perldiag



PERLDIAG(1)            Perl Programmers Reference Guide            PERLDIAG(1)




NAME

       perldiag - various Perl diagnostics


DESCRIPTION

       These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
       desperation):

           (W) A warning (optional).
           (D) A deprecation (optional).
           (S) A severe warning (default).
           (F) A fatal error (trappable).
           (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
           (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
           (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).

       The majority of messages from the first three classifications above (W,
       D & S) can be controlled using the "warnings" pragma.

       If a message can be controlled by the "warnings" pragma, its warning
       category is included with the classification letter in the description
       below.

       Optional warnings are enabled by using the "warnings" pragma or the -w
       and -W switches. Warnings may be captured by setting $SIG{__WARN__} to
       a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead of
       printing it.  See perlvar.

       Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
       with the "warnings" pragma or the -X switch.

       Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator.  See "eval" in
       perlfunc.  In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively disabled or
       promoted to fatal errors using the "warnings" pragma.  See warnings.

       The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
       lower-case.  Some of these messages are generic.  Spots that vary are
       denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape.  These escapes are
       ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
       letters.  To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
       letter.

       accept() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket.  Did you
           forget to check the return value of your socket() call?  See
           "accept" in perlfunc.

       Allocation too large: %lx
           (X) You can’t allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.

       ’!’ allowed only after types %s
           (F) The ’!’ is allowed in pack() or unpack() only after certain
           types.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
           (W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a
           Perl keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for
           calling one or the other.  Perl decided to call the builtin because
           the subroutine is not imported.

           To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an amper-
           sand before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its pack-
           age.  Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that
           it’s imported with the "use subs" pragma).

           To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the "CORE::"
           prefix on the operator (e.g. "CORE::log($x)") or declare the sub-
           routine to be an object method (see "Subroutine Attributes" in
           perlsub or attributes).

       Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
           (F) You wrote something like "tr/a-z-0//" which doesn’t mean any-
           thing at all.  To include a "-" character in a transliteration, put
           it either first or last.  (In the past, "tr/a-z-0//" was synonymous
           with "tr/a-y//", which was probably not what you would have
           expected.)

       Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
           (W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the
           way you thought.  Normally it’s pretty easy to disambiguate it by
           supplying a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declara-
           tion.

       ’│’ and ’<’ may not both be specified on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redi-
           rection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried
           to redirect STDIN using ’<’.  Only one STDIN stream to a customer,
           please.

       ’│’ and ’>’ may not both be specified on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redi-
           rection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
           into a pipe to another command.  You need to choose one or the
           other, though nothing’s stopping you from piping into a program or
           Perl script which ’splits’ output into two streams, such as

               open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can’t write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
               while (<STDIN>) {
                   print;
                   print OUT;
               }
               close OUT;

       Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
           (W misc) The pattern match ("//"), substitution ("s///"), and
           transliteration ("tr///") operators work on scalar values.  If you
           apply one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array
           or hash to a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the popula-
           tion info of a hash -- and then work on that scalar value.  This is
           probably not what you meant to do.  See "grep" in perlfunc and
           "map" in perlfunc for alternatives.

       Args must match #! line
           (F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was
           invoked with match the arguments specified on the #! line.  Since
           some systems impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try com-
           bining switches; for example, turn "-w -U" into "-wU".

       Arg too short for msgsnd
           (F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).

       %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
           (F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such
           as:

               $foo{$bar}
               $ref->{"susie"}[12]

       %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
           (F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array ele-
           ment, such as:

               $foo{$bar}
               $ref->{"susie"}[12]

           or a hash or array slice, such as:

               @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
               @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}

       %s argument is not a subroutine name
           (F) The argument to exists() for "exists &sub" must be a subroutine
           name, and not a subroutine call.  "exists &sub()" will generate
           this error.

       Argument "%s" isn’t numeric%s
           (W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an oper-
           ator that expected a numeric value instead.  If you’re fortunate
           the message will identify which operator was so unfortunate.

       Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
           (W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
           system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list.  (Layers
           take care of transforming data between external and internal repre-
           sentations.)  Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this point and
           did not attempt to push this layer.  If your program didn’t explic-
           itly request the failing operation, it may be the result of the
           value of the environment variable PERLIO.

       Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
           (D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in
           some spots.  This is now heavily deprecated.

       assertion botched: %s
           (P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal fail-
           ure.

       Assertion failed: file "%s"
           (P) A general assertion failed.  The file in question must be exam-
           ined.

       Assignment to both a list and a scalar
           (F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd argu-
           ments must either both be scalars or both be lists.  Otherwise Perl
           won’t know which context to supply to the right side.

       A thread exited while %d threads were running
           (W) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
           thread) exited while there were still other threads running.  Usu-
           ally it’s a good idea to first collect the return values of the
           created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
           thread.  See threads.

       Attempt to access disallowed key ’%s’ in a restricted hash
           (F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not
           in the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.

       Attempt to bless into a reference
           (F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to
           be the name of the package to bless the resulting object into.
           You’ve supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote

               bless $self, $proto;

           when you intended

               bless $self, ref($proto) ││ $proto;

           If you actually want to bless into the stringified version of the
           reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for example
           by:

               bless $self, "$proto";

       Attempt to delete disallowed key ’%s’ from a restricted hash
           (F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a
           key which is not in its key set.

