-specific differences
           SDBM_File
       Revision date
       AUTHOR

       perlvos, README.vos - Perl for Stratus VOS


       SYNOPSIS
           Multiple methods to build perl for VOS
           Stratus POSIX Support
       INSTALLING PERL IN VOS
           Compiling Perl 5 on VOS
           Installing Perl 5 on VOS
       USING PERL IN VOS
           Unimplemented Features of Perl on VOS
           Restrictions of Perl on VOS
           Handling of underflow and overflow
       TEST STATUS
       SUPPORT STATUS
       AUTHOR
       LAST UPDATE

       perlwin32 - Perl under Windows


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Setting Up Perl on Win32
               Make, Command Shell, Borland C++, Microsoft Visual C++,
               Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003, Microsoft Platform SDK
               64-bit Compiler, MinGW release 3 with gcc, MinGW release 1 with
               gcc

           Building
           Testing Perl on Win32
           Installation of Perl on Win32
           Usage Hints for Perl on Win32
               Environment Variables, File Globbing, Using perl from the com-
               mand line, Building Extensions, Command-line Wildcard Expan-
               sion, Win32 Specific Extensions, Notes on 64-bit Windows

           Running Perl Scripts
           Miscellaneous Things
       BUGS AND CAVEATS
       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       AUTHORS
           Gary Ng <71564.1743@CompuServe.COM>, Gurusamy Sarathy
           <gsar@activestate.com>, Nick Ing-Simmons <nick@ing-simmons.net>

       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY


PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION

       attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           method, locked

       re - Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       threadshared::shared, threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data
       structures between threads


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXPORT
       FUNCTIONS
           share VARIABLE, lock VARIABLE, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_wait COND-
           VAR, LOCKVAR, cond_timedwait VARIABLE, ABS_TIMEOUT, cond_timedwait
           CONDVAR, ABS_TIMEOUT, LOCKVAR, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast
           VARIABLE

       NOTES
       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       threads - Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads from
       perl


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           $thread = threads->create(function, LIST), $thread->join,
           $thread->detach, threads->self, $thread->tid, threads->object( tid
           ), threads->yield();, threads->list();, async BLOCK;

       WARNINGS
           A thread exited while %d other threads were still running

       TODO
       BUGS
           Parent-Child threads, Returning objects, Creating threads inside
           BEGIN blocks, PERL_OLD_SIGNALS are not threadsafe, will not be

       AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
       SEE ALSO

       attributes - get/set subroutine or variable attributes


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Built-in Attributes
               locked, method, lvalue

           Available Subroutines
               get, reftype

           Package-specific Attribute Handling
               FETCH_type_ATTRIBUTES, MODIFY_type_ATTRIBUTES

           Syntax of Attribute Lists
       EXPORTS
           Default exports
           Available exports
           Export tags defined
       EXAMPLES
       SEE ALSO

       autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       WARNING
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       base - Establish IS-A relationship with base classes at compile time


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       DIAGNOSTICS
           Base class package "%s" is empty

       HISTORY
       CAVEATS
       SEE ALSO

       bigint - Transparent BigInteger support for Perl


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           OPTIONS
               a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, v or ver-
               sion

           MATH LIBRARY
           INTERNAL FORMAT
           SIGN
           METHODS
           CAVEAT
       MODULES USED
       EXAMPLES
       LICENSE
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS

       bignum - Transparent BigNumber support for Perl


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           OPTIONS
               a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, v or ver-
               sion

           METHODS
           CAVEAT
               inf(), NaN(), upgrade()

           MATH LIBRARY
           INTERNAL FORMAT
           SIGN
       MODULES USED
       EXAMPLES
       LICENSE
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS

       bigrat - Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for Perl


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           MODULES USED
           MATH LIBRARY
           SIGN
           METHODS
           CAVEAT
       EXAMPLES
                   perl -Mbigrat -le ’print sqrt(33)’
                   perl -Mbigrat -le ’print 2*255’
                   perl -Mbigrat -le ’print 4.5+2*255’
                   perl -Mbigrat -le ’print 3/7 + 5/7 + 8/3’
                   perl -Mbigrat -le ’print 12->is_odd()’;

       LICENSE
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS

       blib - Use MakeMakers uninstalled version of a package


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       bytes - Perl pragma to force byte semantics rather than character
       semantics


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       LIMITATIONS
       SEE ALSO

       charnames - define character names for "\N{named}" string literal
       escapes


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CUSTOM TRANSLATORS
       CUSTOM ALIASES
           Anonymous hashes
           Alias file
           Alias shortcut
       charnames::viacode(code)
       charnames::vianame(name)
       ALIASES
       ILLEGAL CHARACTERS
       BUGS

       constant - Perl pragma to declare constants


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTES
           List constants
           Defining multiple constants at once
           Magic constants
       TECHNICAL NOTES
       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       diagnostics, splain - produce verbose warning diagnostics


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           The "diagnostics" Pragma
           The splain Program
       EXAMPLES
       INTERNALS
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       encoding - allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
           Literal Conversions
           PerlIO layers for "STD(IN│OUT)"
           Implicit upgrading for byte strings
       FEATURES THAT REQUIRE 5.8.1
           "NON-EUC" doublebyte encodings, tr//, DATA pseudo-filehandle

       USAGE
           use encoding [ENCNAME] ;, use encoding ENCNAME [ STDIN => ENC-
           NAME_IN ...] ;, use encoding ENCNAME Filter=>1;, no encoding;

       The Filter Option
           Filter-related changes at Encode version 1.87
       CAVEATS
           NOT SCOPED
           DO NOT MIX MULTIPLE ENCODINGS
           tr/// with ranges
               Legend of characters above

       EXAMPLE - Greekperl
       KNOWN PROBLEMS
           literals in regex that are longer than 127 bytes, EBCDIC, format

           The Logic of :locale
       HISTORY
       SEE ALSO

       fields - compile-time class fields


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           new, phash

       SEE ALSO

       filetest - Perl pragma to control the filetest permission operators

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           subpragma access

       if - "use" a Perl module if a condition holds


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       integer - Perl pragma to use integer arithmetic instead of floating
       point


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       less - perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       lib - manipulate @INC at compile time


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Adding directories to @INC
           Deleting directories from @INC
           Restoring original @INC
       CAVEATS
       NOTES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       locale - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in opera-
       tions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       open - perl pragma to set default PerlIO layers for input and output


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NONPERLIO FUNCTIONALITY
       IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
       SEE ALSO

       ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       overload - Package for overloading perl operations


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Declaration of overloaded functions
           Calling Conventions for Binary Operations
               FALSE, TRUE, "undef"

           Calling Conventions for Unary Operations
           Calling Conventions for Mutators
               "++" and "--", "x=" and other assignment versions

           Overloadable Operations
               Arithmetic operations, Comparison operations, Bit operations,
               Increment and decrement, Transcendental functions, Boolean,
               string and numeric conversion, Iteration, Dereferencing, Spe-
               cial

           Inheritance and overloading
               Strings as values of "use overload" directive, Overloading of
               an operation is inherited by derived classes

       SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR "use overload"
           Last Resort
           Fallback
               "undef", TRUE, defined, but FALSE

           Copy Constructor
               Example

       MAGIC AUTOGENERATION
           Assignment forms of arithmetic operations, Conversion operations,
           Increment and decrement, "abs($a)", Unary minus, Negation, Concate-
           nation, Comparison operations, Iterator, Dereferencing, Copy opera-
           tor

       Losing overloading
       Run-time Overloading
       Public functions
           overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), over-
           load::Method(obj,op)

       Overloading constants
           integer, float, binary, q, qr

       IMPLEMENTATION
       Metaphor clash
       Cookbook
           Two-face scalars
           Two-face references
           Symbolic calculator
           Really symbolic calculator
       AUTHOR
       DIAGNOSTICS
           Odd number of arguments for overload::constant, ‘%s’ is not an
           overloadable type, ‘%s’ is not a code reference

       BUGS

       sigtrap - Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OPTIONS
           SIGNAL HANDLERS
               stack-trace, die, handler your-handler

           SIGNAL LISTS
               normal-signals, error-signals, old-interface-signals

           OTHER
               untrapped, any, signal, number

       EXAMPLES

       sort - perl pragma to control sort() behaviour

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CAVEATS

       strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           "strict refs", "strict vars", "strict subs"

       HISTORY

       subs - Perl pragma to predeclare sub names

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       threadshared, threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data struc-
       tures between threads


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXPORT
       FUNCTIONS
           share VARIABLE, lock VARIABLE, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_wait COND-
           VAR, LOCKVAR, cond_timedwait VARIABLE, ABS_TIMEOUT, cond_timedwait
           CONDVAR, ABS_TIMEOUT, LOCKVAR, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast
           VARIABLE

       NOTES
       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       utf8 - Perl pragma to enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source
       code


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Utility functions
               $num_octets = utf8::upgrade($string), $success = utf8::down-
               grade($string[, FAIL_OK]), utf8::encode($string),
               utf8::decode($string), $flag = utf8::is_utf8(STRING), $flag =
               utf8::valid(STRING)

       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       vars - Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names (obsolete)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       vmsish - Perl pragma to control VMS-specific language features


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           "vmsish status", "vmsish exit", "vmsish time", "vmsish hushed"

       warnings - Perl pragma to control optional warnings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           use warnings::register, warnings::enabled(), warn-
           ings::enabled($category), warnings::enabled($object), warn-
           ings::warn($message), warnings::warn($category, $message), warn-
           ings::warn($object, $message), warnings::warnif($message), warn-
           ings::warnif($category, $message), warnings::warnif($object, $mes-
           sage)

       warnings::register - warnings import function


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION


MODULE DOCUMENTATION

       AnyDBM_File - provide framework for multiple DBMs


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           DBM Comparisons
               [0], [1], [2], [3]

       SEE ALSO

       Attribute::Handlers - Simpler definition of attribute handlers

       VERSION
       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]

           Typed lexicals
           Type-specific attribute handlers
           Non-interpretive attribute handlers
           Phase-specific attribute handlers
           Attributes as "tie" interfaces
       EXAMPLES
       DIAGNOSTICS
           "Bad attribute type: ATTR(%s)", "Attribute handler %s doesn’t han-
           dle %s attributes", "Declaration of %s attribute in package %s may
           clash with future reserved word", "Can’t have two ATTR specifiers
           on one subroutine", "Can’t autotie a %s", "Internal error: %s sym-
           bol went missing", "Won’t be able to apply END handler"

       AUTHOR
       BUGS
       COPYRIGHT

       AutoLoader - load subroutines only on demand


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Subroutine Stubs
           Using AutoLoader’s AUTOLOAD Subroutine
           Overriding AutoLoader’s AUTOLOAD Subroutine
           Package Lexicals
           Not Using AutoLoader
           AutoLoader vs. SelfLoader
       CAVEATS
       SEE ALSO

       AutoSplit - split a package for autoloading


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           $keep, $check, $modtime

           Multiple packages
       DIAGNOSTICS

       B - The Perl Compiler


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OVERVIEW
       Utility Functions
           Functions Returning "B::SV", "B::AV", "B::HV", and "B::CV" objects
               sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no, svref_2object(SVREF), amagic_genera-
               tion, init_av, check_av, begin_av, end_av, comppadlist,
               regex_padav, main_cv

           Functions for Examining the Symbol Table
               walksymtable(SYMREF, METHOD, RECURSE, PREFIX)

           Functions Returning "B::OP" objects or for walking op trees
               main_root, main_start, walkoptree(OP, METHOD), walkop-
               tree_debug(DEBUG)

           Miscellaneous Utility Functions
               ppname(OPNUM), hash(STR), cast_I32(I), minus_c, cstring(STR),
               perlstring(STR), class(OBJ), threadsv_names

       OVERVIEW OF CLASSES
           SV-RELATED CLASSES
           B::SV Methods
               REFCNT, FLAGS, object_2svref

           B::IV Methods
               IV, IVX, UVX, int_value, needs64bits, packiv

           B::NV Methods
               NV, NVX

           B::RV Methods
               RV

           B::PV Methods
               PV, RV, PVX

           B::PVMG Methods
               MAGIC, SvSTASH

           B::MAGIC Methods
               MOREMAGIC, precomp, PRIVATE, TYPE, FLAGS, OBJ, PTR, REGEX

           B::PVLV Methods
               TARGOFF, TARGLEN, TYPE, TARG

           B::BM Methods
               USEFUL, PREVIOUS, RARE, TABLE

           B::GV Methods
               is_empty, NAME, SAFENAME, STASH, SV, IO, FORM, AV, HV, EGV, CV,
               CVGEN, LINE, FILE, FILEGV, GvREFCNT, FLAGS

           B::IO Methods
               LINES, PAGE, PAGE_LEN, LINES_LEFT, TOP_NAME, TOP_GV, FMT_NAME,
               FMT_GV, BOTTOM_NAME, BOTTOM_GV, SUBPROCESS, IoTYPE, IoFLAGS,
               IsSTD

           B::AV Methods
               FILL, MAX, OFF, ARRAY, ARRAYelt, AvFLAGS

           B::CV Methods
               STASH, START, ROOT, GV, FILE, DEPTH, PADLIST, OUTSIDE, OUT-
               SIDE_SEQ, XSUB, XSUBANY, CvFLAGS, const_sv

           B::HV Methods
               FILL, MAX, KEYS, RITER, NAME, PMROOT, ARRAY

           OP-RELATED CLASSES
           B::OP Methods
               next, sibling, name, ppaddr, desc, targ, type, opt, static,
               flags, private, spare

           B::UNOP METHOD
               first

           B::BINOP METHOD
               last

           B::LOGOP METHOD
               other

           B::LISTOP METHOD
               children

           B::PMOP Methods
               pmreplroot, pmreplstart, pmnext, pmregexp, pmflags, pmdynflags,
               pmpermflags, precomp, pmoffset

           B::SVOP METHOD
               sv, gv

           B::PADOP METHOD
               padix

           B::PVOP METHOD
               pv

           B::LOOP Methods
               redoop, nextop, lastop

           B::COP Methods
               label, stash, stashpv, file, cop_seq, arybase, line, warnings,
               io

       AUTHOR

       B::Asmdata - Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate byte-
       code

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           %insn_data, @insn_name, @optype, @specialsv_name

       AUTHOR

       B::Assembler - Assemble Perl bytecode

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHORS

       B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Functions
               find_leaders

       AUTHOR

       B::Bytecode - Perl compilers bytecode backend

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLE
       OPTIONS
           -b, -H, -k, -ooutfile, -s

       KNOWN BUGS
       NOTICE
       AUTHORS

       B::C - Perl compilers C backend


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OPTIONS
           -ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -D, -Do, -Dc, -DA, -DC, -DM, -f,
           -fcog, -fsave-data, -fppaddr, -fwarn-sv, -fuse-script-name,
           -fsave-sig-hash, -On, -O0, -O1, -O2, -llimit

       EXAMPLES
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       B::CC - Perl compilers optimized C translation backend


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OPTIONS
           -ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -mModulename, -D, -Dr, -DO, -Ds,
           -Dp, -Dq, -Dl, -Dt, -f, -ffreetmps-each-bblock,
           -ffreetmps-each-loop, -fomit-taint, -On

       EXAMPLES
       BUGS
       DIFFERENCES
           Loops
           Context of ".."
           Arithmetic
           Deprecated features
       AUTHOR

       B::Concise - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLE
       OPTIONS
           Options for Opcode Ordering
               -basic, -exec, -tree

           Options for Line-Style
               -concise, -terse, -linenoise, -debug, -env

           Options for tree-specific formatting
               -compact, -loose, -vt, -ascii

           Options controlling sequence numbering
               -basen, -bigendian, -littleendian

           Other options
               -main, -nomain, -nobanner, -banner, -banneris => subref

           Option Stickiness
       ABBREVIATIONS
           OP class abbreviations
           OP flags abbreviations
       FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS
           Special Patterns
               (x(exec_text;basic_text)x), (*(text)*), (*(text1;text2)*),
               (?(text1#varText2)?), ~

           # Variables
               #var, #varN, #Var, #addr, #arg, #class, #classsym, #coplabel,
               #exname, #extarg, #firstaddr, #flags, #flagval, #hyphseq,
               #label, #lastaddr, #name, #NAME, #next, #nextaddr, #noise,
               #private, #privval, #seq, #seqnum, #opt, #static, #sibaddr,
               #svaddr, #svclass, #svval, #targ, #targarg, #targarglife,
               #typenum

       Using B::Concise outside of the O framework
           Example: Altering Concise Renderings
           set_style()
           set_style_standard($name)
           add_style()
           add_callback()
           Running B::Concise::compile()
           B::Concise::reset_sequence()
           Errors
       AUTHOR

       B::Debug - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR

       B::Deparse - Perl compiler backend to produce perl code


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OPTIONS
           -d, -fFILE, -l, -p, -P, -q, -sLETTERS, C, iNUMBER, T, vSTRING.,
           -xLEVEL

       USING B::Deparse AS A MODULE
           Synopsis
           Description
           new
           ambient_pragmas
               strict, $[, bytes, utf8, integer, re, warnings, hint_bits,
               warning_bits

           coderef2text
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       B::Disassembler - Disassemble Perl bytecode


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR

       B::Lint - Perl lint


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OPTIONS AND LINT CHECKS
           context, implicit-read and implicit-write, bare-subs, dollar-under-
           score, private-names, undefined-subs, regexp-variables, all, none

       NON LINT-CHECK OPTIONS
           -u Package

       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       B::O, O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONVENTIONS
       IMPLEMENTATION
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       B::Showlex - Show lexical variables used in functions or files


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLES
           OPTIONS
       SEE ALSO
       TODO
       AUTHOR

       B::Stackobj - Helper module for CC backend


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR

       B::Stash - show what stashes are loaded


       B::Terse - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR

       B::Xref - Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OPTIONS
           "-oFILENAME", "-r", "-d", "-D[tO]"

       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       Bblock, B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Functions
               find_leaders

       AUTHOR

       Benchmark - benchmark running times of Perl code

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Methods
               new, debug, iters

           Standard Exports
               timeit(COUNT, CODE), timethis ( COUNT, CODE, [ TITLE, [ STYLE
               ]] ), timethese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), timediff (
               T1, T2 ), timestr ( TIMEDIFF, [ STYLE, [ FORMAT ] ] )

           Optional Exports
               clearcache ( COUNT ), clearallcache ( ), cmpthese ( COUNT,
               CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), cmpthese ( RESULTSHASHREF, [ STYLE ]
               ), countit(TIME, CODE), disablecache ( ), enablecache ( ),
               timesum ( T1, T2 )

           :hireswallclock
       NOTES
       EXAMPLES
       INHERITANCE
       CAVEATS
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS
       MODIFICATION HISTORY

       ByteLoader - load byte compiled perl code


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Bytecode, B::Bytecode - Perl compilers bytecode backend


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLE
       OPTIONS
           -b, -H, -k, -ooutfile, -s

       KNOWN BUGS
       NOTICE
       AUTHORS

       CGI - Simple Common Gateway Interface Class


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
           PROGRAMMING STYLE
           CALLING CGI.PM ROUTINES
           CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT (OBJECT-ORIENTED STYLE):
           CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE
           FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY:
           FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT:
           FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER:
           SETTING THE VALUE(S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER:
           APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER:
           IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE:
           DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY:
           DELETING ALL PARAMETERS:
           DIRECT ACCESS TO THE PARAMETER LIST:
           FETCHING THE PARAMETER LIST AS A HASH:
           SAVING THE STATE OF THE SCRIPT TO A FILE:
           RETRIEVING CGI ERRORS
           USING THE FUNCTION-ORIENTED INTERFACE
               :cgi, :form, :html2, :html3, :html4, :netscape, :html, :stan-
               dard, :all

           PRAGMAS
               -any, -compile, -nosticky, -no_undef_params, -no_xhtml, -nph,
               -newstyle_urls, -oldstyle_urls, -autoload, -no_debug, -debug,
               -private_tempfiles

           SPECIAL FORMS FOR IMPORTING HTML-TAG FUNCTIONS
               1. start_table() (generates a <table> tag), 2. end_table()
               (generates a </table> tag), 3. start_ul() (generates a <ul>
               tag), 4. end_ul() (generates a </ul> tag)

       GENERATING DYNAMIC DOCUMENTS
           CREATING A STANDARD HTTP HEADER:
           GENERATING A REDIRECTION HEADER
           CREATING THE HTML DOCUMENT HEADER
               Parameters:, 4, 5, 6..

           ENDING THE HTML DOCUMENT:
           CREATING A SELF-REFERENCING URL THAT PRESERVES STATE INFORMATION:
           OBTAINING THE SCRIPT’S URL
               -absolute, -relative, -full, -path (-path_info), -query
               (-query_string), -base

           MIXING POST AND URL PARAMETERS
       CREATING STANDARD HTML ELEMENTS:
           PROVIDING ARGUMENTS TO HTML SHORTCUTS
           THE DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY OF HTML SHORTCUTS
           HTML SHORTCUTS AND LIST INTERPOLATION
           NON-STANDARD HTML SHORTCUTS
           AUTOESCAPING HTML
               $escaped_string = escapeHTML("unescaped string");, $charset =
               charset([$charset]);, $flag = autoEscape([$flag]);

           PRETTY-PRINTING HTML
       CREATING FILL-OUT FORMS:
           CREATING AN ISINDEX TAG
           STARTING AND ENDING A FORM
               application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data

           CREATING A TEXT FIELD
               Parameters

           CREATING A BIG TEXT FIELD
           CREATING A PASSWORD FIELD
           CREATING A FILE UPLOAD FIELD
               Parameters

           CREATING A POPUP MENU
           CREATING AN OPTION GROUP
           CREATING A SCROLLING LIST
               Parameters:

           CREATING A GROUP OF RELATED CHECKBOXES
               Parameters:

           CREATING A STANDALONE CHECKBOX
               Parameters:

           CREATING A RADIO BUTTON GROUP
               Parameters:

           CREATING A SUBMIT BUTTON
               Parameters:

           CREATING A RESET BUTTON
           CREATING A DEFAULT BUTTON
           CREATING A HIDDEN FIELD
               Parameters:

           CREATING A CLICKABLE IMAGE BUTTON
               Parameters:, 3. The third option (-align, optional) is an
               alignment type, and may be TOP, BOTTOM or MIDDLE

           CREATING A JAVASCRIPT ACTION BUTTON
       HTTP COOKIES
           1. an expiration time, 2. a domain, 3. a path, 4. a "secure" flag,
           -name, -value, -path, -domain, -expires, -secure

       WORKING WITH FRAMES
           1. Create a <Frameset> document, 2. Specify the destination for the
           document in the HTTP header, 3. Specify the destination for the
           document in the <form> tag

       LIMITED SUPPORT FOR CASCADING STYLE SHEETS
       DEBUGGING
           DUMPING OUT ALL THE NAME/VALUE PAIRS
       FETCHING ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
           AAcccceepptt(()), rraaww_ccooookkiiee(()), uusseerr_aaggeenntt(()), ppaatthh_iinnffoo(()), ppaatthh_ttrraannss--
           llaatteedd(()), rreemmoottee_hhoosstt(()), ssccrriipptt_nnaammee(()) Return the script name as a
           partial URL, for self-refering scripts, rreeffeerreerr(()), auth_type (),
           server_name (), virtual_host (), server_port (), virtual_port (),
           server_software (), remote_user (), user_name (), rreeqquueesstt_mmeetthhoodd(()),
           ccoonntteenntt_ttyyppee(()), hhttttpp(()), hhttttppss(())

       USING NPH SCRIPTS
           In the use statement, By calling the nnpphh(()) method:, By using -nph
           parameters

       Server Push
           multipart_init(), multipart_start(), multipart_end(), multi-
           part_final()

       Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks
           $CGI::POST_MAX, $CGI::DISABLE_UPLOADS, 1. On a script-by-script
           basis, 2. Globally for all scripts

       COMPATIBILITY WITH CGI-LIB.PL
       AUTHOR INFORMATION
       CREDITS
           Matt Heffron (heffron@falstaff.css.beckman.com), James Taylor
           (james.taylor@srs.gov), Scott Anguish <sanguish@digifix.com>, Mike
           Jewell (mlj3u@virginia.edu), Timothy Shimmin
           (tes@kbs.citri.edu.au), Joergen Haegg (jh@axis.se), Laurent
           Delfosse (delfosse@delfosse.com), Richard Resnick
           (applepi1@aol.com), Craig Bishop (csb@barwonwater.vic.gov.au), Tony
           Curtis (tc@vcpc.univie.ac.at), Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk), Tom
           Christiansen (tchrist@convex.com), Andreas Koenig
           (k@franz.ww.TU-Berlin.DE), Tim MacKenzie (Tim.MacKenzie@ful-
           crum.com.au), Kevin B. Hendricks (kbhend@dogwood.tyler.wm.edu),
           Stephen Dahmen (joyfire@inxpress.net), Ed Jordan (ed@fidalgo.net),
           David Alan Pisoni (david@cnation.com), Doug MacEachern (dougm@open-
           group.org), Robin Houston (robin@oneworld.org), ...and many many
           more..

       A COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE FORM-BASED SCRIPT
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       CGI::Apache - Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR INFORMATION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       CGI::Carp, CGI::Carp - CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other)
       error log


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       REDIRECTING ERROR MESSAGES
       MAKING PERL ERRORS APPEAR IN THE BROWSER WINDOW
           Changing the default message
       MAKING WARNINGS APPEAR AS HTML COMMENTS
       OVERRIDING THE NAME OF THE PROGRAM
       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO

       CGI::Cookie - Interface to Netscape Cookies


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       USING CGI::Cookie
           1. expiration date, 2. domain, 3. path, 4. secure flag

           Creating New Cookies
           Sending the Cookie to the Browser
           Recovering Previous Cookies
           Manipulating Cookies
               nnaammee(()), vvaalluuee(()), ddoommaaiinn(()), ppaatthh(()), eexxppiirreess(())

       AUTHOR INFORMATION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       CGI::Fast - CGI Interface for Fast CGI


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OTHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE
       WRITING FASTCGI PERL SCRIPTS
       INSTALLING FASTCGI SCRIPTS
       USING FASTCGI SCRIPTS AS CGI SCRIPTS
       EXTERNAL FASTCGI SERVER INVOCATION
           FCGI_SOCKET_PATH, FCGI_LISTEN_QUEUE

       CAVEATS
       AUTHOR INFORMATION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       CGI::Pretty - module to produce nicely formatted HTML code


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Tags that won’t be formatted
           Customizing the Indenting
       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       CGI::Push - Simple Interface to Server Push


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       USING CGI::Push
           -next_page, -last_page, -type, -delay, -cookie, -target, -expires,
           -nph

           Heterogeneous Pages
           Changing the Page Delay on the Fly
       INSTALLING CGI::Push SCRIPTS
       AUTHOR INFORMATION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       CGI::Switch - Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR INFORMATION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       CGI::Util - Internal utilities used by CGI module


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR INFORMATION
       SEE ALSO

       CPAN - query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites


       SYNOPSIS
       STATUS
       DESCRIPTION
           Interactive Mode
               Searching for authors, bundles, distribution files and modules,
               make, test, install, clean modules or distributions, get,
               readme, look module or distribution, ls author, Signals

           CPAN::Shell
           autobundle
           recompile
           The four "CPAN::*" Classes: Author, Bundle, Module, Distribution
           Programmer’s interface
               expand($type,@things), expandany(@things), Programming Examples

           Methods in the other Classes
               CPAN::Author::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Author::as_string(),
               CPAN::Author::email(), CPAN::Author::fullname(),
               CPAN::Author::name(), CPAN::Bundle::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Bun-
               dle::as_string(), CPAN::Bundle::clean(), CPAN::Bundle::con-
               tains(), CPAN::Bundle::force($method,@args), CPAN::Bun-
               dle::get(), CPAN::Bundle::inst_file(), CPAN::Bundle::inst_ver-
               sion(), CPAN::Bundle::uptodate(), CPAN::Bundle::install(),
               CPAN::Bundle::make(), CPAN::Bundle::readme(), CPAN::Bun-
               dle::test(), CPAN::Distribution::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Distribu-
               tion::as_string(), CPAN::Distribution::clean(), CPAN::Distribu-
               tion::containsmods(), CPAN::Distribution::cvs_import(),
               CPAN::Distribution::dir(), CPAN::Distribu-
               tion::force($method,@args), CPAN::Distribution::get(),
               CPAN::Distribution::install(), CPAN::Distribution::isa_perl(),
               CPAN::Distribution::look(), CPAN::Distribution::make(),
               CPAN::Distribution::prereq_pm(), CPAN::Distribution::readme(),
               CPAN::Distribution::test(), CPAN::Distribution::uptodate(),
               CPAN::Index::force_reload(), CPAN::Index::reload(),
               CPAN::InfoObj::dump(), CPAN::Module::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Mod-
               ule::as_string(), CPAN::Module::clean(), CPAN::Mod-
               ule::cpan_file(), CPAN::Module::cpan_version(), CPAN::Mod-
               ule::cvs_import(), CPAN::Module::description(), CPAN::Mod-
               ule::force($method,@args), CPAN::Module::get(), CPAN::Mod-
               ule::inst_file(), CPAN::Module::inst_version(), CPAN::Mod-
               ule::install(), CPAN::Module::look(), CPAN::Module::make(),
               CPAN::Module::manpage_headline(), CPAN::Module::readme(),
               CPAN::Module::test(), CPAN::Module::uptodate(), CPAN::Mod-
               ule::userid()

           Cache Manager
           Bundles
           Prerequisites
           Finding packages and VERSION
           Debugging
           Floppy, Zip, Offline Mode
       CONFIGURATION
           "o conf <scalar option>", "o conf <scalar option> <value>", "o conf
           <list option>", "o conf <list option> [shift│pop]", "o conf <list
           option> [unshift│push│splice] <list>"

           Note on urllist parameter’s format
           urllist parameter has CD-ROM support
       SECURITY
       EXPORT
       POPULATE AN INSTALLATION WITH LOTS OF MODULES
       WORKING WITH CPAN.pm BEHIND FIREWALLS
           Three basic types of firewalls
               http firewall, ftp firewall, One way visibility, SOCKS, IP Mas-
               querade

           Configuring lynx or ncftp for going through a firewall
       FAQ 1), 2), 3), 4), 5), 6), 7), 8), 9), 10)

       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       TRANSLATIONS
       SEE ALSO

       CPAN::FirstTime - Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       CPANox, CPAN::Nox - Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       Carp, carp    - warn of errors (from perspective of caller)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Forcing a Stack Trace
       GLOBAL VARIABLES
           $Carp::CarpLevel
           $Carp::MaxEvalLen
           $Carp::MaxArgLen
           $Carp::MaxArgNums
           $Carp::Verbose
       BUGS

       Carp::Heavy - heavy machinery, no user serviceable parts inside


       Class::ISA -- report the search path for a classs ISA tree


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       FUNCTIONS
           the function Class::ISA::super_path($CLASS), the function
           Class::ISA::self_and_super_path($CLASS), the function
           Class::ISA::self_and_super_versions($CLASS)

       CAUTIONARY NOTES
       COPYRIGHT
       AUTHOR

       Class::Struct - declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           The "struct()" function
           Class Creation at Compile Time
           Element Types and Accessor Methods
               Scalar (’$’ or ’*$’), Array (’@’ or ’*@’), Hash (’%’ or ’*%’),
               Class (’Class_Name’ or ’*Class_Name’)

           Initializing with "new"
       EXAMPLES
           Example 1, Example 2, Example 3

       Author and Modification History

       Config - access Perl configuration information

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           myconfig(), config_sh(), config_re($regex), config_vars(@names)

       EXAMPLE
       WARNING
       GLOSSARY
           _   "_a", "_exe", "_o"

           a   "afs", "afsroot", "alignbytes", "ansi2knr", "aphostname",
               "api_revision", "api_subversion", "api_version", "api_version-
               string", "ar", "archlib", "archlibexp", "archname64", "arch-
               name", "archobjs", "asctime_r_proto", "awk"

           b   "baserev", "bash", "bin", "binexp", "bison", "byacc", "byte-
               order"

           c   "c", "castflags", "cat", "cc", "cccdlflags", "ccdlflags",
               "ccflags", "ccflags_uselargefiles", "ccname", "ccsymbols",
               "ccversion", "cf_by", "cf_email", "cf_time", "charsize",
               "chgrp", "chmod", "chown", "clocktype", "comm", "compress",
               "contains", "cp", "cpio", "cpp", "cpp_stuff", "cppccsymbols",
               "cppflags", "cpplast", "cppminus", "cpprun", "cppstdin", "cpp-
               symbols", "crypt_r_proto", "cryptlib", "csh", "cter-
               mid_r_proto", "ctime_r_proto"

           d   "d__fwalk", "d_access", "d_accessx", "d_aintl", "d_alarm",
               "d_archlib", "d_asctime_r", "d_atolf", "d_atoll", "d_attribut",
               "d_bcmp", "d_bcopy", "d_bsd", "d_bsdgetpgrp", "d_bsdsetpgrp",
               "d_bzero", "d_casti32", "d_castneg", "d_charvspr", "d_chown",
               "d_chroot", "d_chsize", "d_class", "d_closedir", "d_cmsghdr_s",
               "d_const", "d_copysignl", "d_crypt", "d_crypt_r", "d_csh",
               "d_ctermid_r", "d_ctime_r", "d_cuserid", "d_dbl_dig",
               "d_dbminitproto", "d_difftime", "d_dirfd", "d_dirnamlen",
               "d_dlerror", "d_dlopen", "d_dlsymun", "d_dosuid",
               "d_drand48_r", "d_drand48proto", "d_dup2", "d_eaccess", "d_end-
               grent", "d_endgrent_r", "d_endhent", "d_endhostent_r", "d_end-
               nent", "d_endnetent_r", "d_endpent", "d_endprotoent_r", "d_end-
               pwent", "d_endpwent_r", "d_endsent", "d_endservent_r", "d_eofn-
               blk", "d_eunice", "d_faststdio", "d_fchdir", "d_fchmod",
               "d_fchown", "d_fcntl", "d_fcntl_can_lock", "d_fd_macros",
               "d_fd_set", "d_fds_bits", "d_fgetpos", "d_finite", "d_finitel",
               "d_flexfnam", "d_flock", "d_flockproto", "d_fork",
               "d_fp_class", "d_fpathconf", "d_fpclass", "d_fpclassify",
               "d_fpclassl", "d_fpos64_t", "d_frexpl", "d_fs_data_s",
               "d_fseeko", "d_fsetpos", "d_fstatfs", "d_fstatvfs", "d_fsync",
               "d_ftello", "d_ftime", "d_Gconvert", "d_getcwd", "d_getespw-
               nam", "d_getfsstat", "d_getgrent", "d_getgrent_r", "d_get-
               grgid_r", "d_getgrnam_r", "d_getgrps", "d_gethbyaddr", "d_geth-
               byname", "d_gethent", "d_gethname", "d_gethostbyaddr_r",
               "d_gethostbyname_r", "d_gethostent_r", "d_gethostprotos",
               "d_getitimer", "d_getlogin", "d_getlogin_r", "d_getmnt",
               "d_getmntent", "d_getnbyaddr", "d_getnbyname", "d_getnent",
               "d_getnetbyaddr_r", "d_getnetbyname_r", "d_getnetent_r",
               "d_getnetprotos", "d_getpagsz", "d_getpbyname", "d_getpbynum-
               ber", "d_getpent", "d_getpgid", "d_getpgrp2", "d_getpgrp",
               "d_getppid", "d_getprior", "d_getprotobyname_r", "d_getproto-
               bynumber_r", "d_getprotoent_r", "d_getprotoprotos", "d_getprpw-
               nam", "d_getpwent", "d_getpwent_r", "d_getpwnam_r", "d_getp-
               wuid_r", "d_getsbyname", "d_getsbyport", "d_getsent", "d_get-
               servbyname_r", "d_getservbyport_r", "d_getservent_r", "d_get-
               servprotos", "d_getspnam", "d_getspnam_r", "d_gettimeod",
               "d_gmtime_r", "d_gnulibc", "d_grpasswd", "d_hasmntopt",
               "d_htonl", "d_ilogbl", "d_index", "d_inetaton", "d_int64_t",
               "d_isascii", "d_isfinite", "d_isinf", "d_isnan", "d_isnanl",
               "d_killpg", "d_lchown", "d_ldbl_dig", "d_link", "d_local-
               time_r", "d_locconv", "d_lockf", "d_longdbl", "d_longlong",
               "d_lseekproto", "d_lstat", "d_madvise", "d_mblen",
               "d_mbstowcs", "d_mbtowc", "d_memchr", "d_memcmp", "d_memcpy",
               "d_memmove", "d_memset", "d_mkdir", "d_mkdtemp", "d_mkfifo",
               "d_mkstemp", "d_mkstemps", "d_mktime", "d_mmap", "d_modfl",
               "d_modfl_pow32_bug", "d_modflproto", "d_mprotect", "d_msg",
               "d_msg_ctrunc", "d_msg_dontroute", "d_msg_oob", "d_msg_peek",
               "d_msg_proxy", "d_msgctl", "d_msgget", "d_msghdr_s",
               "d_msgrcv", "d_msgsnd", "d_msync", "d_munmap", "d_mymalloc",
               "d_nanosleep", "d_nice", "d_nl_langinfo", "d_nv_preserves_uv",
               "d_off64_t", "d_old_pthread_create_joinable", "d_oldpthreads",
               "d_oldsock", "d_open3", "d_pathconf", "d_pause", "d_perl_other-
               libdirs", "d_phostname", "d_pipe", "d_poll", "d_portable",
               "d_PRId64", "d_PRIeldbl", "d_PRIEUldbl", "d_PRIfldbl", "d_PRI-
               FUldbl", "d_PRIgldbl", "d_PRIGUldbl", "d_PRIi64", "d_PRIo64",
               "d_PRIu64", "d_PRIx64", "d_PRIXU64", "d_procselfexe",
               "d_pthread_atfork", "d_pthread_attr_setscope",
               "d_pthread_yield", "d_pwage", "d_pwchange", "d_pwclass",
               "d_pwcomment", "d_pwexpire", "d_pwgecos", "d_pwpasswd",
               "d_pwquota", "d_qgcvt", "d_quad", "d_random_r", "d_read-
               dir64_r", "d_readdir", "d_readdir_r", "d_readlink", "d_readv",
               "d_recvmsg", "d_rename", "d_rewinddir", "d_rmdir",
               "d_safebcpy", "d_safemcpy", "d_sanemcmp", "d_sbrkproto",
               "d_scalbnl", "d_sched_yield", "d_scm_rights", "d_SCNfldbl",
               "d_seekdir", "d_select", "d_sem", "d_semctl", "d_sem-
               ctl_semid_ds", "d_semctl_semun", "d_semget", "d_semop",
               "d_sendmsg", "d_setegid", "d_seteuid", "d_setgrent", "d_set-
               grent_r", "d_setgrps", "d_sethent", "d_sethostent_r",
               "d_setitimer", "d_setlinebuf", "d_setlocale", "d_setlocale_r",
               "d_setnent", "d_setnetent_r", "d_setpent", "d_setpgid",
               "d_setpgrp2", "d_setpgrp", "d_setprior", "d_setproctitle",
               "d_setprotoent_r", "d_setpwent", "d_setpwent_r", "d_setregid",
               "d_setresgid", "d_setresuid", "d_setreuid", "d_setrgid",
               "d_setruid", "d_setsent", "d_setservent_r", "d_setsid",
               "d_setvbuf", "d_sfio", "d_shm", "d_shmat", "d_shmatprototype",
               "d_shmctl", "d_shmdt", "d_shmget", "d_sigaction", "d_sigproc-
               mask", "d_sigsetjmp", "d_sockatmark", "d_sockatmarkproto",
               "d_socket", "d_socklen_t", "d_sockpair", "d_socks5_init",
               "d_sqrtl", "d_srand48_r", "d_srandom_r", "d_sresgproto",
               "d_sresuproto", "d_statblks", "d_statfs_f_flags", "d_statfs_s",
               "d_statvfs", "d_stdio_cnt_lval", "d_stdio_ptr_lval",
               "d_stdio_ptr_lval_nochange_cnt", "d_stdio_ptr_lval_sets_cnt",
               "d_stdio_stream_array", "d_stdiobase", "d_stdstdio",
               "d_strchr", "d_strcoll", "d_strctcpy", "d_strerrm", "d_str-
               error", "d_strerror_r", "d_strftime", "d_strtod", "d_strtol",
               "d_strtold", "d_strtoll", "d_strtoq", "d_strtoul", "d_str-
               toull", "d_strtouq", "d_strxfrm", "d_suidsafe", "d_symlink",
               "d_syscall", "d_syscallproto", "d_sysconf", "d_sysernlst",
               "d_syserrlst", "d_system", "d_tcgetpgrp", "d_tcsetpgrp",
               "d_telldir", "d_telldirproto", "d_time", "d_times",
               "d_tm_tm_gmtoff", "d_tm_tm_zone", "d_tmpnam_r", "d_truncate",
               "d_ttyname_r", "d_tzname", "d_u32align", "d_ualarm", "d_umask",
               "d_uname", "d_union_semun", "d_unordered", "d_usleep",
               "d_usleepproto", "d_ustat", "d_vendorarch", "d_vendorbin",
               "d_vendorlib", "d_vendorscript", "d_vfork", "d_void_closedir",
               "d_voidsig", "d_voidtty", "d_volatile", "d_vprintf", "d_wait4",
               "d_waitpid", "d_wcstombs", "d_wctomb", "d_writev", "d_xenix",
               "date", "db_hashtype", "db_prefixtype", "db_version_major",
               "db_version_minor", "db_version_patch", "defvoidused", "diren-
               trytype", "dlext", "dlsrc", "doublesize", "drand01",
               "drand48_r_proto", "dynamic_ext"

           e   "eagain", "ebcdic", "echo", "egrep", "emacs", "end-
               grent_r_proto", "endhostent_r_proto", "endnetent_r_proto",
               "endprotoent_r_proto", "endpwent_r_proto", "endser-
               vent_r_proto", "eunicefix", "exe_ext", "expr", "extensions",
               "extras"

           f   "fflushall", "fflushNULL", "find", "firstmakefile", "flex",
               "fpossize", "fpostype", "freetype", "from", "full_ar",
               "full_csh", "full_sed"

           g   "gccansipedantic", "gccosandvers", "gccversion", "get-
               grent_r_proto", "getgrgid_r_proto", "getgrnam_r_proto", "geth-
               ostbyaddr_r_proto", "gethostbyname_r_proto", "gethos-
               tent_r_proto", "getlogin_r_proto", "getnetbyaddr_r_proto",
               "getnetbyname_r_proto", "getnetent_r_proto", "getprotoby-
               name_r_proto", "getprotobynumber_r_proto", "getpro-
               toent_r_proto", "getpwent_r_proto", "getpwnam_r_proto", "getp-
               wuid_r_proto", "getservbyname_r_proto", "getservby-
               port_r_proto", "getservent_r_proto", "getspnam_r_proto", "gid-
               format", "gidsign", "gidsize", "gidtype", "glibpth", "gmake",
               "gmtime_r_proto", "gnulibc_version", "grep", "groupcat",
               "groupstype", "gzip"