       Attempt to delete readonly key ’%s’ from a restricted hash
           (F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
           declared readonly from a restricted hash.

       Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
           (P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from are-
           nas that will be garbage collected on exit.  An SV was discovered
           to be outside any of those arenas.

       Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
           (P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
           strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
           strings.  This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference
           count of a string that can no longer be found in the table.

       Attempt to free temp prematurely
           (W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
           free_tmps() routine.  This indicates that something else is freeing
           the SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means
           that the free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar
           when it does try to free it.

       Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
           (P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.

       Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
           (W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar
           to see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone
           to 0 earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was
           freed.  This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many
           times, or that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the
           SV was mortalized when it shouldn’t have been, or that memory has
           been corrupted.

       Attempt to join self
           (F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
           impossible task.  You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
           need to move the join() to some other thread.

       Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
           (W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
           function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template.
           This means the result contains a pointer to a location that could
           become invalid anytime, even before the end of the current state-
           ment.  Use literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack()
           template to avoid this warning.

       Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
           (W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to sub-
           str() used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange.  Perhaps you for-
           got to dereference it first.  See "substr" in perlfunc.

       Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %s
           (F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), sem-
           ctl() or shmctl().  In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respec-
           tively, sizeof(struct msqid_ds *), sizeof(struct semid_ds *), and
           sizeof(struct shmid_ds *).

       Bad evalled substitution pattern
           (F) You’ve used the "/e" switch to evaluate the replacement for a
           substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to
           evaluate, most likely an unexpected right brace ’}’.

       Bad filehandle: %s
           (F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
           symbol has no filehandle associated with it.  Perhaps you didn’t do
           an open(), or did it in another package.

       Bad free() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
           never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be
           disabled by setting environment variable "PERL_BADFREE" to 0.

           This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with
           "hard" dynamic linking, like "AIX" and "OS/2". It is a bug of
           "Berkeley DB" which is left unnoticed if "DB" uses forgiving system
           malloc().

       Bad hash
           (P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.

       Bad index while coercing array into hash
           (F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0’th element of a
           pseudo-hash is not legal.  Index values must be at 1 or greater.
           See perlref.

       Badly placed ()’s
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through csh instead of
           Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
           yourself.

       Bad name after %s::
           (F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and
           then didn’t finish the symbol.  In particular, you can’t interpo-
           late outside of quotes, so

               $var = ’myvar’;
               $sym = mypack::$var;

           is not the same as

               $var = ’myvar’;
               $sym = "mypack::$var";

       Bad realloc() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
           had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be
           disabled by setting environment variable "PERL_BADFREE" to 1.

       Bad symbol for array
           (P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something
           that wasn’t a symbol table entry.

       Bad symbol for filehandle
           (P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to some-
           thing that wasn’t a symbol table entry.

       Bad symbol for hash
           (P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
           wasn’t a symbol table entry.

       Bareword found in conditional
           (W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a con-
           ditional, which often indicates that an ││ or && was parsed as part
           of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:

               open FOO ││ die;

           It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been inter-
           preted as a bareword:

               use constant TYPO => 1;
               if (TYOP) { print "foo" }

           The "strict" pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.

       Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
           (F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a sub-
           routine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
           symbol.  Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?

       Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
           (W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form "Foo::", but
           the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
           Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?

       BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
           (F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN sub-
           routine.  Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
           exited.

       BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
           (F) Perl found a "BEGIN {}" subroutine (or a "use" directive, which
           implies a "BEGIN {}") after one or more compilation errors had
           already occurred.  Since the intended environment for the "BEGIN
           {}" could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subse-
           quent code likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave
           up.

       \1 better written as $1
           (W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as vari-
           ables.  The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand
           side of a substitution, but stylistically it’s better to use the
           variable form because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it
           works better if there are more than 9 backreferences.

       Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
           (W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
           (4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems.  See perl-
           port for more on portability concerns.

       bind() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket.  Did you for-
           get to check the return value of your socket() call?  See "bind" in
           perlfunc.

       binmode() on closed filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never
           opened.  Check you control flow and number of arguments.

       Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
           (W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.

       Bizarre copy of %s in %s
           (P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
           copyable.

       Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  While Perl was preparing
           to iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol defi-
           nition which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.

       Callback called exit
           (F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
           exited by calling exit.

       %s() called too early to check prototype
           (W prototype) You’ve called a function that has a prototype before
           the parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could
           not check that the call conforms to the prototype.  You need to
           either add an early prototype declaration for the subroutine in
           question, or move the subroutine definition ahead of the call to
           get proper prototype checking.  Alternatively, if you are certain
           that you’re calling the function correctly, you may put an amper-
           sand before the name to avoid the warning.  See perlsub.

       Cannot compress integer in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.  The
           BER compressed integer format can only be used with positive inte-
           gers, and you attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number
           (> 1e308).  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative.  The BER compressed
           integer format can only be used with positive integers.  See "pack"
           in perlfunc.

       Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer.  The BER com-
           pressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and
           you attempted to compress something else.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Can’t bless non-reference value
           (F) Only hard references may be blessed.  This is how Perl
           "enforces" encapsulation of objects.  See perlobj.

       Can’t call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
           (F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a
           package functioning as a class, but that package doesn’t have ANY-
           THING defined in it, let alone methods.  See perlobj.