           h   "h_fcntl", "h_sysfile", "hint", "hostcat", "html1dir",
               "html1direxp", "html3dir", "html3direxp"

           i   "i16size", "i16type", "i32size", "i32type", "i64size",
               "i64type", "i8size", "i8type", "i_arpainet", "i_bsdioctl",
               "i_crypt", "i_db", "i_dbm", "i_dirent", "i_dld", "i_dlfcn",
               "i_fcntl", "i_float", "i_fp", "i_fp_class", "i_gdbm", "i_grp",
               "i_ieeefp", "i_inttypes", "i_langinfo", "i_libutil", "i_lim-
               its", "i_locale", "i_machcthr", "i_malloc", "i_math", "i_mem-
               ory", "i_mntent", "i_ndbm", "i_netdb", "i_neterrno",
               "i_netinettcp", "i_niin", "i_poll", "i_prot", "i_pthread",
               "i_pwd", "i_rpcsvcdbm", "i_sfio", "i_sgtty", "i_shadow",
               "i_socks", "i_stdarg", "i_stddef", "i_stdlib", "i_string",
               "i_sunmath", "i_sysaccess", "i_sysdir", "i_sysfile", "i_sys-
               filio", "i_sysin", "i_sysioctl", "i_syslog", "i_sysmman",
               "i_sysmode", "i_sysmount", "i_sysndir", "i_sysparam", "i_sys-
               resrc", "i_syssecrt", "i_sysselct", "i_syssockio", "i_sysstat",
               "i_sysstatfs", "i_sysstatvfs", "i_systime", "i_systimek",
               "i_systimes", "i_systypes", "i_sysuio", "i_sysun", "i_sysut-
               sname", "i_sysvfs", "i_syswait", "i_termio", "i_termios",
               "i_time", "i_unistd", "i_ustat", "i_utime", "i_values",
               "i_varargs", "i_varhdr", "i_vfork", "ignore_versioned_solibs",
               "inc_version_list", "inc_version_list_init", "incpath",
               "inews", "installarchlib", "installbin", "installhtml1dir",
               "installhtml3dir", "installman1dir", "installman3dir",
               "installprefix", "installprefixexp", "installprivlib",
               "installscript", "installsitearch", "installsitebin", "install-
               sitehtml1dir", "installsitehtml3dir", "installsitelib",
               "installsiteman1dir", "installsiteman3dir", "installsite-
               script", "installstyle", "installusrbinperl", "installvendo-
               rarch", "installvendorbin", "installvendorhtml1dir", "install-
               vendorhtml3dir", "installvendorlib", "installvendorman1dir",
               "installvendorman3dir", "installvendorscript", "intsize",
               "issymlink", "ivdformat", "ivsize", "ivtype"

           k   "known_extensions", "ksh"

           l   "ld", "lddlflags", "ldflags", "ldflags_uselargefiles",
               "ldlibpthname", "less", "lib_ext", "libc", "libperl", "libpth",
               "libs", "libsdirs", "libsfiles", "libsfound", "libspath", "lib-
               swanted", "libswanted_uselargefiles", "line", "lint",
               "lkflags", "ln", "lns", "localtime_r_proto", "locincpth",
               "loclibpth", "longdblsize", "longlongsize", "longsize", "lp",
               "lpr", "ls", "lseeksize", "lseektype"

           m   "mail", "mailx", "make", "make_set_make", "mallocobj", "malloc-
               src", "malloctype", "man1dir", "man1direxp", "man1ext",
               "man3dir", "man3direxp", "man3ext"

           M   "Mcc", "mips_type", "mistrustnm", "mkdir", "mmaptype", "mode-
               type", "more", "multiarch", "mv", "myarchname", "mydomain",
               "myhostname", "myuname"

           n   "n", "need_va_copy", "netdb_hlen_type", "netdb_host_type",
               "netdb_name_type", "netdb_net_type", "nm", "nm_opt",
               "nm_so_opt", "nonxs_ext", "nroff", "nv_preserves_uv_bits",
               "nveformat", "nvEUformat", "nvfformat", "nvFUformat", "nvgfor-
               mat", "nvGUformat", "nvsize", "nvtype"

           o   "o_nonblock", "obj_ext", "old_pthread_create_joinable", "opti-
               mize", "orderlib", "osname", "osvers", "otherlibdirs"

           p   "package", "pager", "passcat", "patchlevel", "path_sep",
               "perl5", "perl", "perl_patchlevel"

           P   "PERL_REVISION", "PERL_SUBVERSION", "PERL_VERSION", "perlad-
               min", "perllibs", "perlpath", "pg", "phostname", "pidtype",
               "plibpth", "pmake", "pr", "prefix", "prefixexp", "privlib",
               "privlibexp", "procselfexe", "prototype", "ptrsize"

           q   "quadkind", "quadtype"

           r   "randbits", "randfunc", "random_r_proto", "randseedtype", "ran-
               lib", "rd_nodata", "readdir64_r_proto", "readdir_r_proto",
               "revision", "rm", "rmail", "run", "runnm"

           s   "sched_yield", "scriptdir", "scriptdirexp", "sed", "seedfunc",
               "selectminbits", "selecttype", "sendmail", "setgrent_r_proto",
               "sethostent_r_proto", "setlocale_r_proto", "setnetent_r_proto",
               "setprotoent_r_proto", "setpwent_r_proto", "setser-
               vent_r_proto", "sh", "shar", "sharpbang", "shmattype", "short-
               size", "shrpenv", "shsharp", "sig_count", "sig_name",
               "sig_name_init", "sig_num", "sig_num_init", "sig_size", "sig-
               nal_t", "sitearch", "sitearchexp", "sitebin", "sitebinexp",
               "sitehtml1dir", "sitehtml1direxp", "sitehtml3dir", "site-
               html3direxp", "sitelib", "sitelib_stem", "sitelibexp", "site-
               man1dir", "siteman1direxp", "siteman3dir", "siteman3direxp",
               "siteprefix", "siteprefixexp", "sitescript", "sitescriptexp",
               "sizesize", "sizetype", "sleep", "smail", "so", "sockethdr",
               "socketlib", "socksizetype", "sort", "spackage", "spitshell",
               "sPRId64", "sPRIeldbl", "sPRIEUldbl", "sPRIfldbl", "sPRI-
               FUldbl", "sPRIgldbl", "sPRIGUldbl", "sPRIi64", "sPRIo64",
               "sPRIu64", "sPRIx64", "sPRIXU64", "srand48_r_proto", "sran-
               dom_r_proto", "src", "sSCNfldbl", "ssizetype", "startperl",
               "startsh", "static_ext", "stdchar", "stdio_base", "stdio_buf-
               siz", "stdio_cnt", "stdio_filbuf", "stdio_ptr",
               "stdio_stream_array", "strerror_r_proto", "strings", "submit",
               "subversion", "sysman"

           t   "tail", "tar", "targetarch", "tbl", "tee", "test", "timeincl",
               "timetype", "tmpnam_r_proto", "to", "touch", "tr", "trnl",
               "troff", "ttyname_r_proto"

           u   "u16size", "u16type", "u32size", "u32type", "u64size",
               "u64type", "u8size", "u8type", "uidformat", "uidsign", "uid-
               size", "uidtype", "uname", "uniq", "uquadtype",
               "use5005threads", "use64bitall", "use64bitint", "usecrosscom-
               pile", "usedl", "usefaststdio", "useithreads", "uselargefiles",
               "uselongdouble", "usemorebits", "usemultiplicity", "usemymal-
               loc", "usenm", "useopcode", "useperlio", "useposix", "usereen-
               trant", "usesfio", "useshrplib", "usesocks", "usethreads",
               "usevendorprefix", "usevfork", "usrinc", "uuname", "uvoformat",
               "uvsize", "uvtype", "uvuformat", "uvxformat", "uvXUformat"

           v   "vendorarch", "vendorarchexp", "vendorbin", "vendorbinexp",
               "vendorhtml1dir", "vendorhtml1direxp", "vendorhtml3dir", "ven-
               dorhtml3direxp", "vendorlib", "vendorlib_stem", "vendorlibexp",
               "vendorman1dir", "vendorman1direxp", "vendorman3dir", "vendor-
               man3direxp", "vendorprefix", "vendorprefixexp", "vendorscript",
               "vendorscriptexp", "version", "version_patchlevel_string",
               "versiononly", "vi", "voidflags"

           x   "xlibpth"

           y   "yacc", "yaccflags"

           z   "zcat", "zip"

       NOTE

       Cwd - get pathname of current working directory

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           getcwd and friends
               getcwd, cwd, fastcwd, fastgetcwd, getdcwd

           abs_path and friends
               abs_path, realpath, fast_abs_path

           $ENV{PWD}
       NOTES
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       DB - programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft, subject
       to change)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Global Variables
                $DB::sub,  %DB::sub,  $DB::single,  $DB::signal,  $DB::trace,  @DB::args,
               @DB::dbline,  %DB::dbline,  $DB::package,  $DB::filename,  $DB::subname,
               $DB::lineno

           API Methods
               CLIENT->register(), CLIENT->evalcode(STRING),
               CLIENT->skippkg(’D::hide’), CLIENT->run(), CLIENT->step(),
               CLIENT->next(), CLIENT->done()

           Client Callback Methods
               CLIENT->init(), CLIENT->prestop([STRING]), CLIENT->stop(),
               CLIENT->idle(), CLIENT->poststop([STRING]), CLIENT->eval-
               code(STRING), CLIENT->cleanup(), CLIENT->output(LIST)

       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       DBM_Filter -- Filter DBM keys/values


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       What is a DBM Filter?
           So what’s new?
       METHODS
           $db->Filter_Push()
           $db->Filter_Key_Push()
           $db->Filter_Value_Push()
               Filter_Push, Filter_Key_Push, Filter_Value_Push

           $db->Filter_Pop()
           $db->Filtered()
       Writing a Filter
           Immediate Filters
           Canned Filters
               "name", params

       Filters Included
           utf8, encode, compress, int32, null

       NOTES
           Maintain Round Trip Integrity
           Don’t mix filtered & non-filtered data in the same database file.
       EXAMPLE
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       DB_File - Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           DB_HASH, DB_BTREE, DB_RECNO

           Using DB_File with Berkeley DB version 2 or greater
           Interface to Berkeley DB
           Opening a Berkeley DB Database File
           Default Parameters
           In Memory Databases
       DB_HASH
           A Simple Example
       DB_BTREE
           Changing the BTREE sort order
           Handling Duplicate Keys
           The get_dup() Method
           The find_dup() Method
           The del_dup() Method
           Matching Partial Keys
       DB_RECNO
           The ’bval’ Option
           A Simple Example
           Extra RECNO Methods
               $X->push(list) ;, $value = $X->pop ;, $X->shift,
               $X->unshift(list) ;, $X->length, $X->splice(offset, length,
               elements);

           Another Example
       THE API INTERFACE
           $status = $X->get($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status =
           $X->put($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->del($key [,
           $flags]) ;, $status = $X->fd ;, $status = $X->seq($key, $value,
           $flags) ;, $status = $X->sync([$flags]) ;

       DBM FILTERS
           filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, fil-
           ter_fetch_value

           The Filter
           An Example -- the NULL termination problem.
           Another Example -- Key is a C int.
       HINTS AND TIPS
           Locking: The Trouble with fd
           Safe ways to lock a database
               Tie::DB_Lock, Tie::DB_LockFile, DB_File::Lock

           Sharing Databases With C Applications
           The untie() Gotcha
       COMMON QUESTIONS
           Why is there Perl source in my database?
           How do I store complex data structures with DB_File?
           What does "Invalid Argument" mean?
           What does "Bareword ’DB_File’ not allowed" mean?
       REFERENCES
       HISTORY
       BUGS
       AVAILABILITY
       COPYRIGHT
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Data::Dumper - stringified perl data structures, suitable for both
       printing and "eval"


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Methods
               PACKAGE->new(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Dump  or PACK-
               AGE->Dump(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Seen([HASHREF]),
               $OBJ->Values([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Names([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Reset

           Functions
               Dumper(LIST)

           Configuration Variables or Methods
           Exports
               Dumper

       EXAMPLES
       BUGS
           NOTE
       AUTHOR
       VERSION
       SEE ALSO

       Devel::DProf - a Perl code profiler


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       PROFILE FORMAT
       AUTOLOAD
       ENVIRONMENT
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       Devel::PPPort - Perl/Pollution/Portability


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Why use ppport.h?
               You should use ppport.h in modern code so that your code will
               work with the widest range of Perl interpreters possible, with-
               out significant additional work.

           How to use ppport.h
           Running ppport.h
       FUNCTIONS
           WriteFile
       COMPATIBILITY
           Provided Perl compatibility API
           Perl API not supported by ppport.h
               perl 5.9.2, perl 5.9.1, perl 5.9.0, perl 5.8.3, perl 5.8.1,
               perl 5.8.0, perl 5.7.3, perl 5.7.2, perl 5.7.1, perl 5.6.1,
               perl 5.6.0, perl 5.005_03, perl 5.005, perl 5.004_05, perl
               5.004_04, perl 5.004

       BUGS
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT
       SEE ALSO

       Devel::Peek - A data debugging tool for the XS programmer


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Runtime debugging
           Memory footprint debugging
       EXAMPLES
           A simple scalar string
           A simple scalar number
           A simple scalar with an extra reference
           A reference to a simple scalar
           A reference to an array
           A reference to a hash
           Dumping a large array or hash
           A reference to an SV which holds a C pointer
           A reference to a subroutine
       EXPORTS
       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Devel::SelfStubber - generate stubs for a SelfLoading module


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       Digest - Modules that calculate message digests


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           binary, hex, base64

       OO INTERFACE
           $ctx = Digest->XXX($arg,...), $ctx = Digest->new(XXX => $arg,...),
           $ctx = Digest::XXX->new($arg,...), $other_ctx = $ctx->clone,
           $ctx->reset, $ctx->add( $data, ... ), $ctx->addfile( $io_handle ),
           $ctx->add_bits( $data, $nbits ), $ctx->add_bits( $bitstring ),
           $ctx->digest, $ctx->hexdigest, $ctx->b64digest

       Digest speed
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Digest::MD5 - Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       FUNCTIONS
           md5($data,...), md5_hex($data,...), md5_base64($data,...)

       METHODS
           $md5 = Digest::MD5->new, $md5->reset, $md5->clone,
           $md5->add($data,...), $md5->addfile($io_handle),
           $md5->add_bits($data, $nbits), $md5->add_bits($bitstring),
           $md5->digest, $md5->hexdigest, $md5->b64digest

       EXAMPLES
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT
       AUTHORS

       Digest::base - Digest base class


       SYNPOSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       DirHandle - supply object methods for directory handles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTES

       Dumpvalue - provides screen dump of Perl data.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Creation
               "arrayDepth", "hashDepth", "compactDump", "veryCompact",
               "globPrint", "dumpDBFiles", "dumpPackages", "dumpReused",
               "tick", "quoteHighBit", "printUndef", "usageOnly", unctrl, sub-
               dump, bareStringify, quoteHighBit, stopDbSignal

           Methods
               dumpValue, dumpValues, stringify, dumpvars, set_quote, set_unc-
               trl, compactDump, veryCompact, set, get

       DynaLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           @dl_library_path, @dl_resolve_using, @dl_require_symbols,
           @dl_librefs, @dl_modules, @dl_shared_objects, dl_error(),
           $dl_debug, dl_findfile(), dl_expandspec(), dl_load_file(),
           dl_unload_file(), dl_load_flags(), dl_find_symbol(), dl_find_sym-
           bol_anywhere(), dl_undef_symbols(), dl_install_xsub(), bootstrap()

       AUTHOR

       DynaLoader::XSLoader, XSLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl
       code

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Migration from "DynaLoader"
           Backward compatible boilerplate
       Order of initialization: early load()
           The most hairy case
       LIMITATIONS
       AUTHOR

       Encode - character encodings


       SYNOPSIS
           Table of Contents
       DESCRIPTION
           TERMINOLOGY
       PERL ENCODING API
           $octets  = encode(ENCODING, $string [, CHECK]), $string =
           decode(ENCODING, $octets [, CHECK]), [$length =] from_to($octets,
           FROM_ENC, TO_ENC [, CHECK]), $octets = encode_utf8($string);,
           $string = decode_utf8($octets [, CHECK]);

           Listing available encodings
           Defining Aliases
       Encoding via PerlIO
       Handling Malformed Data
           CHECK = Encode::FB_DEFAULT ( == 0), CHECK = Encode::FB_CROAK ( ==
           1), CHECK = Encode::FB_QUIET, CHECK = Encode::FB_WARN, perlqq mode
           (CHECK = Encode::FB_PERLQQ), HTML charref mode (CHECK =
           Encode::FB_HTMLCREF), XML charref mode (CHECK = Encode::FB_XML-
           CREF), The bitmask

           Unimplemented fallback schemes
       Defining Encodings
       The UTF-8 flag
           Goal #1:, Goal #2:, Goal #3:, Goal #4:

           Messing with Perl’s Internals
               is_utf8(STRING [, CHECK]), _utf8_on(STRING), _utf8_off(STRING)

       SEE ALSO
       MAINTAINER

       Encode::Alias - alias definitions to encodings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           As a simple string, As a qr// compiled regular expression, e.g.:,
           As a code reference, e.g.:

           Alias overloading
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::Byte - Single Byte Encodings


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::CJKConstants -- Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*


       Encode::CN - China-based Chinese Encodings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTES
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::CN::HZ -- internally used by Encode::CN


       Encode::Config -- internally used by Encode


       Encode::EBCDIC - EBCDIC Encodings


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::Encoding - Encode Implementation Base Class


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Methods you should implement
               ->encode($string [,$check]), ->decode($octets [,$check]),
               ->cat_decode($destination, $octets, $offset, $terminator
               [,$check])

           Other methods defined in Encode::Encodings
               ->name, ->renew, ->perlio_ok(), ->needs_lines()

           Example: Encode::ROT13
       Why the heck Encode API is different?
           Compiled Encodings
       SEE ALSO
           Scheme 1, Scheme 2, Other Schemes

       Encode::Guess -- Guesses encoding from data


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
           Encode::Guess->set_suspects, Encode::Guess->add_suspects,
           Encode::decode("Guess" ...), Encode::Guess->guess($data),
           guess_encoding($data, [, list of suspects])

       CAVEATS
       TO DO
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::JP - Japanese Encodings


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
       Note on ISO-2022-JP(-1)?
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::JP::H2Z -- internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*


       Encode::JP::JIS7 -- internally used by Encode::JP


       Encode::KR - Korean Encodings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::KR::2022_KR -- internally used by Encode::KR


       Encode::MIME::Header -- MIME B and Q header encoding


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::PerlIO -- a detailed document on Encode and PerlIO


       Overview
       How does it work?
       Line Buffering
           How can I tell whether my encoding fully supports PerlIO ?
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::Supported -- Encodings supported by Encode


       DESCRIPTION
           Encoding Names
       Supported Encodings
           Built-in Encodings
           Encode::Unicode -- other Unicode encodings
           Encode::Byte -- Extended ASCII
               ISO-8859 and corresponding vendor mappings, KOI8 - De Facto
               Standard for the Cyrillic world, gsm0338 - Hentai Latin 1

           CJK: Chinese, Japanese, Korean (Multibyte)
               Encode::CN -- Continental China, Encode::JP -- Japan,
               Encode::KR -- Korea, Encode::TW -- Taiwan, Encode::HanExtra --
               More Chinese via CPAN, Encode::JIS2K -- JIS X 0213 encodings
               via CPAN

           Miscellaneous encodings
               Encode::EBCDIC, Encode::Symbols, Encode::MIME::Header,
               Encode::Guess

       Unsupported encodings
             ISO-2022-JP-2 [RFC1554], ISO-2022-CN [RFC1922], Various HP-UX encodings,
           Cyrillic encoding ISO-IR-111, ISO-8859-8-1 [Hebrew], ISIRI 3342, Iran
           System, ISIRI 2900 [Farsi], Thai encoding TCVN, Vietnamese encodings VPS,
           Various Mac encodings, (Mac) Indic encodings

       Encoding vs. Charset -- terminology
       Encoding Classification (by Anton Tagunov and Dan Kogai)
           Microsoft-related naming mess
               KS_C_5601-1987, GB2312, Big5, Shift_JIS

       Glossary
           character repertoire, coded character set (CCS), character encoding
           scheme (CES), charset (in MIME context), EUC, ISO-2022, UCS, UCS-2,
           Unicode, UTF, UTF-16

       See Also
       References
           ECMA, ECMA-035 (eq "ISO-2022"), IANA, Assigned Charset Names by
           IANA, ISO, RFC, UC, Unicode Glossary

           Other Notable Sites
               czyborra.com, CJK.inf, Jungshik Shin’s Hangul FAQ, debian.org:
               "Introduction to i18n"

           Offline sources
               "CJKV Information Processing" by Ken Lunde

       Encode::Symbol - Symbol Encodings


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::TW - Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTES
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::Unicode -- Various Unicode Transformation Formats


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
           <http://www.unicode.org/glossary/> says:, Quick Reference

       Size, Endianness, and BOM
           by size
           by endianness
               BOM as integer when fetched in network byte order

       Surrogate Pairs
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::Unicode::UTF7 -- UTF-7 encoding


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       In Practice
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::lib::Encode::Alias, Encode::Alias - alias definitions to encod-
       ings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           As a simple string, As a qr// compiled regular expression, e.g.:,
           As a code reference, e.g.:

           Alias overloading
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::lib::Encode::CJKConstants, Encode::CJKConstants.pm -- Inter-
       nally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*


       Encode::lib::Encode::CN::HZ, Encode::CN::HZ -- internally used by
       Encode::CN


       Encode::lib::Encode::Config, Encode::Config -- internally used by
       Encode


       Encode::lib::Encode::Encoding, Encode::Encoding - Encode Implementation
       Base Class


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Methods you should implement
               ->encode($string [,$check]), ->decode($octets [,$check]),
               ->cat_decode($destination, $octets, $offset, $terminator
               [,$check])

           Other methods defined in Encode::Encodings
               ->name, ->renew, ->perlio_ok(), ->needs_lines()

           Example: Encode::ROT13
       Why the heck Encode API is different?
           Compiled Encodings
       SEE ALSO
           Scheme 1, Scheme 2, Other Schemes

       Encode::lib::Encode::Guess, Encode::Guess -- Guesses encoding from data


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
           Encode::Guess->set_suspects, Encode::Guess->add_suspects,
           Encode::decode("Guess" ...), Encode::Guess->guess($data),
           guess_encoding($data, [, list of suspects])

       CAVEATS
       TO DO
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::lib::Encode::JP::H2Z, Encode::JP::H2Z -- internally used by
       Encode::JP::2022_JP*


       Encode::lib::Encode::JP::JIS7, Encode::JP::JIS7 -- internally used by
       Encode::JP


       Encode::lib::Encode::KR::2022_KR, Encode::KR::2022_KR -- internally
       used by Encode::KR


       Encode::lib::Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::MIME::Header -- MIME B and
       Q header encoding


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::lib::Encode::PerlIO, Encode::PerlIO -- a detailed document on
       Encode and PerlIO


       Overview
       How does it work?
       Line Buffering
           How can I tell whether my encoding fully supports PerlIO ?
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::lib::Encode::Supported, Encode::Supported -- Encodings sup-
       ported by Encode


       DESCRIPTION
           Encoding Names
       Supported Encodings
           Built-in Encodings
           Encode::Unicode -- other Unicode encodings
           Encode::Byte -- Extended ASCII
               ISO-8859 and corresponding vendor mappings, KOI8 - De Facto
               Standard for the Cyrillic world, gsm0338 - Hentai Latin 1

           CJK: Chinese, Japanese, Korean (Multibyte)
               Encode::CN -- Continental China, Encode::JP -- Japan,
               Encode::KR -- Korea, Encode::TW -- Taiwan, Encode::HanExtra --
               More Chinese via CPAN, Encode::JIS2K -- JIS X 0213 encodings
               via CPAN

           Miscellaneous encodings
               Encode::EBCDIC, Encode::Symbols, Encode::MIME::Header,
               Encode::Guess

       Unsupported encodings
             ISO-2022-JP-2 [RFC1554], ISO-2022-CN [RFC1922], Various HP-UX encodings,
           Cyrillic encoding ISO-IR-111, ISO-8859-8-1 [Hebrew], ISIRI 3342, Iran
           System, ISIRI 2900 [Farsi], Thai encoding TCVN, Vietnamese encodings VPS,
           Various Mac encodings, (Mac) Indic encodings

       Encoding vs. Charset -- terminology
       Encoding Classification (by Anton Tagunov and Dan Kogai)
           Microsoft-related naming mess
               KS_C_5601-1987, GB2312, Big5, Shift_JIS

       Glossary
           character repertoire, coded character set (CCS), character encoding
           scheme (CES), charset (in MIME context), EUC, ISO-2022, UCS, UCS-2,
           Unicode, UTF, UTF-16

       See Also
       References
           ECMA, ECMA-035 (eq "ISO-2022"), IANA, Assigned Charset Names by
           IANA, ISO, RFC, UC, Unicode Glossary

           Other Notable Sites
               czyborra.com, CJK.inf, Jungshik Shin’s Hangul FAQ, debian.org:
               "Introduction to i18n"

           Offline sources
               "CJKV Information Processing" by Ken Lunde

       Encode::lib::Encode::Unicode::UTF7, Encode::Unicode::UTF7 -- UTF-7
       encoding


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       In Practice
       SEE ALSO

       Encode::lib::Encoder, Encode::Encoder -- Object Oriented Encoder


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       Description
           Predefined Methods
               $e = Encode::Encoder->new([$data, $encoding]);, encoder(),
               $e->data([$data]), $e->encoding([$encoding]),
               $e->bytes([$encoding])

           Example: base64 transcoder
           Operator Overloading
       SEE ALSO

       Encodencoding, encoding - allows you to write your script in non-ascii
       or non-utf8


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
           Literal Conversions
           PerlIO layers for "STD(IN│OUT)"
           Implicit upgrading for byte strings
       FEATURES THAT REQUIRE 5.8.1
           "NON-EUC" doublebyte encodings, tr//, DATA pseudo-filehandle

       USAGE
           use encoding [ENCNAME] ;, use encoding ENCNAME [ STDIN => ENC-
           NAME_IN ...] ;, use encoding ENCNAME Filter=>1;, no encoding;

       The Filter Option
           Filter-related changes at Encode version 1.87
       CAVEATS
           NOT SCOPED
           DO NOT MIX MULTIPLE ENCODINGS
           tr/// with ranges
               Legend of characters above

       EXAMPLE - Greekperl
       KNOWN PROBLEMS
           literals in regex that are longer than 127 bytes, EBCDIC, format

           The Logic of :locale
       HISTORY
       SEE ALSO

       Encoder, Encode::Encoder -- Object Oriented Encoder


       SYNOPSIS
       ABSTRACT
       Description
           Predefined Methods
               $e = Encode::Encoder->new([$data, $encoding]);, encoder(),
               $e->data([$data]), $e->encoding([$encoding]),
               $e->bytes([$encoding])

           Example: base64 transcoder
           Operator Overloading
       SEE ALSO

       English - use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation vari-
       ables


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       PERFORMANCE

       Env - perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or
       arrays


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       LIMITATIONS
       AUTHOR

       Errno - System errno constants


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CAVEATS
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Exporter - Implements default import method for modules


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           How to Export
           Selecting What To Export
           How to Import
               "use ModuleName;", "use ModuleName ();", "use ModuleName
               qw(...);"

       Advanced features
           Specialised Import Lists
           Exporting without using Exporter’s import method
           Exporting without inheriting from Exporter
           Module Version Checking
           Managing Unknown Symbols
           Tag Handling Utility Functions
           Generating combined tags
           "AUTOLOAD"ed Constants

       Exporter::Heavy - Exporter guts


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       ExtUtils::Command - utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Make-
       files etc.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       cat

       eqtime src dst

       rm_rf files...

       rm_f files...

       touch files ..

       mv source... destination

       cp source... destination

       chmod mode files..

       mkpath directory..

       test_f file

       BUGS
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       ExtUtils::Command::MM - Commands for the MMs to use in Makefiles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           test_harness

       pod2man

       warn_if_old_packlist

       perllocal_install

       uninstall

       ExtUtils::Constant - generate XS code to import C header constants


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       USAGE
           IV, UV, NV, PV, PVN, SV, YES, NO, UNDEF

       FUNCTIONS

       C_stringify NAME

       perl_stringify NAME

       constant_types

       memEQ_clause NAME, CHECKED_AT, INDENT

       assign INDENT, TYPE, PRE, POST, VALUE..

       return_clause

       switch_clause INDENT, NAMELEN, ITEMHASH, ITEM..

       params WHAT

       dump_names

       dogfood

       C_constant, name, type, value, macro, default, pre, post, def_pre =item
       def_post, utf8

       XS_constant PACKAGE, TYPES, SUBNAME, C_SUBNAME

       autoload PACKAGE, VERSION, AUTOLOADER

       WriteMakefileSnippet

       WriteConstants ATTRIBUTE => VALUE [, ...], NAME, DEFAULT_TYPE, BREAK-
       OUT_AT, NAMES, C_FILE, XS_FILE, SUBNAME, C_SUBNAME

       AUTHOR

       ExtUtils::Embed - Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       @EXPORT
       FUNCTIONS
           xsinit(), Examples, ldopts(), Examples, perl_inc(), ccflags(),
           ccdlflags(), ccopts(), xsi_header(), xsi_protos(@modules),
           xsi_body(@modules)

       EXAMPLES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       ExtUtils::Install - install files from here to there


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Functions
               install

       install_default DISCOURAGED

       uninstall

       pm_to_blib

       _autosplit

       ENVIRONMENT
           PERL_INSTALL_ROOT

       AUTHOR
       LICENSE

       ExtUtils::Installed - Inventory management of installed modules


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       USAGE
       FUNCTIONS
           new(), modules(), files(), directories(), directory_tree(), vali-
           date(), packlist(), version()

       EXAMPLE
       AUTHOR

       ExtUtils::Liblist - determine libraries to use and how to use them


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           For static extensions, For dynamic extensions at build/link time,
           For dynamic extensions at load time

           EXTRALIBS
           LDLOADLIBS and LD_RUN_PATH
           BSLOADLIBS
       PORTABILITY
           VMS implementation
           Win32 implementation
       SEE ALSO

       ExtUtils::MM - OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       ExtUtils::MM_Any - Platform-agnostic MM methods


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Inherently Cross-Platform Methods
           installvars

       os_flavor_is

       File::Spec wrappers
           catfile

       Thought To Be Cross-Platform Methods
           split_command

       echo

       init_VERSION

       wraplist

       manifypods

       manifypods_target

       makemakerdflt_target

       special_targets

       POD2MAN_macro

       test_via_harness

       test_via_script

       libscan

       tool_autosplit

       all_target

       metafile_target

       metafile_addtomanifest_target

       Abstract methods
           oneliner, quote_literal, escape_newlines, max_exec_len, init_oth-
           ers, init_DIRFILESEP, init_linker, init_platform, platform_con-
           stants

       os_flavor

       AUTHOR

       ExtUtils::MM_BeOS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtU-
       tils::MakeMaker

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       os_flavor (o)

       init_linker

       ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtU-
       tils::MakeMaker


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           os_flavor (o)

       cflags (o)

       replace_manpage_separator (o)

       init_linker

       ExtUtils::MM_DOS - DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Overridden methods
               os_flavor

       replace_manpage_separator

       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       ExtUtils::MM_MacOS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtU-
       tils::MakeMaker


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       maybe_command

       guess_name

       macify

       patternify

       init_main

       init_others

       init_platform, platform_constants

       init_dirscan

       init_VERSION (o)

       special_targets (o)

       static (o)

       dlsyms (o)

       dynamic (o)

       clean (o)

       clean_subdirs_target

       realclean (o)

       realclean_subdirs_target

       rulez (o)

       processPL (o)

       os_flavor

       ExtUtils::MM_NW5 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtU-
       tils::MakeMaker


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       os_flavor

       init_platform (o), platform_constants

       const_cccmd (o)

       static_lib (o)

       dynamic_lib (o)

       ExtUtils::MM_OS2 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtU-
       tils::MakeMaker


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           init_dist (o)

       init_linker

       os_flavor

       ExtUtils::MM_UWIN - U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Overridden methods
               os_flavor

       replace_manpage_separator

       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       ExtUtils::MM_Unix - methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
       Methods
           os_flavor (o)

       c_o (o)

       cflags (o)

       clean (o)

       clean_subdirs_target

       const_cccmd (o)

       const_config (o)

       const_loadlibs (o)

       constants (o)

       depend (o)

       dir_target (o)

       init_DEST

       init_dist

       dist (o)

       dist_basics (o)

       dist_ci (o)

       dist_core (o)

       dist_target

       tardist_target

       zipdist_target

       tarfile_target

       zipfile_target

       uutardist_target

       shdist_target

       distdir

       dist_test

       dlsyms (o)

       dynamic (o)

       dynamic_bs (o)

       dynamic_lib (o)

       exescan

       extliblist

       find_perl

       find_tests

       Methods to actually produce chunks of text for the Makefile
           fixin

       force (o)

       guess_name

       has_link_code

       init_dirscan

       init_DIRFILESEP

       init_main

       init_others

       init_INST

       init_INSTALL

       init_linker

       init_lib2arch

       init_PERL

       init_platform (o), platform_constants (o)

       init_PERM

       init_xs

       install (o)

       installbin (o)

       linkext (o)

       lsdir

       macro (o)

       makeaperl (o)

       makefile (o)

       maybe_command

       needs_linking (o)

       nicetext

       parse_abstract

       parse_version

       pasthru (o)

       perl_script

       perldepend (o)

       perm_rw (o)

       perm_rwx (o)

       pm_to_blib

       post_constants (o)

       post_initialize (o)

       postamble (o)

       ppd

       prefixify

       processPL (o)

       quote_paren

       realclean (o)

       realclean_subdirs_target

       replace_manpage_separator

       oneliner (o)

       quote_literal

       escape_newlines

       max_exec_len

       static (o)

       static_lib (o)

       staticmake (o)

       subdir_x (o)

       subdirs (o)

       test (o)

       test_via_harness (override)

       test_via_script (override)

       tools_other (o)

       tool_xsubpp (o)

       all_target

       top_targets (o)

       writedoc

       xs_c (o)

       xs_cpp (o)

       xs_o (o)

       SEE ALSO

       ExtUtils::MM_VMS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtU-
       tils::MakeMaker

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Methods always loaded
               wraplist

       Methods
           guess_name (override)

       find_perl (override)

       maybe_command (override)

       perl_script (override)

       replace_manpage_separator

       init_DEST

       init_DIRFILESEP

       init_main (override)

       init_others (override)

       init_platform (override)

       platform_constants

       init_VERSION (override)

       constants (override)

       special_targets

       cflags (override)

       const_cccmd (override)

       tool_sxubpp (override)

       tools_other (override)

       init_dist (override)

       c_o (override)

       xs_c (override)

       xs_o (override)

       dlsyms (override)

       dynamic_lib (override)

       dynamic_bs (override)

       static_lib (override)

       processPL (override)

       installbin (override)

       subdir_x (override)

       clean (override)

       clean_subdirs_target

       realclean (override)

       zipfile_target (o), tarfile_target (o), shdist_target (o)

       dist_test (override)

       install (override)

       perldepend (override)

       makefile (override)

       find_tests (override)

       test (override)

       makeaperl (override)

       nicetext (override)

       prefixify (override)

       oneliner (o)

       echo (o)

       quote_literal

       escape_newlines

       max_exec_len

       init_linker (o)

       eliminate_macros

       fixpath

       os_flavor

       ExtUtils::MM_Win32 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtU-
       tils::MakeMaker


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Overridden methods
           dlsyms

       replace_manpage_separator

       maybe_command

       find_tests

       init_DIRFILESEP

       init_others

       init_platform (o), platform_constants (o)

       special_targets (o)

       static_lib (o)

       dynamic_lib (o)

       clean

       init_linker

       perl_script

       xs_o (o)

       pasthru (o)

       oneliner (o)

       max_exec_len

       os_flavor

       ExtUtils::MM_Win95 - method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Overriden methods
               dist_test

       subdir_x

       xs_c

       xs_cpp

       xs_o

       clean_subdirs_target

       realclean_subdirs_target

       os_flavor

       AUTHOR

       ExtUtils::MY - ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           How To Write A Makefile.PL
           Default Makefile Behaviour
           make test
           make testdb
           make install
           PREFIX and LIB attribute
           AFS users
           Static Linking of a new Perl Binary
           Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations
           Which architecture dependent directory?
           Using Attributes and Parameters
               ABSTRACT, ABSTRACT_FROM, AUTHOR, BINARY_LOCATION, C, CCFLAGS,
               CONFIG, CONFIGURE, DEFINE, DESTDIR, DIR, DISTNAME, DISTVNAME,
               DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, EXCLUDE_EXT, EXE_FILES, FIRST_MAKEFILE,
               FULLPERL, FULLPERLRUN, FULLPERLRUNINST, FUNCLIST, H, IMPORTS,
               INC, INCLUDE_EXT, INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLBIN, INSTALLDIRS,
               INSTALLMAN1DIR, INSTALLMAN3DIR, INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLSCRIPT,
               INSTALLSITEARCH, INSTALLSITEBIN, INSTALLSITELIB, INSTALLSITE-
               MAN1DIR, INSTALLSITEMAN3DIR, INSTALLVENDORARCH, INSTALLVEN-
               DORBIN, INSTALLVENDORLIB, INSTALLVENDORMAN1DIR, INSTALLVENDOR-
               MAN3DIR, INST_ARCHLIB, INST_BIN, INST_LIB, INST_MAN1DIR,
               INST_MAN3DIR, INST_SCRIPT, LD, LDDLFLAGS, LDFROM, LIB,
               LIBPERL_A, LIBS, LINKTYPE, MAKEAPERL, MAKEFILE_OLD, MAN1PODS,
               MAN3PODS, MAP_TARGET, MYEXTLIB, NAME, NEEDS_LINKING, NOECHO,
               NORECURS, NO_META, NO_VC, OBJECT, OPTIMIZE, PERL, PERL_CORE,
               PERLMAINCC, PERL_ARCHLIB, PERL_LIB, PERL_MALLOC_OK, PERLPREFIX,
               PERLRUN, PERLRUNINST, PERL_SRC, PERM_RW, PERM_RWX, PL_FILES,
               PM, PMLIBDIRS, PM_FILTER, POLLUTE, PPM_INSTALL_EXEC,
               PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT, PREFIX, PREREQ_FATAL, PREREQ_PM, PRE-
               REQ_PRINT, PRINT_PREREQ, SITEPREFIX, SKIP, TYPEMAPS, VENDORPRE-
               FIX, VERBINST, VERSION, VERSION_FROM, VERSION_SYM, XS, XSOPT,
               XSPROTOARG, XS_VERSION

           Additional lowercase attributes
               clean, depend, dist, dynamic_lib, linkext, macro, postamble,
               realclean, test, tool_autosplit

           Overriding MakeMaker Methods
           The End Of Cargo Cult Programming
               "<MAN3PODS =" ’ ’>>

           Hintsfile support
           Distribution Support
                  make distcheck,    make skipcheck,    make distclean,    make manifest,
                 make distdir,   make disttest,    make tardist,    make dist,    make
               uutardist,    make shdist,    make zipdist,    make ci

           Module Meta-Data
           Disabling an extension
           Other Handy Functions
               prompt

       ENVIRONMENT
           PERL_MM_OPT, PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS
       LICENSE

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker


       DESCRIPTION
           Philosophy and History
               Why not just use <insert other build config tool here>?, What’s
               Module::Build and how does it relate to MakeMaker?, pure
               perl.    no make, no shell commands, easier to customize,
               cleaner internals, less cruft

           Module Writing
               How do I keep my $VERSION up to date without resetting it manu-
               ally?, What’s this META.yml thing and how did it get in my MAN-
               IFEST?!

           XS  How to I prevent "object version X.XX does not match bootstrap
               parameter Y.YY" errors?, How do I make two or more XS files
               coexist in the same directory?