       Can’t call method "%s" on an undefined value
           (F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by
           the object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
           Something like this will reproduce the error:

               $BADREF = undef;
               process $BADREF 1,2,3;
               $BADREF->process(1,2,3);

       Can’t call method "%s" on unblessed reference
           (F) A method call must know in what package it’s supposed to run.
           It ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply,
           but you didn’t supply an object reference in this case.  A refer-
           ence isn’t an object reference until it has been blessed.  See per-
           lobj.

       Can’t call method "%s" without a package or object reference
           (F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by
           the object reference or package name contains an expression that
           returns a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a
           package name.  Something like this will reproduce the error:

               $BADREF = 42;
               process $BADREF 1,2,3;
               $BADREF->process(1,2,3);

       Can’t chdir to %s
           (F) You called "perl -x/foo/bar", but "/foo/bar" is not a directory
           that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn’t exist.

       Can’t check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
           (P) For some reason you can’t check the filesystem of the script
           for nosuid.

       Can’t coerce array into hash
           (F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has
           no information on how to map from keys to array indices.  You can
           do that only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.

       Can’t coerce %s to integer in %s
           (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
           (typeglobs), can’t be forced to stop being what they are.  So you
           can’t say things like:

               *foo += 1;

           You CAN say

               $foo = *foo;
               $foo += 1;

           but then $foo no longer contains a glob.

       Can’t coerce %s to number in %s
           (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
           (typeglobs), can’t be forced to stop being what they are.

       Can’t coerce %s to string in %s
           (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
           (typeglobs), can’t be forced to stop being what they are.

       Can’t create pipe mailbox
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  The process is suffering from
           exhausted quotas or other plumbing problems.

       Can’t declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
           (F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a spe-
           cific class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration.  The seman-
           tics may be extended for other types of variables in future.

       Can’t declare %s in "%s"
           (F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my"
           or "our" variables.  They must have ordinary identifiers as names.

       Can’t do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
           (S inplace) You tried to use the -i switch on a special file, such
           as a file in /dev, or a FIFO.  The file was ignored.

       Can’t do inplace edit on %s: %s
           (S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
           reason.

       Can’t do inplace edit without backup
           (F) You’re on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
           reading from a deleted (but still opened) file.  You have to say
           "-i.bak", or some such.

       Can’t do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
           (S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than
           14 characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename dur-
           ing inplace editing with the -i switch.  The file was ignored.

       Can’t do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
           your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE
           shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discov-
           ered. See perlre.

       Can’t do setegid!
           (P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emula-
           tor of suidperl.

       Can’t do seteuid!
           (P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.

       Can’t do setuid
           (F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl
           to do setuid emulation, but couldn’t exec it.  It looks for a name
           of the form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl exe-
           cutable resides under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin
           on Unix machines.  If the file is there, check the execute permis-
           sions.  If it isn’t, ask your sysadmin why he and/or she removed
           it.

       Can’t do waitpid with flags
           (F) This machine doesn’t have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
           waitpid() without flags is emulated.

       Can’t emulate -%s on #! line
           (F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn’t make sense at this
           point.  For example, it’d be kind of silly to put a -x on the #!
           line.

       Can’t exec "%s": %s
           (W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute
           the named program for the indicated reason.  Typical reasons
           include: the permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn’t
           found in $ENV{PATH}, the executable in question was compiled for
           another architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an
           interpreter that can’t be run for similar reasons.  (Or maybe your
           system doesn’t support #! at all.)

       Can’t exec %s
           (F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you
           because that’s what the #! line said.  If that’s not what you
           wanted, you may need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.

       Can’t execute %s
           (F) You used the -S switch, but the copies of the script to execute
           found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.

       Can’t find an opnumber for "%s"
           (F) A string of a form "CORE::word" was given to prototype(), but
           there is no builtin with the name "word".

       Can’t find %s character property "%s"
           (F) You used "\p{}" or "\P{}" but the character property by that
           name could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the prop-
           erty (remember that the names of character properties consist only
           of alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the "Is" or "In"
           prefix?

       Can’t find label %s
           (F) You said to goto a label that isn’t mentioned anywhere that
           it’s possible for us to go to.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can’t find %s on PATH
           (F) You used the -S switch, but the script to execute could not be
           found in the PATH.

       Can’t find %s on PATH, ’.’ not in PATH
           (F) You used the -S switch, but the script to execute could not be
           found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions.
           The script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits run-
           ning it.

       Can’t find %s property definition %s
           (F) You may have tried to use "\p" which means a Unicode property
           (for example "\p{Lu}" is all uppercase letters).  If you did mean
           to use a Unicode property, see perlunicode for the list of known
           properties.  If you didn’t mean to use a Unicode property, escape
           the "\p", either by "\\p" (just the "\p") or by "\Q\p" (the rest of
           the string, until possible "\E").

       Can’t find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
           (F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines.  This message
           means that the closing delimiter was omitted.  Because bracketed
           quotes count nesting levels, the following is missing its final
           parenthesis:

               print q(The character ’(’ starts a side comment.);

           If you’re getting this error from a here-document, you may have
           included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
           programmer’s editor will have a way to help you find these charac-
           ters.

       Can’t fork
           (F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
           pipeline.