       PATCHING
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial - Writing a module with MakeMaker


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           The Mantra
           The Layout
               Makefile.PL, MANIFEST, lib/, t/, Changes, README, INSTALL, MAN-
               IFEST.SKIP, bin/

       SEE ALSO

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes - Version agnostic bytes.pm

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish - Platform agnostic vmsish.pm


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       ExtUtils::Manifest - utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Functions
               mkmanifest

       manifind

       manicheck

       filecheck

       fullcheck

       skipcheck

       maniread

       manicopy

       maniadd

       MANIFEST
       MANIFEST.SKIP
       EXPORT_OK
       GLOBAL VARIABLES
       DIAGNOSTICS
           "Not in MANIFEST:" file, "Skipping" file, "No such file:" file,
           "MANIFEST:" $!, "Added to MANIFEST:" file

       ENVIRONMENT
           PERL_MM_MANIFEST_DEBUG

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       ExtUtils::Miniperl, writemain - write the C code for perlmain.c


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap - make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       ExtUtils::Mksymlists - write linker options files for dynamic extension


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           DLBASE, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, FILE, FUNCLIST, IMPORTS, NAME

       AUTHOR
       REVISION

       ExtUtils::Packlist - manage .packlist files


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       USAGE
       FUNCTIONS
           new(), read(), write(), validate(), packlist_file()

       EXAMPLE
       AUTHOR

       ExtUtils::testlib - add blib/* directories to @INC


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       Fatal - replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR

       Fcntl - load the C Fcntl.h defines


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTE
       EXPORTED SYMBOLS

       File::Basename, fileparse - split a pathname into pieces


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           fileparse_set_fstype, fileparse

       EXAMPLES
           "basename", "dirname"

       File::CheckTree, validate - run many filetest checks on a tree


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR
       HISTORY

       File::Compare - Compare files or filehandles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       RETURN
       AUTHOR

       File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Special behaviour if "syscopy" is defined (OS/2, VMS and Win32)
               rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])

       RETURN
       NOTES
       AUTHOR

       File::DosGlob - DOS like globbing and then some


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTES
       EXPORTS (by request only)
       BUGS
       AUTHOR
       HISTORY
       SEE ALSO

       File::Find - Traverse a directory tree.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           find, finddepth

           %options
               "wanted", "bydepth", "preprocess", "postprocess", "follow",
               "follow_fast", "follow_skip", "dangling_symlinks", "no_chdir",
               "untaint", "untaint_pattern", "untaint_skip"

           The wanted function
               $File::Find::dir is the current directory name,, $_ is the cur-
               rent filename within that directory, $File::Find::name is the
               complete pathname to the file

       WARNINGS
       CAVEAT
           $dont_use_nlink, symlinks

       NOTES
       BUGS AND CAVEATS
       HISTORY

       File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           "GLOB_ERR", "GLOB_LIMIT", "GLOB_MARK", "GLOB_NOCASE",
           "GLOB_NOCHECK", "GLOB_NOSORT", "GLOB_BRACE", "GLOB_NOMAGIC",
           "GLOB_QUOTE", "GLOB_TILDE", "GLOB_CSH", "GLOB_ALPHASORT"

       DIAGNOSTICS
           "GLOB_NOSPACE", "GLOB_ABEND"

       NOTES
       AUTHOR

       File::Path - create or remove directory trees


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       DIAGNOSTICS
       AUTHORS

       File::Spec - portably perform operations on file names


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, devnull, rootdir, tmpdir,
           updir, no_upwards, case_tolerant, file_name_is_absolute, path,
           join, splitpath, splitdir, catpath(), abs2rel, rel2abs()

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       File::Spec::Cygwin - methods for Cygwin file specs


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       canonpath

       file_name_is_absolute

       tmpdir (override)

       File::Spec::Epoc - methods for Epoc file specs


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHORS

       canonpath()

       SEE ALSO

       File::Spec::Functions - portably perform operations on file names

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Exports
       SEE ALSO

       File::Spec::Mac - File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           canonpath

       catdir()

       catfile

       curdir

       devnull

       rootdir

       tmpdir

       updir

       file_name_is_absolute

       path

       splitpath

       splitdir

       catpath

       abs2rel

       rel2abs

       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO

       File::Spec::OS2 - methods for OS/2 file specs


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           tmpdir, splitpath

       File::Spec::Unix - File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec mod-
       ules


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           canonpath()

       catdir()

       catfile

       curdir

       devnull

       rootdir

       tmpdir

       updir

       no_upwards

       case_tolerant

       file_name_is_absolute

       path

       join

       splitpath

       splitdir

       catpath()

       abs2rel

       rel2abs()

       SEE ALSO

       File::Spec::VMS - methods for VMS file specs

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           eliminate_macros

       fixpath

       Methods always loaded
           canonpath (override)

       catdir

       catfile

       curdir (override)

       devnull (override)

       rootdir (override)

       tmpdir (override)

       updir (override)

       case_tolerant (override)

       path (override)

       file_name_is_absolute (override)

       splitpath (override)

       splitdir (override)

       catpath (override)

       abs2rel (override)

       rel2abs (override)

       SEE ALSO

       File::Spec::Win32 - methods for Win32 file specs

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           devnull

       tmpdir

       catfile

       canonpath

       splitpath

       splitdir

       catpath

       Note For File::Spec::Win32 Maintainers
       SEE ALSO

       File::Temp - return name and handle of a temporary file safely


       PORTABILITY
       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OO INTERFACE
           new

       filename

       DESTROY

       FUNCTIONS
           tempfile

       tempdir

       MKTEMP FUNCTIONS
           mkstemp

       mkstemps

       mkdtemp

       mktemp

       POSIX FUNCTIONS
           tmpnam

       tmpfile

       ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS
           tempnam

       UTILITY FUNCTIONS
           unlink0

       cmpstat

       unlink1

       PACKAGE VARIABLES
           safe_level, STANDARD, MEDIUM, HIGH

       TopSystemUID

       WARNING
           Temporary files and NFS
       HISTORY
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       File::stat - by-name interface to Perls built-in stat() functions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       NOTE
       AUTHOR

       FileCache - keep more files open than the system permits


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           cacheout EXPR, cacheout MODE, EXPR

       CAVEATS
       BUGS

       FileHandle - supply object methods for filehandles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           $fh->print, $fh->printf, $fh->getline, $fh->getlines

       SEE ALSO

       Filter::Simple - Simplified source filtering

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           The Problem
           A Solution
           Disabling or changing <no> behaviour
           All-in-one interface
           Filtering only specific components of source code
               "code", "executable", "quotelike", "string", "regex", "all"

           Filtering only the code parts of source code
               Most source code ceases to be grammatically correct when it is
               broken up into the pieces between string literals and regexes.
               So the ’code’ component filter behaves slightly differently
               from the other partial filters described in the previous sec-
               tion.

           Using Filter::Simple with an explicit "import" subroutine
           Using Filter::Simple and Exporter together
           How it works
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Filter::Util::Call - Perl Source Filter Utility Module


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           use Filter::Util::Call
           iimmppoorrtt(())
           ffiilltteerr(()) and anonymous sub
               $_, $status, filter_read and filter_read_exact, filter_del

       EXAMPLES
           Example 1: A simple filter.
           Example 2: Using the context
           Example 3: Using the context within the filter
           Example 4: Using filter_del
       Filter::Simple
       AUTHOR
       DATE

       FindBin - Locate directory of original perl script


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXPORTABLE VARIABLES
       KNOWN ISSUES
       KNOWN BUGS
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT

       GDBM_File - Perl5 access to the gdbm library.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AVAILABILITY
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO

       Getopt::Long - Extended processing of command line options


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Command Line Options, an Introduction
       Getting Started with Getopt::Long
           Simple options
           A little bit less simple options
           Mixing command line option with other arguments
           Options with values
           Options with multiple values
           Options with hash values
           User-defined subroutines to handle options
           Options with multiple names
           Case and abbreviations
           Summary of Option Specifications
               !, +, s, i, o, f, : type [ desttype ], : number [ desttype ], :
               + [ desttype ]

       Advanced Possibilities
           Object oriented interface
           Thread Safety
           Documentation and help texts
           Storing options in a hash
           Bundling
           The lonesome dash
           Argument callback
       Configuring Getopt::Long
           default, posix_default, auto_abbrev, getopt_compat, gnu_compat,
           gnu_getopt, require_order, permute, bundling (default: disabled),
           bundling_override (default: disabled), ignore_case  (default:
           enabled), ignore_case_always (default: disabled), auto_version
           (default:disabled), auto_help (default:disabled), pass_through
           (default: disabled), prefix, prefix_pattern, debug (default: dis-
           abled)

       Exportable Methods
           VersionMessage, "-message", "-msg", "-exitval", "-output", HelpMes-
           sage

       Return values and Errors
       Legacy
           Default destinations
           Alternative option starters
           Configuration variables
       Trouble Shooting
           GetOptions does not return a false result when an option is not
           supplied
           GetOptions does not split the command line correctly
           Undefined subroutine &main::GetOptions called
           How do I put a "-?" option into a Getopt::Long?
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER

       Getopt::Std, getopt, getopts - Process single-character switches with
       switch clustering


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       "--help" and "--version"

       Hash::Util - A selection of general-utility hash subroutines


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Restricted hashes
               lock_keys, unlock_keys

       lock_value, unlock_value

       lock_hash, unlock_hash

       hash_seed

       CAVEATS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       I18N::Collate - compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current
       locale


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       I18N::LangTags - functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       the function is_language_tag($lang1)

       the function extract_language_tags($whatever)

       the function same_language_tag($lang1, $lang2)

       the function similarity_language_tag($lang1, $lang2)

       the function is_dialect_of($lang1, $lang2)

       the function super_languages($lang1)

       the function locale2language_tag($locale_identifier)

       the function encode_language_tag($lang1)

       the function alternate_language_tags($lang1)

       the function @langs = panic_languages(@accept_languages)

       the function implicate_supers( ...languages... ), the function impli-
       cate_supers_strictly( ...languages... )

       ABOUT LOWERCASING
       ABOUT UNICODE PLAINTEXT LANGUAGE TAGS
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT
       AUTHOR

       I18N::LangTags::Detect - detect the users language preferences


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       FUNCTIONS
       ENVIRONMENT
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT
       AUTHOR

       I18N::LangTags::List -- tags and names for human languages


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       ABOUT LANGUAGE TAGS
       LIST OF LANGUAGES
           {ab} : Abkhazian, {ace} : Achinese, {ach} : Acoli, {ada} : Adangme,
           {ady} : Adyghe, {aa} : Afar, {afh} : Afrihili, {af} : Afrikaans,
           [{afa} : Afro-Asiatic (Other)], {ak} : Akan, {akk} : Akkadian, {sq}
           : Albanian, {ale} : Aleut, [{alg} : Algonquian languages], [{tut} :
           Altaic (Other)], {am} : Amharic, {i-ami} : Ami, [{apa} : Apache
           languages], {ar} : Arabic, {arc} : Aramaic, {arp} : Arapaho, {arn}
           : Araucanian, {arw} : Arawak, {hy} : Armenian, {an} : Aragonese,
           [{art} : Artificial (Other)], {ast} : Asturian, {as} : Assamese,
           [{ath} : Athapascan languages], [{aus} : Australian languages],
           [{map} : Austronesian (Other)], {av} : Avaric, {ae} : Avestan,
           {awa} : Awadhi, {ay} : Aymara, {az} : Azerbaijani, {ban} : Bali-
           nese, [{bat} : Baltic (Other)], {bal} : Baluchi, {bm} : Bambara,
           [{bai} : Bamileke languages], {bad} : Banda, [{bnt} : Bantu
           (Other)], {bas} : Basa, {ba} : Bashkir, {eu} : Basque, {btk} :
           Batak (Indonesia), {bej} : Beja, {be} : Belarusian, {bem} : Bemba,
           {bn} : Bengali, [{ber} : Berber (Other)], {bho} : Bhojpuri, {bh} :
           Bihari, {bik} : Bikol, {bin} : Bini, {bi} : Bislama, {bs} :
           Bosnian, {bra} : Braj, {br} : Breton, {bug} : Buginese, {bg} : Bul-
           garian, {i-bnn} : Bunun, {bua} : Buriat, {my} : Burmese, {cad} :
           Caddo, {car} : Carib, {ca} : Catalan, [{cau} : Caucasian (Other)],
           {ceb} : Cebuano, [{cel} : Celtic (Other)], [{cai} : Central Ameri-
           can Indian (Other)], {chg} : Chagatai, [{cmc} : Chamic languages],
           {ch} : Chamorro, {ce} : Chechen, {chr} : Cherokee, {chy} :
           Cheyenne, {chb} : Chibcha, {ny} : Chichewa, {zh} : Chinese, {chn} :
           Chinook Jargon, {chp} : Chipewyan, {cho} : Choctaw, {cu} : Church
           Slavic, {chk} : Chuukese, {cv} : Chuvash, {cop} : Coptic, {kw} :
           Cornish, {co} : Corsican, {cr} : Cree, {mus} : Creek, [{cpe} :
           English-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)], [{cpf} : French-based
           Creoles and pidgins (Other)], [{cpp} : Portuguese-based Creoles and
           pidgins (Other)], [{crp} : Creoles and pidgins (Other)], {hr} :
           Croatian, [{cus} : Cushitic (Other)], {cs} : Czech, {dak} : Dakota,
           {da} : Danish, {dar} : Dargwa, {day} : Dayak, {i-default} : Default
           (Fallthru) Language, {del} : Delaware, {din} : Dinka, {dv} :
           Divehi, {doi} : Dogri, {dgr} : Dogrib, [{dra} : Dravidian (Other)],
           {dua} : Duala, {nl} : Dutch, {dum} : Middle Dutch (ca.1050-1350),
           {dyu} : Dyula, {dz} : Dzongkha, {efi} : Efik, {egy} : Ancient Egyp-
           tian, {eka} : Ekajuk, {elx} : Elamite, {en} : English, {enm} : Old
           English (1100-1500), {ang} : Old English (ca.450-1100),
           {i-enochian} : Enochian (Artificial), {myv} : Erzya, {eo} :
           Esperanto, {et} : Estonian, {ee} : Ewe, {ewo} : Ewondo, {fan} :
           Fang, {fat} : Fanti, {fo} : Faroese, {fj} : Fijian, {fi} : Finnish,
           [{fiu} : Finno-Ugrian (Other)], {fon} : Fon, {fr} : French, {frm} :
           Middle French (ca.1400-1600), {fro} : Old French (842-ca.1400),
           {fy} : Frisian, {fur} : Friulian, {ff} : Fulah, {gaa} : Ga, {gd} :
           Scots Gaelic, {gl} : Gallegan, {lg} : Ganda, {gay} : Gayo, {gba} :
           Gbaya, {gez} : Geez, {ka} : Georgian, {de} : German, {gmh} : Middle
           High German (ca.1050-1500), {goh} : Old High German (ca.750-1050),
           [{gem} : Germanic (Other)], {gil} : Gilbertese, {gon} : Gondi,
           {gor} : Gorontalo, {got} : Gothic, {grb} : Grebo, {grc} : Ancient
           Greek, {el} : Modern Greek, {gn} : Guarani, {gu} : Gujarati, {gwi}
           : Gwich’in, {hai} : Haida, {ht} : Haitian, {ha} : Hausa, {haw} :
           Hawaiian, {he} : Hebrew, {hz} : Herero, {hil} : Hiligaynon, {him} :
           Himachali, {hi} : Hindi, {ho} : Hiri Motu, {hit} : Hittite, {hmn} :
           Hmong, {hu} : Hungarian, {hup} : Hupa, {iba} : Iban, {is} : Ice-
           landic, {io} : Ido, {ig} : Igbo, {ijo} : Ijo, {ilo} : Iloko, [{inc}
           : Indic (Other)], [{ine} : Indo-European (Other)], {id} : Indone-
           sian, {inh} : Ingush, {ia} : Interlingua (International Auxiliary
           Language Association), {ie} : Interlingue, {iu} : Inuktitut, {ik} :
           Inupiaq, [{ira} : Iranian (Other)], {ga} : Irish, {mga} : Middle
           Irish (900-1200), {sga} : Old Irish (to 900), [{iro} : Iroquoian
           languages], {it} : Italian, {ja} : Japanese, {jv} : Javanese, {jrb}
           : Judeo-Arabic, {jpr} : Judeo-Persian, {kbd} : Kabardian, {kab} :
           Kabyle, {kac} : Kachin, {kl} : Kalaallisut, {xal} : Kalmyk, {kam} :
           Kamba, {kn} : Kannada, {kr} : Kanuri, {krc} : Karachay-Balkar,
           {kaa} : Kara-Kalpak, {kar} : Karen, {ks} : Kashmiri, {csb} : Kashu-
           bian, {kaw} : Kawi, {kk} : Kazakh, {kha} : Khasi, {km} : Khmer,
           [{khi} : Khoisan (Other)], {kho} : Khotanese, {ki} : Kikuyu, {kmb}
           : Kimbundu, {rw} : Kinyarwanda, {ky} : Kirghiz, {i-klingon} : Klin-
           gon, {kv} : Komi, {kg} : Kongo, {kok} : Konkani, {ko} : Korean,
           {kos} : Kosraean, {kpe} : Kpelle, {kro} : Kru, {kj} : Kuanyama,
           {kum} : Kumyk, {ku} : Kurdish, {kru} : Kurukh, {kut} : Kutenai,
           {lad} : Ladino, {lah} : Lahnda, {lam} : Lamba, {lo} : Lao, {la} :
           Latin, {lv} : Latvian, {lb} : Letzeburgesch, {lez} : Lezghian, {li}
           : Limburgish, {ln} : Lingala, {lt} : Lithuanian, {nds} : Low Ger-
           man, {art-lojban} : Lojban (Artificial), {loz} : Lozi, {lu} :
           Luba-Katanga, {lua} : Luba-Lulua, {lui} : Luiseno, {lun} : Lunda,
           {luo} : Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), {lus} : Lushai, {mk} : Macedo-
           nian, {mad} : Madurese, {mag} : Magahi, {mai} : Maithili, {mak} :
           Makasar, {mg} : Malagasy, {ms} : Malay, {ml} : Malayalam, {mt} :
           Maltese, {mnc} : Manchu, {mdr} : Mandar, {man} : Mandingo, {mni} :
           Manipuri, [{mno} : Manobo languages], {gv} : Manx, {mi} : Maori,
           {mr} : Marathi, {chm} : Mari, {mh} : Marshall, {mwr} : Marwari,
           {mas} : Masai, [{myn} : Mayan languages], {men} : Mende, {mic} :
           Micmac, {min} : Minangkabau, {i-mingo} : Mingo, [{mis} : Miscella-
           neous languages], {moh} : Mohawk, {mdf} : Moksha, {mo} : Moldavian,
           [{mkh} : Mon-Khmer (Other)], {lol} : Mongo, {mn} : Mongolian, {mos}
           : Mossi, [{mul} : Multiple languages], [{mun} : Munda languages],
           {nah} : Nahuatl, {nap} : Neapolitan, {na} : Nauru, {nv} : Navajo,
           {nd} : North Ndebele, {nr} : South Ndebele, {ng} : Ndonga, {ne} :
           Nepali, {new} : Newari, {nia} : Nias, [{nic} : Niger-Kordofanian
           (Other)], [{ssa} : Nilo-Saharan (Other)], {niu} : Niuean, {nog} :
           Nogai, {non} : Old Norse, [{nai} : North American Indian], {no} :
           Norwegian, {nb} : Norwegian Bokmal, {nn} : Norwegian Nynorsk,
           [{nub} : Nubian languages], {nym} : Nyamwezi, {nyn} : Nyankole,
           {nyo} : Nyoro, {nzi} : Nzima, {oc} : Occitan (post 1500), {oj} :
           Ojibwa, {or} : Oriya, {om} : Oromo, {osa} : Osage, {os} : Ossetian;
           Ossetic, [{oto} : Otomian languages], {pal} : Pahlavi, {i-pwn} :
           Paiwan, {pau} : Palauan, {pi} : Pali, {pam} : Pampanga, {pag} :
           Pangasinan, {pa} : Panjabi, {pap} : Papiamento, [{paa} : Papuan
           (Other)], {fa} : Persian, {peo} : Old Persian (ca.600-400 B.C.),
           [{phi} : Philippine (Other)], {phn} : Phoenician, {pon} : Pohn-
           peian, {pl} : Polish, {pt} : Portuguese, [{pra} : Prakrit lan-
           guages], {pro} : Old Provencal (to 1500), {ps} : Pushto, {qu} :
           Quechua, {rm} : Raeto-Romance, {raj} : Rajasthani, {rap} : Rapanui,
           {rar} : Rarotongan, [{qaa - qtz} : Reserved for local use.], [{roa}
           : Romance (Other)], {ro} : Romanian, {rom} : Romany, {rn} : Rundi,
           {ru} : Russian, [{sal} : Salishan languages], {sam} : Samaritan
           Aramaic, {se} : Northern Sami, {sma} : Southern Sami, {smn} : Inari
           Sami, {smj} : Lule Sami, {sms} : Skolt Sami, [{smi} : Sami lan-
           guages (Other)], {sm} : Samoan, {sad} : Sandawe, {sg} : Sango, {sa}
           : Sanskrit, {sat} : Santali, {sc} : Sardinian, {sas} : Sasak, {sco}
           : Scots, {sel} : Selkup, [{sem} : Semitic (Other)], {sr} : Serbian,
           {srr} : Serer, {shn} : Shan, {sn} : Shona, {sid} : Sidamo,
           {sgn-...} : Sign Languages, {bla} : Siksika, {sd} : Sindhi, {si} :
           Sinhalese, [{sit} : Sino-Tibetan (Other)], [{sio} : Siouan lan-
           guages], {den} : Slave (Athapascan), [{sla} : Slavic (Other)], {sk}
           : Slovak, {sl} : Slovenian, {sog} : Sogdian, {so} : Somali, {son} :
           Songhai, {snk} : Soninke, {wen} : Sorbian languages, {nso} : North-
           ern Sotho, {st} : Southern Sotho, [{sai} : South American Indian
           (Other)], {es} : Spanish, {suk} : Sukuma, {sux} : Sumerian, {su} :
           Sundanese, {sus} : Susu, {sw} : Swahili, {ss} : Swati, {sv} :
           Swedish, {syr} : Syriac, {tl} : Tagalog, {ty} : Tahitian, [{tai} :
           Tai (Other)], {tg} : Tajik, {tmh} : Tamashek, {ta} : Tamil, {i-tao}
           : Tao, {tt} : Tatar, {i-tay} : Tayal, {te} : Telugu, {ter} :
           Tereno, {tet} : Tetum, {th} : Thai, {bo} : Tibetan, {tig} : Tigre,
           {ti} : Tigrinya, {tem} : Timne, {tiv} : Tiv, {tli} : Tlingit, {tpi}
           : Tok Pisin, {tkl} : Tokelau, {tog} : Tonga (Nyasa), {to} : Tonga
           (Tonga Islands), {tsi} : Tsimshian, {ts} : Tsonga, {i-tsu} : Tsou,
           {tn} : Tswana, {tum} : Tumbuka, [{tup} : Tupi languages], {tr} :
           Turkish, {ota} : Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928), {crh} : Crimean Turk-
           ish, {tk} : Turkmen, {tvl} : Tuvalu, {tyv} : Tuvinian, {tw} : Twi,
           {udm} : Udmurt, {uga} : Ugaritic, {ug} : Uighur, {uk} : Ukrainian,
           {umb} : Umbundu, {und} : Undetermined, {ur} : Urdu, {uz} : Uzbek,
           {vai} : Vai, {ve} : Venda, {vi} : Vietnamese, {vo} : Volapuk, {vot}
           : Votic, [{wak} : Wakashan languages], {wa} : Walloon, {wal} :
           Walamo, {war} : Waray, {was} : Washo, {cy} : Welsh, {wo} : Wolof,
           {x-...} : Unregistered (Semi-Private Use), {xh} : Xhosa, {sah} :
           Yakut, {yao} : Yao, {yap} : Yapese, {ii} : Sichuan Yi, {yi} : Yid-
           dish, {yo} : Yoruba, [{ypk} : Yupik languages], {znd} : Zande,
           [{zap} : Zapotec], {zen} : Zenaga, {za} : Zhuang, {zu} : Zulu,
           {zun} : Zuni

       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER
       AUTHOR

       I18N::Langinfo - query locale information


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           EXPORT
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       IO - load various IO modules


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       DEPRECATED

       IO::Dir - supply object methods for directory handles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           new ( [ DIRNAME ] ), open ( DIRNAME ), read (), seek ( POS ), tell
           (), rewind (), close (), tie %hash, ’IO::Dir’, DIRNAME [, OPTIONS ]

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), new_tmpfile

       METHODS
           open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), open( FILENAME, IOLAYERS )

       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE )

       METHODS
           $io->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $io->opened, $io->getline, $io->getlines,
           $io->ungetc ( ORD ), $io->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET ] ),
           $io->error, $io->clearerr, $io->sync, $io->flush, $io->printflush (
           ARGS ), $io->blocking ( [ BOOL ] ), $io->untaint

       NOTE
       SEE ALSO
       BUGS
       HISTORY

       IO::Pipe - supply object methods for pipes


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [READER, WRITER] )

       METHODS
           reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles ()

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::Poll - Object interface to system poll call


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           mask ( IO [, EVENT_MASK ] ), poll ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), events ( IO ),
           remove ( IO ), handles( [ EVENT_MASK ] )

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O objects


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           $io->getpos, $io->setpos, $io->seek ( POS, WHENCE ), WHENCE=0
           (SEEK_SET), WHENCE=1 (SEEK_CUR), WHENCE=2 (SEEK_END), $io->sysseek(
           POS, WHENCE ), $io->tell

       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       IO::Select - OO interface to the select system call


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ HANDLES ] )

       METHODS
           add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles,
           can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_exception
           ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, EXCEPTION
           [, TIMEOUT ] )

       EXAMPLE
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communications


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ARGS] )

       METHODS
           accept([PKG]), socketpair(DOMAIN, TYPE, PROTOCOL), atmark, con-
           nected, protocol, sockdomain, sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), socktype, time-
           out([VAL])

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::Socket::INET - Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ARGS] )

           METHODS
               sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport
               (), peerhost ()

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::Socket::UNIX - Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ARGS] )

       METHODS
           hostpath(), peerpath()

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::lib::IO::Dir, IO::Dir - supply object methods for directory handles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           new ( [ DIRNAME ] ), open ( DIRNAME ), read (), seek ( POS ), tell
           (), rewind (), close (), tie %hash, ’IO::Dir’, DIRNAME [, OPTIONS ]

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::lib::IO::File, IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), new_tmpfile

       METHODS
           open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), open( FILENAME, IOLAYERS )

       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       IO::lib::IO::Handle, IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE )

       METHODS
           $io->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $io->opened, $io->getline, $io->getlines,
           $io->ungetc ( ORD ), $io->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET ] ),
           $io->error, $io->clearerr, $io->sync, $io->flush, $io->printflush (
           ARGS ), $io->blocking ( [ BOOL ] ), $io->untaint

       NOTE
       SEE ALSO
       BUGS
       HISTORY

       IO::lib::IO::Pipe, IO::Pipe - supply object methods for pipes


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [READER, WRITER] )

       METHODS
           reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles ()

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::lib::IO::Poll, IO::Poll - Object interface to system poll call


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           mask ( IO [, EVENT_MASK ] ), poll ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), events ( IO ),
           remove ( IO ), handles( [ EVENT_MASK ] )

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::lib::IO::Seekable, IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O
       objects


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           $io->getpos, $io->setpos, $io->seek ( POS, WHENCE ), WHENCE=0
           (SEEK_SET), WHENCE=1 (SEEK_CUR), WHENCE=2 (SEEK_END), $io->sysseek(
           POS, WHENCE ), $io->tell

       SEE ALSO
       HISTORY

       IO::lib::IO::Select, IO::Select - OO interface to the select system
       call


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ HANDLES ] )

       METHODS
           add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles,
           can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_exception
           ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, EXCEPTION
           [, TIMEOUT ] )

       EXAMPLE
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::lib::IO::Socket, IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communica-
       tions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ARGS] )

       METHODS
           accept([PKG]), socketpair(DOMAIN, TYPE, PROTOCOL), atmark, con-
           nected, protocol, sockdomain, sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), socktype, time-
           out([VAL])

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::lib::IO::Socket::INET, IO::Socket::INET - Object interface for
       AF_INET domain sockets


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ARGS] )

           METHODS
               sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport
               (), peerhost ()

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IO::lib::IO::Socket::UNIX, IO::Socket::UNIX - Object interface for
       AF_UNIX domain sockets


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ARGS] )

       METHODS
           hostpath(), peerpath()

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ),
           remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ),
           snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IPC::Open2, open2 - open a process for both reading and writing


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       WARNING
       SEE ALSO

       IPC::Open3, open3 - open a process for reading, writing, and error
       handling


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       WARNING

       IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM
           ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set
           ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall (
           VALUES ), setval ( N , VALUE ), stat

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IPC::SysV - SysV IPC constants


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           ftok( PATH, ID )

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT

       IPC::SysV::Msg, IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ),
           remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ),
           snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       IPC::SysV::Semaphore, IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM
           ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set
           ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall (
           VALUES ), setval ( N , VALUE ), stat

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       List::Util - A selection of general-utility list subroutines


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           first BLOCK LIST, max LIST, maxstr LIST, min LIST, minstr LIST,
           reduce BLOCK LIST, shuffle LIST, sum LIST

       KNOWN BUGS
       SUGGESTED ADDITIONS
       COPYRIGHT

       List::Utilib::List::Util, List::Util - A selection of general-utility
       list subroutines


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           first BLOCK LIST, max LIST, maxstr LIST, min LIST, minstr LIST,
           reduce BLOCK LIST, shuffle LIST, sum LIST

       KNOWN BUGS
       SUGGESTED ADDITIONS
       COPYRIGHT

       List::Utilib::Scalar::Util, Scalar::Util - A selection of general-util-
       ity scalar subroutines


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           blessed EXPR, dualvar NUM, STRING, isvstring EXPR, isweak EXPR,
           looks_like_number EXPR, openhandle FH, refaddr EXPR, reftype EXPR,
           set_prototype CODEREF, PROTOTYPE, tainted EXPR, weaken REF

       KNOWN BUGS
       COPYRIGHT
       BLATANT PLUG

       Locale::Constants - constants for Locale codes


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
       SEE ALSO
           Locale::Language, Locale::Country, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency

       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Locale::Country - ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           alpha-2, alpha-3, numeric

       CONVERSION ROUTINES
           code2country( CODE, [ CODESET ] ), country2code( STRING, [ CODESET
           ] ), country_code2code( CODE, CODESET, CODESET )

       QUERY ROUTINES
           "all_country_codes( [ CODESET ] )", "all_country_names( [ CODESET ]
           )"

       SEMI-PRIVATE ROUTINES
           alias_code
           rename_country
       EXAMPLES
       DOMAIN NAMES
       KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
       SEE ALSO
           Locale::Language, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency, Locale::Sub-
           Country, ISO 3166-1, http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-ser-
           vices/iso3166ma/index.html, http://www.egt.ie/stan-
           dards/iso3166/iso3166-1-en.html, http://www.cia.gov/cia/publica-
           tions/factbook/docs/app-d-1.html

       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Locale::Currency - ISO three letter codes for currency identification
       (ISO 4217)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           XTS, XXX

       CONVERSION ROUTINES
           code2currency(), currency2code()

       QUERY ROUTINES
           "all_currency_codes()", "all_currency_names()"

       EXAMPLES
       KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
       SEE ALSO
           Locale::Country, Locale::Script, ISO 4217:1995,
           http://www.bsi-global.com/iso4217currency

       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Locale::Language - ISO two letter codes for language identification
       (ISO 639)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONVERSION ROUTINES
           code2language(), language2code()

       QUERY ROUTINES
           "all_language_codes()", "all_language_names()"

       EXAMPLES
       KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
       SEE ALSO
           Locale::Country, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency, ISO 639:1988
           (E/F), http://lcweb.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/langhome.html

       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Locale::Maketext - framework for localization


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       QUICK OVERVIEW
       METHODS
           Construction Methods
           The "maketext" Method
               $lh->fail_with or $lh->fail_with(PARAM), $lh->failure_han-
               dler_auto

           Utility Methods
               $language->quant($number, $singular), $language->quant($number,
               $singular, $plural), $language->quant($number, $singular, $plu-
               ral, $negative), $language->numf($number), $lan-
               guage->sprintf($format, @items), $language->language_tag(),
               $language->encoding()

           Language Handle Attributes and Internals
       LANGUAGE CLASS HIERARCHIES
       ENTRIES IN EACH LEXICON
       BRACKET NOTATION
       AUTO LEXICONS
       CONTROLLING LOOKUP FAILURE
       HOW TO USE MAKETEXT
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER
       AUTHOR

       Locale::Maketext::TPJ13 -- article about software localization


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Localization and Perl: gettext breaks, Maketext fixes
           A Localization Horror Story: It Could Happen To You
           The Linguistic View
           Breaking gettext
           Replacing gettext
           Buzzwords: Abstraction and Encapsulation
           Buzzword: Isomorphism
           Buzzword: Inheritance
           Buzzword: Concision
           The Devil in the Details
           The Proof in the Pudding: Localizing Web Sites
           References

       Locale::Script - ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           alpha-2, alpha-3, numeric

           SPECIAL CODES
       CONVERSION ROUTINES
           code2script( CODE, [ CODESET ] ), script2code( STRING, [ CODESET ]
           ), script_code2code( CODE, CODESET, CODESET )

       QUERY ROUTINES
           "all_script_codes ( [ CODESET ] )", "all_script_names ( [ CODESET ]
           )"

       EXAMPLES
       KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
       SEE ALSO
           Locale::Language, Locale::Currency, Locale::Country, ISO 15924,
           http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso15924/

       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       MIME::Base64 - Encoding and decoding of base64 strings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           encode_base64($str), encode_base64($str, $eol);,
           decode_base64($str)

       DIAGNOSTICS
           Premature end of base64 data, Premature padding of base64 data

       EXAMPLES
       COPYRIGHT
       SEE ALSO

       MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint, MIME::QuotedPrint - Encoding and decoding of
       quoted-printable strings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           encode_qp($str), encode_qp($str, $eol), encode_qp($str, $eol, $bin-
           mode), decode_qp($str);

       COPYRIGHT
       SEE ALSO

       MIME::QuotedPrint - Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           encode_qp($str), encode_qp($str, $eol), encode_qp($str, $eol, $bin-
           mode), decode_qp($str);

       COPYRIGHT
       SEE ALSO

       Math::BigFloat - Arbitrary size floating point math package


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Canonical notation
           Output
           "mantissa()", "exponent()" and "parts()"
           Accuracy vs. Precision
           Rounding
               ffround ( +$scale ), ffround ( -$scale ), ffround ( 0 ), fround
               ( +$scale ), fround  ( -$scale ) and fround ( 0 )

       EXAMPLES
             # not ready yet

       Autocreating constants
           Math library
           Using Math::BigInt::Lite
       BUGS
       CAVEATS
           stringify, bstr(), bdiv, Modifying and =, bpow

       SEE ALSO
       LICENSE
       AUTHORS

       Math::BigInt - Arbitrary size integer math package


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Input, Output

       METHODS
           config
           accuracy
           precision
           brsft
           new
           bnan
           bzero
           binf
           bone
           is_one()/is_zero()/is_nan()/is_inf()
           is_pos()/is_neg()
                       $x->is_pos();                   # true if >= 0
                       $x->is_neg();                   # true if <  0

           is_odd()/is_even()/is_int()
           bcmp
           bacmp
           sign
           digit
           bneg
           babs
           bnorm
           bnot
           binc
           bdec
           badd
           bsub
           bmul
           bdiv
           bmod
           bmodinv
           bmodpow
           bpow
           blsft
           brsft
           band
           bior
           bxor
           bnot
           bsqrt
           bfac
           round
           bround
           bfround
           bfloor
           bceil
           bgcd
           blcm
           exponent
           mantissa
           parts
           copy
           as_int
           bsstr
           as_hex
           as_bin
       ACCURACY and PRECISION
           Precision P
           Accuracy A
           Fallback F
           Rounding mode R
               ’trunc’, ’even’, ’odd’, ’+inf’, ’-inf’, ’zero’, Precision,
               Accuracy (significant digits), Setting/Accessing, Creating num-
               bers, Usage, Precedence, Overriding globals, Local settings,
               Rounding, Default values, Remarks

       INTERNALS
           MATH LIBRARY
           SIGN
           mantissa(), exponent() and parts()
       EXAMPLES
             use Math::BigInt;

       Autocreating constants
       PERFORMANCE
           Alternative math libraries
           SUBCLASSING
       Subclassing Math::BigInt
       UPGRADING
           Auto-upgrade
               bsqrt(), div(), blog()

       BUGS
           broot() does not work, Out of Memory!, Fails to load Calc on Perl
           prior 5.6.0

       CAVEATS
           bstr(), bsstr() and ’cmp’, int(), length, bdiv, infinity handling,
           Modifying and =, bpow, Overloading -$x, Mixing different object
           types, bsqrt(), brsft()

       LICENSE
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS

       Math::BigInt::Calc - Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       STORAGE
       METHODS
       WRAP YOUR OWN
       LICENSE
           This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or mod-
           ify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO

       Math::BigInt::CalcEmu - Emulate low-level math with BigInt code


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
       LICENSE
           This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or mod-
           ify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

       AUTHORS
       SEE ALSO

       Math::BigRat - arbitrarily big rational numbers


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           MATH LIBRARY
       METHODS
           new()
           numerator()
           denominator()
                       $d = $x->denominator();

           parts()
           as_number()
           bfac()
           blog()
           bround()/round()/bfround()
           bmod()
           is_one()
           is_zero()
           is_positive()
           is_negative()
           is_int()
           is_odd()
           is_even()
           bceil()
           bfloor()
                       $x->bfloor();

           bsqrt()
                       $x->bsqrt();

           config
       BUGS
           inf handling (partial), NaN handling (partial), rounding (not
           implemented except for bceil/bfloor), $x ** $y where $y is not an
           integer, bmod(), blog(), bmodinv() and bmodpow() (partial)

       LICENSE
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS

       Math::Complex - complex numbers and associated mathematical functions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OPERATIONS
       CREATION
       STRINGIFICATION
           CHANGED IN PERL 5.6
       USAGE
       ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO OR LOGARITHM OF ZERO
       ERRORS DUE TO INDIGESTIBLE ARGUMENTS
       BUGS
       AUTHORS

       Math::Trig - trigonometric functions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
           tan

           ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO
           SIMPLE (REAL) ARGUMENTS, COMPLEX RESULTS
       PLANE ANGLE CONVERSIONS
       RADIAL COORDINATE CONVERSIONS
           COORDINATE SYSTEMS
           3-D ANGLE CONVERSIONS
               cartesian_to_cylindrical, cartesian_to_spherical, cylindri-
               cal_to_cartesian, cylindrical_to_spherical, spherical_to_carte-
               sian, spherical_to_cylindrical

       GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES AND DIRECTIONS
       EXAMPLES
           CAVEAT FOR GREAT CIRCLE FORMULAS
       BUGS
       AUTHORS

       Memoize - Make functions faster by trading space for time


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       DETAILS
       OPTIONS
           INSTALL
           NORMALIZER
           "SCALAR_CACHE", "LIST_CACHE"
               "MEMORY", "HASH", "TIE", "FAULT", "MERGE"

       OTHER FACILITIES
           "unmemoize"
           "flush_cache"
       CAVEATS
       PERSISTENT CACHE SUPPORT
       EXPIRATION SUPPORT
       BUGS
       MAILING LIST
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
       THANK YOU

       Memoize::AnyDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for
       Storable use


       DESCRIPTION

       Memoize::Expire - Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized
       values

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       INTERFACE
            TIEHASH,  EXISTS,  STORE

       ALTERNATIVES
       CAVEATS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Memoize::ExpireFile - test for Memoize expiration semantics


       DESCRIPTION

       Memoize::ExpireTest - test for Memoize expiration semantics

       DESCRIPTION

       Memoize::NDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable
       use


       DESCRIPTION

       Memoize::SDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable
       use

       DESCRIPTION

       Memoize::Storable - store Memoized data in Storable database


       DESCRIPTION

       NDBM_File - Tied access to ndbm files

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           "O_RDONLY", "O_WRONLY", "O_RDWR"

       DIAGNOSTICS
           "ndbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ..."
       BUGS AND WARNINGS

       NEXT - Provide a pseudo-class NEXT (et al) that allows method redis-
       patch


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Enforcing redispatch
           Avoiding repetitions
           Invoking all versions of a method with a single call
           Using "EVERY" methods
       AUTHOR
       BUGS AND IRRITATIONS
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::Cmd - Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       USER METHODS
           debug ( VALUE ), message (), code (), ok (), status (), datasend (
           DATA ), dataend ()

       CLASS METHODS
           debug_print ( DIR, TEXT ), debug_text ( TEXT ), command ( CMD [,
           ARGS, ...  ]), unsupported (), response (), parse_response ( TEXT
           ), getline (), ungetline ( TEXT ), rawdatasend ( DATA ),
           read_until_dot (), tied_fh ()

       EXPORTS
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::Config - Local configuration data for libnet


       SYNOPSYS
       DESCRIPTION
       METHODS
           requires_firewall HOST

       NetConfig VALUES
           nntp_hosts, snpp_hosts, pop3_hosts, smtp_hosts, ph_hosts, day-
           time_hosts, time_hosts, inet_domain, ftp_firewall, ftp_fire-
           wall_type, ftp_ext_passive, ftp_int_pasive, local_netmask,
           test_hosts, test_exists

       Net::Domain - Attempt to evaluate the current hosts internet name and
       domain


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           hostfqdn (), hostname (), hostdomain ()

       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::FTP - FTP Client class


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OVERVIEW
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ([ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ])

       METHODS
           login ([LOGIN [,PASSWORD [, ACCOUNT] ] ]), authorize ( [AUTH [,
           RESP]]), site (ARGS), ascii, binary, rename ( OLDNAME, NEWNAME ),
           delete ( FILENAME ), cwd ( [ DIR ] ), cdup (), pwd (), restart (
           WHERE ), rmdir ( DIR [, RECURSE ]), mkdir ( DIR [, RECURSE ]),
           alloc ( SIZE [, RECORD_SIZE] ), ls ( [ DIR ] ), dir ( [ DIR ] ),
           get ( REMOTE_FILE [, LOCAL_FILE [, WHERE]] ), put ( LOCAL_FILE [,
           REMOTE_FILE ] ), put_unique ( LOCAL_FILE [, REMOTE_FILE ] ), append
           ( LOCAL_FILE [, REMOTE_FILE ] ), unique_name (), mdtm ( FILE ),
           size ( FILE ), supported ( CMD ), hash ( [FILEHANDLE_GLOB_REF],[
           BYTES_PER_HASH_MARK] ), nlst ( [ DIR ] ), list ( [ DIR ] ), retr (
           FILE ), stor ( FILE ), stou ( FILE ), appe ( FILE ), port ( [ PORT
           ] ), pasv (), pasv_xfer ( SRC_FILE, DEST_SERVER [, DEST_FILE ] ),
           pasv_xfer_unique ( SRC_FILE, DEST_SERVER [, DEST_FILE ] ),
           pasv_wait ( NON_PASV_SERVER ), abort (), quit ()

           Methods for the adventurous
               quot (CMD [,ARGS])

       THE dataconn CLASS
           read ( BUFFER, SIZE [, TIMEOUT ] ), write ( BUFFER, SIZE [, TIMEOUT
           ] ), bytes_read (), abort (), close ()

       UNIMPLEMENTED
           SMNT, HELP, MODE, SYST, STAT, STRU, REIN

       REPORTING BUGS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO
       USE EXAMPLES
           http://www.csh.rit.edu/~adam/Progs/

       CREDITS
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::NNTP - NNTP Client class


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ])

       METHODS
           article ( [ MSGID│MSGNUM ], [FH] ), body ( [ MSGID│MSGNUM ], [FH]
           ), head ( [ MSGID│MSGNUM ], [FH] ), articlefh ( [ MSGID│MSGNUM ] ),
           bodyfh ( [ MSGID│MSGNUM ] ), headfh ( [ MSGID│MSGNUM ] ), nntpstat
           ( [ MSGID│MSGNUM ] ), group ( [ GROUP ] ), ihave ( MSGID [, MESSAGE
           ]), last (), date (), postok (), authinfo ( USER, PASS ), list (),
           newgroups ( SINCE [, DISTRIBUTIONS ]), newnews ( SINCE [, GROUPS [,
           DISTRIBUTIONS ]]), next (), post ( [ MESSAGE ] ), postfh (), slave
           (), quit ()

           Extension methods
               newsgroups ( [ PATTERN ] ), distributions (), subscriptions (),
               overview_fmt (), active_times (), active ( [ PATTERN ] ), xgti-
               tle ( PATTERN ), xhdr ( HEADER, MESSAGE-SPEC ), xover ( MES-
               SAGE-SPEC ), xpath ( MESSAGE-ID ), xpat ( HEADER, PATTERN, MES-
               SAGE-SPEC), xrover, listgroup ( [ GROUP ] ), reader