       Can’t get filespec - stale stat buffer?
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  This arises because of the differ-
           ence between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl
           assumes.  Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather
           than by bits in the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections
           can be taken into account.  Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the
           stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes it,
           instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine.  It will
           try to retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present
           in the stat buffer, but this works only if you haven’t made a sub-
           sequent call to the CRTL stat() routine, because the device name is
           overwritten with each call.  If this warning appears, the name
           lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and returned
           FALSE, just to be conservative.  (Note: The access checking routine
           knows about the Perl "stat" operator and file tests, so you
           shouldn’t ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it
           arises only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)

       Can’t get pipe mailbox device name
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  After creating a mailbox to act as a
           pipe, Perl can’t retrieve its name for later use.

       Can’t get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want
           your mailbox buffers to be, and didn’t get an answer.

       Can’t "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
           (F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
           foreach loop.  You can’t get there from here.  See "goto" in perl-
           func.

       Can’t "goto" out of a pseudo block
           (F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
           like a block, except that it isn’t a proper block.  This usually
           occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine,
           which is a no-no.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can’t goto subroutine from an eval-string
           (F) The "goto subroutine" call can’t be used to jump out of an eval
           "string".  (You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you
           probably don’t want to.)

       Can’t goto subroutine outside a subroutine
           (F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
           subroutine call for another.  It can’t manufacture one out of whole
           cloth.  In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
           routine anyway.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can’t ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
           (W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
           signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled.  Since disabling this
           signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of
           child processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value.
           This situation typically indicates that the parent program under
           which Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.

       Can’t "last" outside a loop block
           (F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current
           block, except that there’s this itty bitty problem called there
           isn’t a current block.  Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn’t
           count as a "loopish" block, as doesn’t a block given to sort(),
           map() or grep().  You can usually double the curlies to get the
           same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a
           block that loops once.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       Can’t load ’%s’ for module %s
           (F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic exten-
           sion. This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl
           to one that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which
           is known to happen between major versions of perl), or (more
           likely) that your dynamic extension was built against an older ver-
           sion of the library that is installed on your system. You may need
           to rebuild your old dynamic extensions.

       Can’t localize lexical variable %s
           (F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared
           as a lexical variable using "my".  This is not allowed.  If you
           want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it
           with the package name.

       Can’t localize pseudo-hash element
           (F) You said something like "local $ar->{’key’}", where $ar is a
           reference to a pseudo-hash.  That hasn’t been implemented yet, but
           you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
           element directly -- "local $ar->[$ar->[0]{’key’}]".

       Can’t localize through a reference
           (F) You said something like "local $$ref", which Perl can’t cur-
           rently handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of
           whatever $ref pointed to after the scope of the local() is fin-
           ished, it can’t be sure that $ref will still be a reference.

       Can’t locate %s
           (F) You said to "do" (or "require", or "use") a file that couldn’t
           be found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in
           @INC, unless the file name included the full path to the file.
           Perhaps you need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment vari-
           able to say where the extra library is, or maybe the script needs
           to add the library name to @INC.  Or maybe you just misspelled the
           name of the file.  See "require" in perlfunc and lib.

       Can’t locate auto/%s.al in @INC
           (F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
           autoload, but there is no function to autoload.  Most probable
           causes are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to
           "AutoSplit" the file, say, by doing "make install".

       Can’t locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
           (F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library,
           like for example, "foo.so" or "bar.dll", but the DynaLoader module
           was unable to locate this library.  See DynaLoader.

       Can’t locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
           (F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a
           package functioning as a class, but that package doesn’t define
           that particular method, nor does any of its base classes.  See per-
           lobj.

       Can’t locate package %s for @%s::ISA
           (W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package
           that doesn’t seem to exist.

       Can’t locate PerlIO%s
           (F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
           e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").

       Can’t make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
           (F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems,
           notably VMS.

       Can’t modify %s in %s
           (F) You aren’t allowed to assign to the item indicated, or other-
           wise try to change it, such as with an auto-increment.

       Can’t modify nonexistent substring
           (P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was
           handed a NULL.

       Can’t modify non-lvalue subroutine call
           (F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be
           declared as such, see "Lvalue subroutines" in perlsub.

       Can’t msgrcv to read-only var
           (F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a
           receive buffer.

       Can’t "next" outside a loop block
           (F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block,
           but there isn’t a current block.  Note that an "if" or "else" block
           doesn’t count as a "loopish" block, as doesn’t a block given to
           sort(), map() or grep().  You can usually double the curlies to get
           the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be consid-
           ered a block that loops once.  See "next" in perlfunc.

       Can’t open %s: %s
           (S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the "<>"
           filehandle, either implicitly under the "-n" or "-p" command-line
           switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason.  Usually
           this is because you don’t have read permission for a file which you
           named on the command line.

       Can’t open a reference
           (W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
           using the 3-arg open() syntax :

               open FH, ’>’, $ref;

           but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form
           of open is not supported.

       Can’t open bidirectional pipe
           (W pipe) You tried to say "open(CMD, "│cmd│")", which is not sup-
           ported.  You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to
           do this, such as IPC::Open2.  Alternately, direct the pipe’s output
           to a file using ">", and then read it in under a different file
           handle.

       Can’t open error file %s as stderr
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redi-
           rection, and couldn’t open the file specified after ’2>’ or ’2>>’
           on the command line for writing.

       Can’t open input file %s as stdin
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redi-
           rection, and couldn’t open the file specified after ’<’ on the com-
           mand line for reading.