       UNSUPPORTED
       DEFINITIONS
           MESSAGE-SPEC, PATTERN, Examples, "[^]-]", *bdc, "[0-9a-zA-Z]",
           "a??d"

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::POP3 - Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ] 0

       METHODS
           auth ( USERNAME, PASSWORD ), user ( USER ), pass ( PASS ), login (
           [ USER [, PASS ]] ), apop ( [ USER [, PASS ]] ), banner (), capa
           (),  capabilities (), top ( MSGNUM [, NUMLINES ] ), list ( [ MSGNUM
           ] ), get ( MSGNUM [, FH ] ), getfh ( MSGNUM ), last (), popstat (),
           ping ( USER ), uidl ( [ MSGNUM ] ), delete ( MSGNUM ), reset (),
           quit ()

       NOTES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::Ping - check a remote host for reachability


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Functions
               Net::Ping->new([$proto [, $def_timeout [, $bytes [, $device [,
               $tos ]]]]]);, $p->ping($host [, $timeout]);, $p->source_verify(
               { 0 │ 1 } );, $p->service_check( { 0 │ 1 } );, $p->tcp_ser-
               vice_check( { 0 │ 1 } );, $p->hires( { 0 │ 1 } );,
               $p->bind($local_addr);, $p->open($host);, $p->ack( [ $host ]
               );, $p->nack( $failed_ack_host );, $p->close();, pingecho($host
               [, $timeout]);

       NOTES
       INSTALL
       BUGS
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLES
       CONSTRUCTOR
           new ( [ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ] )

       METHODS
           banner (), domain (), hello ( DOMAIN ), host (), etrn ( DOMAIN ),
           auth ( USERNAME, PASSWORD ), mail ( ADDRESS [, OPTIONS] ), send (
           ADDRESS ), send_or_mail ( ADDRESS ), send_and_mail ( ADDRESS ),
           reset (), recipient ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS, [...]] [, OPTIONS ] ), to
           ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]]  ), cc ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]] ),
           bcc ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]] ), data ( [ DATA ] ), expand (
           ADDRESS ), verify ( ADDRESS ), help ( [ $subject ] ), quit ()

       ADDRESSES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::Time - time and daytime network client interface


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           inet_time ( [HOST [, PROTOCOL [, TIMEOUT]]]), inet_daytime ( [HOST
           [, PROTOCOL [, TIMEOUT]]])

       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT

       Net::hostent - by-name interface to Perls built-in gethost*() func-
       tions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLES
       NOTE
       AUTHOR

       Net::libnetFAQ, libnetFAQ - libnet Frequently Asked Questions


       DESCRIPTION
           Where to get this document
           How to contribute to this document
       Author and Copyright Information
           Disclaimer
       Obtaining and installing libnet
           What is libnet ?
           Which version of perl do I need ?
           What other modules do I need ?
           What machines support libnet ?
           Where can I get the latest libnet release
       Using Net::FTP
           How do I download files from an FTP server ?
           How do I transfer files in binary mode ?
           How can I get the size of a file on a remote FTP server ?
           How can I get the modification time of a file on a remote FTP
           server ?
           How can I change the permissions of a file on a remote server ?
           Can I do a reget operation like the ftp command ?
           How do I get a directory listing from an FTP server ?
           Changing directory to "" does not fail ?
           I am behind a SOCKS firewall, but the Firewall option does not work
           ?
           I am behind an FTP proxy firewall, but cannot access machines out-
           side ?
           My ftp proxy firewall does not listen on port 21
           Is it possible to change the file permissions of a file on an FTP
           server ?
           I have seen scripts call a method message, but cannot find it docu-
           mented ?
           Why does Net::FTP not implement mput and mget methods
       Using Net::SMTP
           Why can’t the part of an Email address after the @ be used as the
           hostname ?
           Why does Net::SMTP not do DNS MX lookups ?
           The verify method always returns true ?
       Debugging scripts
           How can I debug my scripts that use Net::* modules ?
       AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

       Net::netent - by-name interface to Perls built-in getnet*() functions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLES
       NOTE
       AUTHOR

       Net::protoent - by-name interface to Perls built-in getproto*() func-
       tions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTE
       AUTHOR

       Net::servent - by-name interface to Perls built-in getserv*() func-
       tions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLES
       NOTE
       AUTHOR

       Netrc, Net::Netrc - OO interface to users netrc file


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       THE .netrc FILE
           machine name, default, login name, password string, account string,
           macdef name

       CONSTRUCTOR
           lookup ( MACHINE [, LOGIN ])

       METHODS
           login (), password (), account (), lpa ()

       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT

       O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CONVENTIONS
       IMPLEMENTATION
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       ODBM_File - Tied access to odbm files


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           "O_RDONLY", "O_WRONLY", "O_RDWR"

       DIAGNOSTICS
           "odbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ..."
       BUGS AND WARNINGS

       Opcode - Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTE
       WARNING
       Operator Names and Operator Lists
           an operator name (opname), an operator tag name (optag), a negated
           opname or optag, an operator set (opset)

       Opcode Functions
           opcodes, opset (OP, ...), opset_to_ops (OPSET), opset_to_hex
           (OPSET), full_opset, empty_opset, invert_opset (OPSET), ver-
           ify_opset (OPSET, ...), define_optag (OPTAG, OPSET), opmask_add
           (OPSET), opmask, opdesc (OP, ...), opdump (PAT)

       Manipulating Opsets
       TO DO (maybe)
       Predefined Opcode Tags
           :base_core, :base_mem, :base_loop, :base_io, :base_orig,
           :base_math, :base_thread, :default, :filesys_read, :sys_db,
           :browse, :filesys_open, :filesys_write, :subprocess, :ownprocess,
           :others, :still_to_be_decided, :dangerous

       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS

       Opcode::Safe, Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compart-
       ments


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           a new namespace, an operator mask

       WARNING
           RECENT CHANGES
           Methods in class Safe
               permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...),
               deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share
               (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME),
               reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK)

           Some Safety Issues
               Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes

           AUTHOR

       Opcode::ops, ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when com-
       piling

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTE
       CAVEATS
       FUNCTIONS
           _exit, abort, abs, access, acos, alarm, asctime, asin, assert,
           atan, atan2, atexit, atof, atoi, atol, bsearch, calloc, ceil,
           chdir, chmod, chown, clearerr, clock, close, closedir, cos, cosh,
           creat, ctermid, ctime, cuserid, difftime, div, dup, dup2, errno,
           execl, execle, execlp, execv, execve, execvp, exit, exp, fabs,
           fclose, fcntl, fdopen, feof, ferror, fflush, fgetc, fgetpos, fgets,
           fileno, floor, fmod, fopen, fork, fpathconf, fprintf, fputc, fputs,
           fread, free, freopen, frexp, fscanf, fseek, fsetpos, fstat, fsync,
           ftell, fwrite, getc, getchar, getcwd, getegid, getenv, geteuid,
           getgid, getgrgid, getgrnam, getgroups, getlogin, getpgrp, getpid,
           getppid, getpwnam, getpwuid, gets, getuid, gmtime, isalnum, isal-
           pha, isatty, iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph, islower, isprint, ispunct,
           isspace, isupper, isxdigit, kill, labs, ldexp, ldiv, link, locale-
           conv, localtime, log, log10, longjmp, lseek, malloc, mblen,
           mbstowcs, mbtowc, memchr, memcmp, memcpy, memmove, memset, mkdir,
           mkfifo, mktime, modf, nice, offsetof, open, opendir, pathconf,
           pause, perror, pipe, pow, printf, putc, putchar, puts, qsort,
           raise, rand, read, readdir, realloc, remove, rename, rewind,
           rewinddir, rmdir, scanf, setgid, setjmp, setlocale, setpgid, set-
           sid, setuid, sigaction, siglongjmp, sigpending, sigprocmask,
           sigsetjmp, sigsuspend, sin, sinh, sleep, sprintf, sqrt, srand,
           sscanf, stat, strcat, strchr, strcmp, strcoll, strcpy, strcspn,
           strerror, strftime, strlen, strncat, strncmp, strncpy, strpbrk,
           strrchr, strspn, strstr, strtod, strtok, strtol, strtoul, strxfrm,
           sysconf, system, tan, tanh, tcdrain, tcflow, tcflush, tcgetpgrp,
           tcsendbreak, tcsetpgrp, time, times, tmpfile, tmpnam, tolower,
           toupper, ttyname, tzname, tzset, umask, uname, ungetc, unlink,
           utime, vfprintf, vprintf, vsprintf, wait, waitpid, wcstombs,
           wctomb, write

       CLASSES
           POSIX::SigAction
               new, handler, mask, flags, safe

           POSIX::SigSet
               new, addset, delset, emptyset, fillset, ismember

           POSIX::Termios
               new, getattr, getcc, getcflag, getiflag, getispeed, getlflag,
               getoflag, getospeed, setattr, setcc, setcflag, setiflag,
               setispeed, setlflag, setoflag, setospeed, Baud rate values,
               Terminal interface values, c_cc field values, c_cflag field
               values, c_iflag field values, c_lflag field values, c_oflag
               field values

       PATHNAME CONSTANTS
           Constants

       POSIX CONSTANTS
           Constants

       SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
           Constants

       ERRNO
           Constants

       FCNTL
           Constants

       FLOAT
           Constants

       LIMITS
           Constants

       LOCALE
           Constants

       MATH
           Constants

       SIGNAL
           Constants

       STAT
           Constants, Macros

       STDLIB
           Constants

       STDIO
           Constants

       TIME
           Constants

       UNISTD
           Constants

       WAIT
           Constants, WNOHANG, WUNTRACED, Macros, WIFEXITED, WEXITSTATUS,
           WIFSIGNALED, WTERMSIG, WIFSTOPPED, WSTOPSIG

       PerlIO - On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::* name
       space


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           :unix, :stdio, :perlio, :crlf, :mmap, :utf8, :bytes, :raw, :pop,
           :win32

           Custom Layers
               :encoding, :via

           Alternatives to raw
           Defaults and how to override them
           Querying the layers of filehandles
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       PerlIO::encoding - encoding layer


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO

       PerlIO::scalar - in-memory IO, scalar IO


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       IMPLEMENTATION NOTE

       PerlIO::via - Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXPECTED METHODS
           $class->PUSHED([$mode[,$fh]]), $obj->POPPED([$fh]),
           $obj->UTF8($bellowFlag,[$fh]), $obj->OPEN($path,$mode[,$fh]),
           $obj->BINMODE([,$fh]), $obj->FDOPEN($fd[,$fh]),
           $obj->SYSOPEN($path,$imode,$perm,[,$fh]), $obj->FILENO($fh),
           $obj->READ($buffer,$len,$fh), $obj->WRITE($buffer,$fh),
           $obj->FILL($fh), $obj->CLOSE($fh), $obj->SEEK($posn,$whence,$fh),
           $obj->TELL($fh), $obj->UNREAD($buffer,$fh), $obj->FLUSH($fh),
           $obj->SETLINEBUF($fh), $obj->CLEARERR($fh), $obj->ERROR($fh),
           $obj->EOF($fh)

       EXAMPLES
           Example - a Hexadecimal Handle

       PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint - PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       REQUIRED MODULES
       SEE ALSO
       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       COPYRIGHT

       Pod::Checker, podchecker() - check pod documents for syntax errors


       SYNOPSIS
       OPTIONS/ARGUMENTS
           podchecker()
               -warnings => val

       DESCRIPTION
       DIAGNOSTICS
           Errors
               empty =headn, =over on line N without closing =back, =item
               without previous =over, =back without previous =over, No argu-
               ment for =begin, =end without =begin, Nested =begin’s, =for
               without formatter specification, unresolved internal link NAME,
               Unknown command "CMD", Unknown interior-sequence "SEQ", nested
               commands CMD<...CMD<...>...>, garbled entity STRING, Entity
               number out of range, malformed link L<>, nonempty Z<>, empty
               X<>, Spurious text after =pod / =cut, Spurious character(s)
               after =back

           Warnings
               multiple occurrence of link target name, line containing noth-
               ing but whitespace in paragraph, file does not start with
               =head, previous =item has no contents, preceding non-item para-
               graph(s), =item type mismatch (one vs. two), N unescaped "<>"
               in paragraph, Unknown entity, No items in =over, No argument
               for =item, empty section in previous paragraph, Verbatim para-
               graph in NAME section, =headn without preceding higher level

           Hyperlinks
               ignoring leading/trailing whitespace in link, (section) in
               ’$page’ deprecated, alternative text/node ’%s’ contains non-
               escaped │ or /

       RETURN VALUE
       EXAMPLES
       INTERFACE

       "Pod::Checker->new( %options )"

       "$checker->poderror( @args )", "$checker->poderror( {%opts}, @args )"

       "$checker->num_errors()"

       "$checker->num_warnings()"

       "$checker->name()"

       "$checker->node()"

       "$checker->idx()"

       "$checker->hyperlink()"

       AUTHOR

       Pod::Find - find POD documents in directory trees

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       "pod_find( { %opts } , @directories )"
           "-verbose => 1", "-perl => 1", "-script => 1", "-inc => 1"

       "simplify_name( $str )"
       "pod_where( { %opts }, $pod )"
           "-inc => 1", "-dirs => [ $dir1, $dir2, ... ]", "-verbose => 1"

       "contains_pod( $file , $verbose )"
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Pod::Html - module to convert pod files to HTML


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       ARGUMENTS
           backlink, cachedir, css, flush, header, help, hiddendirs, htmldir,
           htmlroot, index, infile, libpods, netscape, outfile, podpath, pod-
           root, quiet, recurse, title, verbose

       EXAMPLE
       ENVIRONMENT
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT

       Pod::InputObjects - objects representing POD input paragraphs, com-
       mands, etc.


       SYNOPSIS
       REQUIRES
       EXPORTS
       DESCRIPTION
           package Pod::InputSource, package Pod::Paragraph, package
           Pod::InteriorSequence, package Pod::ParseTree

       Pod::InputSource
       nneeww(())
       nnaammee(())
       hhaannddllee(())
       wwaass_ccuuttttiinngg(())
       Pod::Paragraph
       Pod::Paragraph->nneeww(())
       $pod_para->ccmmdd_nnaammee(())
       $pod_para->tteexxtt(())
       $pod_para->rraaww_tteexxtt(())
       $pod_para->ccmmdd_pprreeffiixx(())
       $pod_para->ccmmdd_sseeppaarraattoorr(())
       $pod_para->ppaarrssee_ttrreeee(())
       $pod_para->ffiillee_lliinnee(())
       Pod::InteriorSequence
       Pod::InteriorSequence->nneeww(())
       $pod_seq->ccmmdd_nnaammee(())
       $pod_seq->pprreeppeenndd(())
       $pod_seq->aappppeenndd(())
       $pod_seq->nneesstteedd(())
       $pod_seq->rraaww_tteexxtt(())
       $pod_seq->lleefftt_ddeelliimmiitteerr(())
       $pod_seq->rriigghhtt_ddeelliimmiitteerr(())
       $pod_seq->ppaarrssee_ttrreeee(())
       $pod_seq->ffiillee_lliinnee(())
       Pod::InteriorSequence::DDEESSTTRROOYY(())
       Pod::ParseTree
       Pod::ParseTree->nneeww(())
       $ptree->ttoopp(())
       $ptree->cchhiillddrreenn(())
       $ptree->pprreeppeenndd(())
       $ptree->aappppeenndd(())
       $ptree->rraaww_tteexxtt(())
       Pod::ParseTree::DDEESSTTRROOYY(())
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Pod::LaTeX - Convert Pod data to formatted Latex


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OBJECT METHODS
           "initialize"

       Data Accessors
           AddPreamble

       AddPostamble

       Head1Level

       Label

       LevelNoNum

       MakeIndex

       ReplaceNAMEwithSection

       StartWithNewPage

       TableOfContents

       UniqueLabels

       UserPreamble

       UserPostamble

       Lists

       Subclassed methods

       begin_pod

       end_pod

       command

       verbatim

       textblock

       interior_sequence

       List Methods
           begin_list

       end_list

       add_item

       Methods for headings
           head

       Internal methods
           _output

       _replace_special_chars

       _replace_special_chars_late

       _create_label

       _create_index

       _clean_latex_commands

       _split_delimited

       NOTES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT
       REVISION

       Pod::Man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           center, date, fixed, fixedbold, fixeditalic, fixedbolditalic, name,
           quotes, release, section

       DIAGNOSTICS
           roff font should be 1 or 2 chars, not "%s", Invalid link %s,
           Invalid quote specification "%s", %s:%d: Unknown command paragraph
           "%s", %s:%d: Unknown escape E<%s>, %s:%d: Unknown formatting code
           %s, %s:%d: Unmatched =back

       BUGS
       CAVEATS
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Pod::ParseLink - Parse an L<> formatting code in POD text


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Pod::ParseUtils - helpers for POD parsing and conversion


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Pod::List
           Pod::List->new()

       $list->file()

       $list->start()

       $list->indent()

       $list->type()

       $list->rx()

       $list->item()

       $list->parent()

       $list->tag()

       Pod::Hyperlink
           Pod::Hyperlink->new()

       $link->parse($string)

       $link->markup($string)

       $link->text()

       $link->warning()

       $link->file(), $link->line()

       $link->page()

       $link->node()

       $link->alttext()

       $link->type()

       $link->link()

       Pod::Cache
           Pod::Cache->new()

       $cache->item()

       $cache->find_page($name)

       Pod::Cache::Item
           Pod::Cache::Item->new()

       $cacheitem->page()

       $cacheitem->description()

       $cacheitem->path()

       $cacheitem->file()

       $cacheitem->nodes()

       $cacheitem->find_node($name)

       $cacheitem->idx()

       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Pod::Parser - base class for creating POD filters and translators


       SYNOPSIS
       REQUIRES
       EXPORTS
       DESCRIPTION
       QUICK OVERVIEW
       PARSING OPTIONS
           -want_nonPODs (default: unset), -process_cut_cmd (default: unset),
           -warnings (default: unset)

       RECOMMENDED SUBROUTINE/METHOD OVERRIDES
       ccoommmmaanndd(())
           $cmd, $text, $line_num, $pod_para

       vveerrbbaattiimm(())
           $text, $line_num, $pod_para

       tteexxttbblloocckk(())
           $text, $line_num, $pod_para

       iinntteerriioorr_sseeqquueennccee(())
       OPTIONAL SUBROUTINE/METHOD OVERRIDES
       nneeww(())
       iinniittiiaalliizzee(())
       bbeeggiinn_ppoodd(())
       bbeeggiinn_iinnppuutt(())
       eenndd_iinnppuutt(())
       eenndd_ppoodd(())
       pprreepprroocceessss_lliinnee(())
       pprreepprroocceessss_ppaarraaggrraapphh(())
       METHODS FOR PARSING AND PROCESSING
       ppaarrssee_tteexxtt(())
           -expand_seq => code-refmethod-name, -expand_text => code-
           refmethod-name, -expand_ptree => code-refmethod-name

       iinntteerrppoollaattee(())
       ppaarrssee_ppaarraaggrraapphh(())
       ppaarrssee_ffrroomm_ffiilleehhaannddllee(())
       ppaarrssee_ffrroomm_ffiillee(())
       ACCESSOR METHODS
       eerrrroorrssuubb(())
       ccuuttttiinngg(())
       ppaarrsseeooppttss(())
       oouuttppuutt_ffiillee(())
       oouuttppuutt_hhaannddllee(())
       iinnppuutt_ffiillee(())
       iinnppuutt_hhaannddllee(())
       iinnppuutt_ssttrreeaammss(())
       ttoopp_ssttrreeaamm(())
       PRIVATE METHODS AND DATA
       _ppuusshh_iinnppuutt_ssttrreeaamm(())
       _ppoopp_iinnppuutt_ssttrreeaamm(())
       TREE-BASED PARSING
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker - let Perldoc check Pod for errors


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Perldoc::ToMan - let Perldoc render Pod as man pages


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CAVEAT
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff - let Perldoc convert Pod to nroff


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CAVEAT
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Perldoc::ToPod - let Perldoc render Pod as ... Pod!


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf - let Perldoc render Pod as RTF


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Perldoc::ToText - let Perldoc render Pod as plaintext


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CAVEAT
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Perldoc::ToTk - let Perldoc use Tk::Pod to render Pod


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Perldoc::ToXml - let Perldoc render Pod as XML


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       SEE ALSO
       COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
       AUTHOR

       Pod::PlainText - Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           alt, indent, loose, sentence, width

       DIAGNOSTICS
           Bizarre space in item, Can’t open %s for reading: %s, Unknown
           escape: %s, Unknown sequence: %s, Unmatched =back

       RESTRICTIONS
       NOTES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Plainer - Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           EXPORT
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Pod::Select, podselect() - extract selected sections of POD from input


       SYNOPSIS
       REQUIRES
       EXPORTS
       DESCRIPTION
       SECTION SPECIFICATIONS
       RANGE SPECIFICATIONS
       OBJECT METHODS
       ccuurrrr_hheeaaddiinnggss(())
       sseelleecctt(())
       aadddd_sseelleeccttiioonn(())
       cclleeaarr_sseelleeccttiioonnss(())
       mmaattcchh_sseeccttiioonn(())
       iiss_sseelleecctteedd(())
       EXPORTED FUNCTIONS
       ppooddsseelleecctt(())
           -output, -sections, -ranges

       PRIVATE METHODS AND DATA
       _ccoommppiillee_sseeccttiioonn_ssppeecc(())
       $self->{_SECTION_HEADINGS}
       $self->{_SELECTED_SECTIONS}
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Pod::Text - Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           alt, code, indent, loose, margin, quotes, sentence, width

       DIAGNOSTICS
           Bizarre space in item, Item called without tag, Can’t open %s for
           reading: %s, Invalid quote specification "%s", %s:%d: Unknown com-
           mand paragraph: %s, %s:%d: Unknown escape: %s, %s:%d: Unknown for-
           matting code: %s, %s:%d: Unmatched =back

       RESTRICTIONS
       NOTES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Pod::Text::Color - Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Pod::Text::Overstrike - Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Pod::Text::Termcap - Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Pod::Usage, pod2usage() - print a usage message from embedded pod docu-
       mentation


       SYNOPSIS
       ARGUMENTS
           "-message", "-msg", "-exitval", "-verbose", "-output", "-input",
           "-pathlist"

       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLES
           Recommended Use
       CAVEATS
       AUTHOR
       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

       SDBM_File - Tied access to sdbm files


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           "O_RDONLY", "O_WRONLY", "O_RDWR"

       DIAGNOSTICS
           "sdbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ..."
       BUGS AND WARNINGS

       Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           a new namespace, an operator mask

       WARNING
           RECENT CHANGES
           Methods in class Safe
               permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...),
               deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share
               (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME),
               reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK)

           Some Safety Issues
               Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes

           AUTHOR

       Scalar::Util - A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           blessed EXPR, dualvar NUM, STRING, isvstring EXPR, isweak EXPR,
           looks_like_number EXPR, openhandle FH, refaddr EXPR, reftype EXPR,
           set_prototype CODEREF, PROTOTYPE, tainted EXPR, weaken REF

       KNOWN BUGS
       COPYRIGHT
       BLATANT PLUG

       Search::Dict, look - search for key in dictionary file


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       SelectSaver - save and restore selected file handle


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       SelfLoader - load functions only on demand


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           The __DATA__ token
           SelfLoader autoloading
           Autoloading and package lexicals
           SelfLoader and AutoLoader
           __DATA__, __END__, and the FOOBAR::DATA filehandle.
           Classes and inherited methods.
       Multiple packages and fully qualified subroutine names

       Shell - run shell commands transparently within perl


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Caveats
           Escaping Magic Characters
           Configuration
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       Socket, sockaddr_in, sockaddr_un, inet_aton, inet_ntoa - load the C
       socket.h defines and structure manipulators


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           inet_aton HOSTNAME, inet_ntoa IP_ADDRESS, INADDR_ANY, INADDR_BROAD-
           CAST, INADDR_LOOPBACK, INADDR_NONE, sockaddr_family SOCKADDR, sock-
           addr_in PORT, ADDRESS, sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, pack_sockaddr_in
           PORT, IP_ADDRESS, unpack_sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, sockaddr_un PATH-
           NAME, sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN, pack_sockaddr_un PATH, unpack_sock-
           addr_un SOCKADDR_UN

       Storable - persistence for Perl data structures


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       MEMORY STORE
       ADVISORY LOCKING
       SPEED
       CANONICAL REPRESENTATION
       CODE REFERENCES
       FORWARD COMPATIBILITY
           utf8 data, restricted hashes, files from future versions of
           Storable

       ERROR REPORTING
       WIZARDS ONLY
           Hooks
               "STORABLE_freeze" obj, cloning, "STORABLE_thaw" obj, cloning,
               serialized, ..

           Predicates
               "Storable::last_op_in_netorder", "Storable::is_storing",
               "Storable::is_retrieving"

           Recursion
           Deep Cloning
       Storable magic
       EXAMPLES
       WARNING
       BUGS
           64 bit data in perl 5.6.0 and 5.6.1
       CREDITS
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Switch - A switch statement for Perl


       VERSION
       SYNOPSIS
       BACKGROUND
       DESCRIPTION
           Allowing fall-through
           Automating fall-through
           Alternative syntax
           Higher-order Operations
       DEPENDENCIES
       AUTHOR
       BUGS
       LIMITATIONS
       COPYRIGHT

       Symbol - manipulate Perl symbols and their names


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS

       Sys::Hostname - Try every conceivable way to get hostname


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR

       Syslog, Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog - Perl
       interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           openlog $ident, $logopt, $facility, syslog $priority, $format,
           @args, setlogmask $mask_priority, setlogsock $sock_type
           [$stream_location] (added in 5.004_02), closelog

       EXAMPLES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Syslog::Syslog, Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog -
       Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           openlog $ident, $logopt, $facility, syslog $priority, $format,
           @args, setlogmask $mask_priority, setlogsock $sock_type
           [$stream_location] (added in 5.004_02), closelog

       EXAMPLES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Term::ANSIColor - Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       DIAGNOSTICS
           Bad escape sequence %s, Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict
           subs" in use, Invalid attribute name %s, Name "%s" used only once:
           possible typo, No comma allowed after filehandle, No name for
           escape sequence %s

       ENVIRONMENT
           ANSI_COLORS_DISABLED

       RESTRICTIONS
       NOTES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Term::Cap - Perl termcap interface


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           METHODS

       Tgetent, OSPEED, TERM

       Tpad, $string, $cnt, $FH

       Tputs, $cap, $cnt, $FH

       Tgoto, $cap, $col, $row, $FH

       Trequire

       EXAMPLES
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Term::Complete - Perl word completion module


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           <tab>, ^D, ^U, <del>, <bs>

       DIAGNOSTICS
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       Term::ReadLine - Perl interface to various "readline" packages. If no
       real package is found, substitutes stubs instead of basic functions.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Minimal set of supported functions
           "ReadLine", "new", "readline", "addhistory", "IN", "OUT", "Min-
           Line", "findConsole", Attribs, "Features"

       Additional supported functions
           "tkRunning", "ornaments", "newTTY"

       EXPORTS
       ENVIRONMENT
       CAVEATS

       Test - provides a simple framework for writing test scripts


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       QUICK START GUIDE
           Functions
               "plan(...)", "tests => number", "todo => [1,5,14]", "onfail =>
               sub { ... }", "onfail => \&some_sub"

       _to_value

       "ok(...)"

       "skip(skip_if_true, args...)"

       TEST TYPES
           NORMAL TESTS, SKIPPED TESTS, TODO TESTS

       ONFAIL
       BUGS and CAVEATS
       ENVIRONMENT
       NOTE
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHOR

       Test::Builder - Backend for building test libraries


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Construction
               new

       Setting up tests
           exported_to

       plan

       expected_tests

       no_plan

       has_plan

       skip_all

       Running tests
           ok

       is_eq, is_num

       isnt_eq, isnt_num

       like, unlike

       maybe_regex

       cmp_ok

       BAILOUT

       skip

       todo_skip

       skip_rest

       Test style
           level

       use_numbers

       no_header, no_ending

       Output
           diag

       _print

       output, failure_output, todo_output

       Test Status and Info
           current_test

       summary

       details

       todo

       caller

       _sanity_check

       _whoa

       _my_exit

       THREADS
       EXAMPLES
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT

       Test::Harness - Run Perl standard test scripts with statistics


       VERSION
       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           The test script output
               1..M, ok, not ok.  Ok?, test numbers, test names, Skip-
               ping tests, Todo tests, Bail out!, Comments, Anything else

           Taint mode
           Configuration variables.
               $Test::Harness::Verbose, $Test::Harness::switches

           Failure
               Failed Test, Stat, Wstat, Total, Fail, Failed, List of Failed

           Functions
               runtests

       _all_ok

       _globdir

       _run_all_tests

       _mk_leader

       _leader_width

       EXPORT
       DIAGNOSTICS
           "All tests successful.\nFiles=%d,  Tests=%d, %s", "FAILED tests
           %s\n\tFailed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay.", "Test returned status %d
           (wstat %d)", "Failed 1 test, %.2f%% okay. %s", "Failed %d/%d tests,
           %.2f%% okay.  %s", "FAILED--Further testing stopped: %s"

       ENVIRONMENT
           "HARNESS_ACTIVE", "HARNESS_COLUMNS", "HARNESS_COMPILE_TEST", "HAR-
           NESS_DEBUG", "HARNESS_FILELEAK_IN_DIR", "HARNESS_IGNORE_EXITCODE",
           "HARNESS_NOTTY", "HARNESS_OK_SLOW", "HARNESS_PERL", "HAR-
           NESS_PERL_SWITCHES", "HARNESS_VERBOSE"

       EXAMPLE
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS
       LICENSE
       TODO
       BUGS
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT

       Test::Harness::Assert - simple assert


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       FUNCTIONS
           "assert()"
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Test::Harness::Iterator - Internal Test::Harness Iterator


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           new()
           next()

       Test::Harness::Straps - detailed analysis of test results


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Construction
           "new"
       "_init"
       Analysis
           "analyze"
       "analyze_fh"
       "analyze_file"
       "_command_line( $file )"
       "_command"
       "_switches"
       "_cleaned_switches"
       "_INC2PERL5LIB"
       "_filtered_INC"
       "_restore_PERL5LIB"
       Parsing
           "_is_comment"
       "_is_header"
       "_is_test"
       "_is_bail_out"
       "_reset_file_state"
       Results
           "_detailize"
       EXAMPLES
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO

       Test::More - yet another framework for writing test scripts


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           I love it when a plan comes together
       Test names
       I’m ok, you’re not ok.
           ok

       is, isnt

       like

       unlike

       cmp_ok

       can_ok

       isa_ok

       pass, fail

       Diagnostics
           diag

       Module tests
           use_ok

       require_ok

       Conditional tests
           SKIP: BLOCK

       TODO: BLOCK, todo_skip

       When do I use SKIP vs. TODO?

       Comparison functions
           is_deeply

       eq_array

       eq_hash

       eq_set

       Extending and Embedding Test::More
           builder

       NOTES
       BUGS and CAVEATS
           Making your own ok(), The eq_* family has some caveats, Test::Har-
           ness upgrades

       HISTORY
       SEE ALSO
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT

       Test::Simple - Basic utilities for writing tests.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           ok

       EXAMPLE
       CAVEATS
       NOTES
       HISTORY
       SEE ALSO
           Test::More, Test, Test::Unit, Test::Inline, SelfTest, Test::Harness

       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT

       Test::Tutorial - A tutorial about writing really basic tests


       DESCRIPTION
           Nuts and bolts of testing.
           Where to start?
           Names
           Test the manual
           Sometimes the tests are wrong
           Testing lots of values
           Informative names
           Skipping tests
           Todo tests
           Testing with taint mode.
       FOOTNOTES
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT

       Text::Abbrev, abbrev - create an abbreviation table from a list


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLE

       Text::Balanced - Extract delimited text sequences from strings.


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           General behaviour in list contexts
               [0], [1], [2]

           General behaviour in scalar and void contexts
           A note about prefixes
           "extract_delimited"
           "extract_bracketed"
           "extract_variable"
               [0], [1], [2]

           "extract_tagged"
               "reject => $listref", "ignore => $listref", "fail => $str",
               [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]

           "gen_extract_tagged"
           "extract_quotelike"
               [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]

           "extract_quotelike" and "here documents"
               [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7..10]

           "extract_codeblock"
           "extract_multiple"
           "gen_delimited_pat"
       DIAGNOSTICS
            C<Did not find a suitable bracket: "%s">,  C<Did not find prefix: /%s/>,
           C<Did not find opening bracket after prefix: "%s">,  C<No quotelike
           operator found after prefix: "%s">,  C<Unmatched closing bracket: "%c">,
           C<Unmatched opening bracket(s): "%s">, C<Unmatched embedded quote (%s)>,
           C<Did not find closing delimiter to match ’%s’>,  C<Mismatched closing
           bracket: expected "%c" but found "%s">,  C<No block delimiter found after
           quotelike "%s">, C<Did not find leading dereferencer>, C<Bad identifier
           after dereferencer>, C<Did not find expected opening bracket at %s>,
           C<Improperly nested codeblock at %s>,  C<Missing second block for quotelike
           "%s">, C<No match found for opening bracket>, C<Did not find opening tag:
           /%s/>, C<Unable to construct closing tag to match: /%s/>, C<Found invalid
           nested tag: %s>, C<Found unbalanced nested tag: %s>, C<Did not find closing
           tag>

       AUTHOR
       BUGS AND IRRITATIONS
       COPYRIGHT

       Text::ParseWords - parse text into an array of tokens or array of
       arrays


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLES
       AUTHORS

       Text::Soundex - Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by
       Knuth


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLES
       LIMITATIONS
       AUTHOR

       Text::Tabs -- expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unex-
       pand(1)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       Text::Wrap - line wrapping to form simple paragraphs


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       OVERRIDES
       EXAMPLE
       AUTHOR

       Thread - manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)


       CAVEAT
       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       FUNCTIONS
           $thread = Thread->new(\&start_sub), $thread =
           Thread->new(\&start_sub, LIST), lock VARIABLE, async BLOCK;,
           Thread->self, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broad-
           cast VARIABLE, yield

       METHODS
           join, eval, detach, equal, tid, flags, done

       LIMITATIONS
       SEE ALSO

       Thread::Queue - thread-safe queues


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       FUNCTIONS AND METHODS
           new, enqueue LIST, dequeue, dequeue_nb, pending

       SEE ALSO

       Thread::Semaphore - thread-safe semaphores

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       FUNCTIONS AND METHODS
           new, new NUMBER, down, down NUMBER, up, up NUMBER

       Thread::Signal - Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably
       (for old code)


       CAVEAT
       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       BUGS

       Thread::Specific - thread-specific keys


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION

       Tie::Array - base class for tied arrays


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           TIEARRAY classname, LIST, STORE this, index, value, FETCH this,
           index, FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count,
           EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, DESTROY this, PUSH
           this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this, UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this,
           offset, length, LIST

       CAVEATS
       AUTHOR

       Tie::File - Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           "recsep"
           "autochomp"
           "mode"
           "memory"
           "dw_size"
           Option Format
       Public Methods
           "flock"
           "autochomp"
           "defer", "flush", "discard", and "autodefer"
           "offset"
       Tying to an already-opened filehandle
       Deferred Writing
           Autodeferring
       CONCURRENT ACCESS TO FILES
       CAVEATS
       SUBCLASSING
       WHAT ABOUT "DB_File"?
       AUTHOR
       LICENSE
       WARRANTY
       THANKS
       TODO

       Tie::Handle, Tie::StdHandle  - base class definitions for tied handles


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, scalar, length, offset,
           PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, format, LIST, READ this, scalar,
           length, offset, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, OPEN this,
           filename, BINMODE this, EOF this, TELL this, SEEK this, offset,
           whence, DESTROY this

       MORE INFORMATION
       COMPATIBILITY

       Tie::Hash, Tie::StdHash, Tie::ExtraHash - base class definitions for
       tied hashes


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           TIEHASH classname, LIST, STORE this, key, value, FETCH this, key,
           FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, EXISTS this, key, DELETE
           this, key, CLEAR this, SCALAR this

       Inheriting from Tie::StdHash
       Inheriting from Tie::ExtraHash
       "SCALAR", "UNTIE" and "DESTROY"
       MORE INFORMATION

       Tie::Memoize - add data to hash when needed


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       Inheriting from Tie::Memoize
       EXAMPLE
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       Tie::RefHash - use references as hash keys


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       EXAMPLE
       AUTHOR
       VERSION
       SEE ALSO

       Tie::Scalar, Tie::StdScalar - base class definitions for tied scalars


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY
           this

       MORE INFORMATION

       Tie::SubstrHash - Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       CAVEATS

       Time::HiRes - High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval
       timers


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           gettimeofday (), usleep ( $useconds ), ualarm ( $useconds [,
           $interval_useconds ] ), tv_interval, time (), sleep ( $float-
           ing_seconds ), alarm ( $floating_seconds [, $interval_floating_sec-
           onds ] ), setitimer ( $which, $floating_seconds [, $interval_float-
           ing_seconds ] ), getitimer ( $which )

       EXAMPLES
       C API
       DIAGNOSTICS
           negative time not invented yet
           internal error: useconds < 0 (unsigned ... signed ...)
       CAVEATS
       AUTHORS
       COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Time::Local - efficiently compute time from local and GMT time


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Ambiguous Local Times (DST)
           Non-Existent Local Times (DST)
           Negative Epoch Values
       IMPLEMENTATION
       BUGS
       SUPPORT
       AUTHOR

       Time::gmtime - by-name interface to Perls built-in gmtime() function


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTE
       AUTHOR

       Time::localtime - by-name interface to Perls built-in localtime()
       function


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTE
       AUTHOR

       Time::tm - internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       AUTHOR

       UNIVERSAL - base class for ALL classes (blessed references)


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           "$obj->isa( TYPE )", "CLASS->isa( TYPE )", "isa( VAL, TYPE )",
           "TYPE", $obj, "CLASS", "VAL", "$obj->can( METHOD )", "CLASS->can(
           METHOD )", "can( VAL, METHOD )", "VERSION ( [ REQUIRE ] )"

       EXPORTS

       Unicode::Collate - Unicode Collation Algorithm

       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Constructor and Tailoring
               UCA_Version, backwards, entry, hangul_terminator, ignoreName,
               ignoreChar, level, normalization, overrideCJK, overrideHangul,
               preprocess, rearrange, table, undefName, undefChar,
               katakana_before_hiragana, upper_before_lower, variable, alter-
               nate

           Methods for Collation
               "@sorted = $Collator->sort(@not_sorted)", "$result = $Colla-
               tor->cmp($a, $b)", "$result = $Collator->eq($a, $b)", "$result
               = $Collator->ne($a, $b)", "$result = $Collator->lt($a, $b)",
               "$result = $Collator->le($a, $b)", "$result = $Collator->gt($a,
               $b)", "$result = $Collator->ge($a, $b)", "$sortKey = $Colla-
               tor->getSortKey($string)", "$sortKeyForm = $Collator->view-
               SortKey($string)"

           Methods for Searching
               "$position = $Collator->index($string, $substring[, $posi-
               tion])", "($position, $length) = $Collator->index($string,
               $substring[, $position])", "$match_ref = $Colla-
               tor->match($string, $substring)", "($match)   = $Colla-
               tor->match($string, $substring)", "@match = $Colla-
               tor->gmatch($string, $substring)", "$count = $Colla-
               tor->subst($string, $substring, $replacement)", "$count = $Col-
               lator->gsubst($string, $substring, $replacement)"

           Other Methods
               "%old_tailoring = $Collator->change(%new_tailoring)", "$version
               = $Collator->version()", "UCA_Version()", "Base_Unicode_Ver-
               sion()"

           EXPORT
           CAVEAT
           Conformance Test
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO
           Unicode Collation Algorithm - UTS #10, The Default Unicode Colla-
           tion Element Table (DUCET), The conformance test for the UCA,
           Hangul Syllable Type, Unicode Normalization Forms - UAX #15, Uni-
           code::Normalize

       Unicode::Normalize - Unicode Normalization Forms


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Normalization Forms
               "$NFD_string = NFD($string)", "$NFC_string = NFC($string)",
               "$NFKD_string = NFKD($string)", "$NFKC_string = NFKC($string)",
               "$FCD_string = FCD($string)", "$FCC_string = FCC($string)",
               "$normalized_string = normalize($form_name, $string)"

           Decomposition and Composition
               "$decomposed_string = decompose($string)", "$decomposed_string
               = decompose($string, $useCompatMapping)", "$reordered_string  =
               reorder($string)", "$composed_string     = compose($string)"

           Quick Check
               "$result = checkNFD($string)", "$result = checkNFC($string)",
               "$result = checkNFKD($string)", "$result = checkNFKC($string)",
               "$result = checkFCD($string)", "$result = checkFCC($string)",
               "$result = check($form_name, $string)"

           Character Data
               "$canonical_decomposed = getCanon($codepoint)", "$compatibil-
               ity_decomposed = getCompat($codepoint)", "$codepoint_composite
               = getComposite($codepoint_here, $codepoint_next)", "$combin-
               ing_class = getCombinClass($codepoint)", "$is_exclusion = isEx-
               clusion($codepoint)", "$is_singleton = isSingleton($code-
               point)", "$is_non_starter_decomposition = isNonStDecomp($code-
               point)", "$may_be_composed_with_prev_char = isComp2nd($code-
               point)"

           EXPORT
       AUTHOR
       SEE ALSO
           http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/, http://www.unicode.org/Pub-
           lic/UNIDATA/DerivedNormalizationProps.txt, http://www.uni-
           code.org/notes/tn5/

       Unicode::UCD - Unicode character database


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       charinfo
       charblock
       charscript
       charblocks
       charscripts
       Blocks versus Scripts
       Matching Scripts and Blocks
       Code Point Arguments
       charinrange
       compexcl
       casefold
       casespec
       Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion
       Implementation Note
       BUGS
       AUTHOR

       User::grent - by-name interface to Perls built-in getgr*() functions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
       NOTE
       AUTHOR

       User::pwent - by-name interface to Perls built-in getpw*() functions


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           System Specifics
       NOTE
       AUTHOR
       HISTORY
           March 18th, 2000

       XSLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code


       SYNOPSIS
       DESCRIPTION
           Migration from "DynaLoader"
           Backward compatible boilerplate
       Order of initialization: early load()
           The most hairy case
       LIMITATIONS
       AUTHOR


AUXILIARY DOCUMENTATION

       Here should be listed all the extra programs’ documentation, but they
       don’t all have manual pages yet:

       a2p
       c2ph
       dprofpp
       h2ph
       h2xs
       perlbug
       perldoc
       pl2pm
       pod2html
       pod2man
       s2p
       splain
       xsubpp


AUTHOR

       Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks.



perl v5.8.6                       2004-11-05                        PERLTOC(1)

Man(1) output converted with man2html