       Can’t open output file %s as stdout
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redi-
           rection, and couldn’t open the file specified after ’>’ or ’>>’ on
           the command line for writing.

       Can’t open output pipe (name: %s)
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redi-
           rection, and couldn’t open the pipe into which to send data des-
           tined for stdout.

       Can’t open perl script%s
           (F) The script you specified can’t be opened for the indicated rea-
           son.

           If you’re debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on
           the shell’s $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that
           search, so you don’t have to type the path or ‘which $scriptname‘.

       Can’t read CRTL environ
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read an element of
           %ENV from the CRTL’s internal environment array and discovered the
           array was missing.  You need to figure out where your CRTL mis-
           placed its environ or define PERL_ENV_TABLES (see perlvms) so that
           environ is not searched.

       Can’t redefine active sort subroutine %s
           (F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and
           keeps pointers into them.  You tried to redefine one such sort
           subroutine when it was currently active, which is not allowed.  If
           you really want to do this, you should write "sort { &func } @x"
           instead of "sort func @x".

       Can’t "redo" outside a loop block
           (F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block,
           but there isn’t a current block.  Note that an "if" or "else" block
           doesn’t count as a "loopish" block, as doesn’t a block given to
           sort(), map() or grep().  You can usually double the curlies to get
           the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be consid-
           ered a block that loops once.  See "redo" in perlfunc.

       Can’t remove %s: %s, skipping file
           (S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
           file.  Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it
           with the modified file.  The file was left unmodified.

       Can’t rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
           (S inplace) The rename done by the -i switch failed for some rea-
           son, probably because you don’t have write permission to the direc-
           tory.

       Can’t reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and
           tried to reopen it to accept binary data.  Alas, it failed.

       Can’t resolve method ‘%s’ overloading ‘%s’ in package ‘%s’
           (F│P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
           opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
           package. If method name is "???", this is an internal error.

       Can’t reswap uid and euid
           (P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emula-
           tor of suidperl.

       Can’t return %s from lvalue subroutine
           (F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
           temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.
           This is not allowed.

       Can’t return outside a subroutine
           (F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is,
           where there was no subroutine call to return out of.  See perlsub.

       Can’t return %s to lvalue scalar context
           (F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
           subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
           think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
           write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
           Perl that the call should be in list context.

       Can’t stat script "%s"
           (P) For some reason you can’t fstat() the script even though you
           have it open already.  Bizarre.

       Can’t swap uid and euid
           (P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emula-
           tor of suidperl.

       Can’t take log of %g
           (F) For ordinary real numbers, you can’t take the logarithm of a
           negative number or zero. There’s a Math::Complex package that comes
           standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
           negative numbers.

       Can’t take sqrt of %g
           (F) For ordinary real numbers, you can’t take the square root of a
           negative number.  There’s a Math::Complex package that comes stan-
           dard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.

       Can’t undef active subroutine
           (F) You can’t undefine a routine that’s currently running.  You
           can, however, redefine it while it’s running, and you can even
           undef the redefined subroutine while the old routine is running.
           Go figure.

       Can’t unshift
           (F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can’t be unshifted,
           such as the main Perl stack.

       Can’t upgrade that kind of scalar
           (P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
           it into a more specialized kind of SV.  The top several SV types
           are so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted.
           This message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.

       Can’t upgrade to undef
           (P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
           of upgradability.  Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
           code calling sv_upgrade.

       Can’t use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
           (P) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a sym-
           bol table that doesn’t have a name.  Symbol tables can become
           anonymous for example by undefining stashes: "undef %Some::Pack-
           age::".

       Can’t use an undefined value as %s reference
           (F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference
           must be a defined value.  This helps to delurk some insidious
           errors.

       Can’t use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
           (F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs".  Symbolic
           references are disallowed.  See perlref.

       Can’t use %! because Errno.pm is not available
           (F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads
           the Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %!
           hash to provide symbolic names for $! errno values.

       Can’t use %s for loop variable
           (F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on
           a foreach.

       Can’t use global %s in "my"
           (F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable.
           This is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one
           location (namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly
           confusing to have variables in your program that looked like magi-
           cal variables but weren’t.

       Can’t use "my %s" in sort comparison
           (F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort compar-
           isons.  You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp
           operator, and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical
           variable.  Either qualify the sort variable with the package name,
           or rename the lexical variable.

       Can’t use %s ref as %s ref
           (F) You’ve mixed up your reference types.  You have to dereference
           a reference of the type needed.  You can use the ref() function to
           test the type of the reference, if need be.

       Can’t use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
           (F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs".  Symbolic
           references are disallowed.  See perlref.

       Can’t use subscript on %s
           (F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
           subscript.  But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
           didn’t look like an array reference, or anything else subscript-
           able.

       Can’t use \%c to mean $%c in expression
           (W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator
           that creates a reference to its argument.  The use of backslash to
           indicate a backreference to a matched substring is valid only as
           part of a regular expression pattern.  Trying to do this in ordi-
           nary Perl code produces a value that prints out looking like
           SCALAR(0xdecaf).  Use the $1 form instead.

       Can’t weaken a nonreference
           (F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference.
           Only references can be weakened.

       Can’t x= to read-only value
           (F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined
           value) with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the
           value itself.  Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary,
           and repeat that.

       Character in "C" format wrapped in pack
           (W pack) You said

               pack("C", $x)

           where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the "C" format is
           only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII,
           EBCDIC, and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved
           as if you meant

               pack("C", $x & 255)

           If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the "U" format
           instead.

       Character in "c" format wrapped in pack
           (W pack) You said

               pack("c", $x)

           where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the "c" format
           is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII,
           EBCDIC, and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved
           as if you meant

               pack("c", $x & 255);

           If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the "U" format
           instead.

       close() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.

       Code missing after ’/’
           (F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a ’/’. There must be
           another template code following the slash. See "pack" in perlfunc.

       %s: Command not found
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through csh instead of
           Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
           yourself.

       Compilation failed in require
           (F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a "require" state-
           ment.  Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that
           it encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.

       Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
           (W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
           situations where back-tracking is required.  Recursion depth is
           limited to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack
           cannot grow arbitrarily.  ("Simple" and "medium" situations are
           handled without recursion and are not subject to a limit.)  Try
           shortening the string under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g.
           with "while") rather than in the regular expression engine; or
           rewriting the regular expression so that it is simpler or back-
           tracks less.  (See perlfaq2 for information on Mastering Regular
           Expressions.)

       cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
           (W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
           cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn’t locked. The
           cond_broadcast() function  is used to wake up another thread that
           is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn’t sent
           before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual
           for the signaling thread to first wait for a lock on variable. This
           lock attempt will only succeed after the other thread has entered
           cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.

       cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
           (W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
           cond_signal() on a variable which wasn’t locked. The cond_signal()
           function  is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
           cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn’t sent before the other
           thread has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signal-
           ing thread to first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt
           will only succeed after the other thread has entered cond_wait()
           and thus relinquished the lock.

       connect() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket.  Did you
           forget to check the return value of your socket() call?  See "con-
           nect" in perlfunc.

       Constant(%s)%s: %s
           (F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to
           define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character
           name specified in the "\N{...}" escape.  Perhaps you forgot to load
           the corresponding "overload" or "charnames" pragma?  See charnames
           and overload.

       Constant is not %s reference
           (F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the "use constant"
           pragma) is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of
           reference.  The message indicates the type of reference that was
           expected. This usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing
           the constant value.  See "Constant Functions" in perlsub and con-
           stant.

       Constant subroutine %s redefined
           (S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
           for inlining.  See "Constant Functions" in perlsub for commentary
           and workarounds.

       Constant subroutine %s undefined
           (W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eli-
           gible for inlining.  See "Constant Functions" in perlsub for com-
           mentary and workarounds.

       Copy method did not return a reference
           (F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See "Copy Constructor"
           in overload.

       CORE::%s is not a keyword
           (F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.

       corrupted regexp pointers
           (P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
           expression compiler gave it.

       corrupted regexp program
           (P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program with-
           out a valid magic number.

       Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
           (P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal fail-
           ure.

       Count after length/code in unpack
           (F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
           but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.  See
           "pack" in perlfunc.

       Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
           (W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indi-
           rectly) 100 times more than it has returned.  This probably indi-
           cates an infinite recursion, unless you’re writing strange bench-
           mark programs, in which case it indicates something else.

       defined(@array) is deprecated
           (D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
           checks for an undefined scalar value.  If you want to see if the
           array is empty, just use "if (@array) { # not empty }" for example.

       defined(%hash) is deprecated
           (D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
           checks for an undefined scalar value.  If you want to see if the
           hash is empty, just use "if (%hash) { # not empty }" for example.

       %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
           (F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
           there are neither package declarations nor a $VERSION.

       Delimiter for here document is too long
           (F) In a here document construct like "<<FOO", the label "FOO" is
           too long for Perl to handle.  You have to be seriously twisted to
           write code that triggers this error.

       DESTROY created new reference to dead object ’%s’
           (F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which
           is just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort
           rather than to create a dangling reference.

       Did not produce a valid header
           See Server error.

       %s did not return a true value
           (F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate
           that it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code cor-
           rectly.  It’s traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though
           any true value would do.  See "require" in perlfunc.

       (Did you mean &%s instead?)
           (W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
           some such.

       (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
           (W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
           variable.  You have declared it again in the same lexical scope,
           which seems superfluous.

       (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
           (W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
           @hash{@keys}.  On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and
           got carried away.

       Died
           (F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of "die """)
           or you called it with no args and both $@ and $_ were empty.

       Document contains no data
           See Server error.

       %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
           (F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
           define a "$VERSION."

       ’/’ does not take a repeat count
           (F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the ’/’
           code.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Don’t know how to handle magic of type ’%s’
           (P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.

       do_study: out of memory
           (P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.

       (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
           (S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the
           message "%s found where operator expected".  It often means a sub-
           routine or module name is being referenced that hasn’t been
           declared yet.  This may be because of ordering problems in your
           file, or because of a missing "sub", "package", "require", or "use"
           statement.  If you’re referencing something that isn’t defined yet,
           you don’t actually have to define the subroutine or package before
           the current location.  You can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package
           FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.

       dump() better written as CORE::dump()
           (W misc) You used the obsolescent "dump()" built-in function, with-
           out fully qualifying it as "CORE::dump()".  Maybe it’s a typo.  See
           "dump" in perlfunc.

       Duplicate free() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
           already been freed.

       elseif should be elsif
           (S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry
           thinks it’s ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to
           call a method named "elseif" for the class returned by the follow-
           ing block.  This is unlikely to be what you want.

       Empty %s
           (F) "\p" and "\P" are used to introduce a named Unicode property,
           as described in perlunicode and perlre. You used "\p" or "\P" in a
           regular expression without specifying the property name.

       entering effective %s failed
           (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, switching the real and
           effective uids or gids failed.

       Error converting file specification %s
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Because Perl may have to deal with
           file specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them
           to a single form when it must operate on them directly.  Either
           you’ve passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you’ve
           found a case the conversion routines don’t handle.  Drat.

       %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
           (F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
           expression that contains the "(?{ ... })" zero-width assertion,
           which is unsafe.  See "(?{ code })" in perlre, and perlsec.

       %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
           (F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the "(?{
           ... })" zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pat-
           tern contains interpolated values.  Since that is a security risk,
           it is not allowed.  If you insist, you may still do this by explic-
           itly building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time
           and using that in an eval().  See "(?{ code })" in perlre.

       %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re ’eval’
           (F) A regular expression contained the "(?{ ... })" zero-width
           assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the "use re
           ’eval’" pragma is in effect.  See "(?{ code })" in perlre.

       Excessively long <> operator
           (F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size
           of a Perl identifier.  If you’re just trying to glob a long list of
           filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into
           a variable and glob that.

       exec? I’m not *that* kind of operating system
           (F) The "exec" function is not implemented in MacPerl. See perl-
           port.

       Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
           (F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.

       Exiting eval via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such
           as a goto, or a loop control statement.

       Exiting format via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such
           as a goto, or a loop control statement.

       Exiting pseudo-block via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like
           a sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a
           goto, or a loop control statement.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Exiting subroutine via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means,
           such as a goto, or a loop control statement.

       Exiting substitution via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means,
           such as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.

       Explicit blessing to ’’ (assuming package main)
           (W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string.
           This has the effect of blessing the reference into the package
           main.  This is usually not what you want.  Consider providing a
           default target package, e.g. bless($ref, $p ││ ’MyPackage’);

       %s: Expression syntax
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through csh instead of
           Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
           yourself.

       %s failed--call queue aborted
           (F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK,
           INIT, or END subroutine.  Processing of the remainder of the queue
           of such routines has been prematurely ended.

       False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
           character, not another character class like "\d" or "[:alpha:]".
           The "-" in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-".  Con-
           sider quoting the "-", "\-".  The <-- HERE shows in the regular
           expression about where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Something untoward happened in a VMS
           system service or RTL routine; Perl’s exit status should provide
           more details.  The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line
           %d" tell you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.

       fcntl is not implemented
           (F) Your machine apparently doesn’t implement fcntl().  What is
           this, a PDP-11 or something?

       Filehandle %s opened only for input
           (W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle.  If you
           intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it
           with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing.  If you
           intended only to write the file, use ">" or ">>".  See "open" in
           perlfunc.

       Filehandle %s opened only for output
           (W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing,
           If you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to
           open it with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing.
           If you intended only to read from the file, use "<".  See "open" in
           perlfunc.  Another possibility is that you attempted to open
           filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed
           STDIN earlier?).

       Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
           (W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same file-
           handle id as STDOUT or STDERR. This occured because you closed STD-
           OUT or STDERR previously.

       Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
           (W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same file-
           handle id as STDIN. This occured because you closed STDIN previ-
           ously.

       Final $ should be \$ or $name
           (F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant
           to be a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable
           name that happens to be missing.  So you have to put either the
           backslash or the name.

       flock() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you’re attempting to flock() got itself
           closed some time before now.  Check your control flow.  flock()
           operates on filehandles.  Are you attempting to call flock() on a
           dirhandle by the same name?

       Format not terminated
           (F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot.
           Perl got to the end of your file without finding such a line.

       Format %s redefined
           (W redefine) You redefined a format.  To suppress this warning, say

               {
                   no warnings ’redefine’;
                   eval "format NAME =...";
               }

       Found = in conditional, should be ==
           (W syntax) You said

               if ($foo = 123)

           when you meant

               if ($foo == 123)

           (or something like that).

       %s found where operator expected
           (S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an
           operator.  If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was
           expecting to see an operator, it gives you this warning.  Usually
           it indicates that an operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a
           semicolon.

       gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
           (S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.

       gethostent not implemented
           (F) Your C library apparently doesn’t implement gethostent(), prob-
           ably because if it did, it’d feel morally obligated to return every
           hostname on the Internet.

       get%sname() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a
           closed socket.  Did you forget to check the return value of your
           socket() call?

       getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  The call to "sys$getuai" underlying
           the "getpwnam" operator returned an invalid UIC.

       getsockopt() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket.
           Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
           See "getsockopt" in perlfunc.

       Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
           (F) You’ve said "use strict vars", which indicates that all vari-
           ables must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared
           beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say which pack-
           age the global variable is in (using "::").

       glob failed (%s)
           (W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
           "glob" and "<*.c>".  Usually, this means that you supplied a "glob"
           pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
           nonzero status.  If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
           resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
           is broken.  If so, you should change all of the csh-related vari-
           ables in config.sh:  If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to
           it as if it were csh (e.g.  "full_csh=’/usr/bin/tcsh’"); otherwise,
           make them all empty (except that "d_csh" should be ’undef’) so that
           Perl will think csh is missing.  In either case, after editing con-
           fig.sh, run "./Configure -S" and rebuild Perl.

       Glob not terminated
           (F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was
           expecting a term, so it’s looking for the corresponding right angle
           bracket, and not finding it.  Chances are you left some needed
           parentheses out earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less
           than".

       Got an error from DosAllocMem
           (P) An error peculiar to OS/2.  Most probably you’re using an obso-
           lete version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.

       goto must have label
           (F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you’re not allowed to goto an
           unspecified destination.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       ()-group starts with a count
           (F) A ()-group started with a count.  A count is supposed to follow
           something: a template character or a ()-group.
            See "pack" in perlfunc.

       %s had compilation errors
           (F) The final summary message when a "perl -c" fails.

       Had to create %s unexpectedly
           (S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that
           ought to have existed already, but for some reason it didn’t, and
           had to be created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.

       Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
           (D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in
           some spots.  This is now heavily deprecated.

       %s has too many errors
           (F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10
           errors.  Further error messages would likely be uninformative.

       Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
           (W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than
           2**32-1 (4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems.
           See perlport for more on portability concerns.

       Identifier too long
           (F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.)
           to about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for
           compound names (like $A::B).  You’ve exceeded Perl’s limits.
           Future versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary
           limitations.

       Illegal binary digit %s
           (F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.

       Illegal binary digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
           binary number.  Interpretation of the binary number stopped before
           the offending digit.

       Illegal character %s (carriage return)
           (F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
           would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this
           error when Perl was built using standard options.  For some reason,
           your version of Perl appears to have been built without this sup-
           port.  Talk to your Perl administrator.

       Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
           (W syntax) An illegal character was found in a prototype declara-
           tion.  Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &,
           and \.

       Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
           (F) When using the "sub" keyword to construct an anonymous subrou-
           tine, you must always specify a block of code. See perlsub.

       Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
           (F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See perlsub.

       Illegal division by zero
           (F) You tried to divide a number by 0.  Either something was wrong
           in your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
           meaningless input.

       Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
           A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.  Interpretation of the
           hexadecimal number stopped before the illegal character.

       Illegal modulus zero
           (F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder.  Most
           numbers don’t take to this kindly.

       Illegal number of bits in vec
           (F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a
           power of two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).

       Illegal octal digit %s
           (F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.

       Illegal octal digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
           Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.

       Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
           (X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
           following switches: -[DIMUdmtw].

       Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read the
           CRTL’s internal environ array, and encountered an element without
           the "=" delimiter used to separate keys from values.  The element
           is ignored.

       Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: │%s│
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read a logi-
           cal name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over
           %ENV, and didn’t see the expected delimiter between key and value,
           so the line was ignored.

       (in cleanup) %s
           (W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method
           raised the indicated exception.  Since destructors are usually
           called by the system at arbitrary points during execution, and
           often a vast number of times, the warning is issued only once for
           any number of failures that would otherwise result in the same mes-
           sage being repeated.

           Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the "G_KEEPERR" flag
           could also result in this warning.  See "G_KEEPERR" in perlcall.

       In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
           (F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC.  Internally, v-strings are stored
           as Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC.  The
           UTF-EBCDIC encoding is limited to code points no larger than
           2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).

       Insecure dependency in %s
           (F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn’t
           like.  The tainting mechanism is turned on when you’re running
           setuid or setgid, or when you specify -T to turn it on explicitly.
           The tainting mechanism labels all data that’s derived directly or
           indirectly from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your
           trust.  If any such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you
           get this error.  See perlsec for more information.

       Insecure directory in %s
           (F) You can’t use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
           setgid script if $ENV{PATH} contains a directory that is writable
           by the world.  Also, the PATH must not contain any relative direc-
           tory.  See perlsec.

       Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
           (F) You can’t use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
           setgid script if any of $ENV{PATH}, $ENV{IFS}, $ENV{CDPATH},
           $ENV{ENV}, $ENV{BASH_ENV} or $ENV{TERM} are derived from data sup-
           plied (or potentially supplied) by the user.  The script must set
           the path to a known value, using trustworthy data.  See perlsec.

       Integer overflow in %s number
           (W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have spec-
           ified either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is
           too big for your architecture, and has been converted to a floating
           point number.  On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal,
           octal or binary number representable without overflow is
           0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or 0b11111111111111111111111111111111
           respectively.  Note that Perl transparently promotes all numbers to
           a floating point representation internally--subject to loss of pre-
           cision errors in subsequent operations.

       Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the prob-
           lem was discovered.

       Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl keeps track of the number of
           times you’ve called "fork" and "exec", to determine whether the
           current call to "exec" should affect the current script or a sub-
           process (see "exec LIST" in perlvms).  Somehow, this count has
           become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating this
           "exec" as a request to terminate the Perl script and execute the
           specified command.

       Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
           <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem
           was discovered.

       %s (...) interpreted as function
           (W syntax) You’ve run afoul of the rule that says that any list
           operator followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all
           the list operators arguments found inside the parentheses.  See
           "Terms and List Operators (Leftward)" in perlop.

       Invalid %s attribute: %s
           The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recog-
           nized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler.  See attributes.

       Invalid %s attributes: %s
           The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not rec-
           ognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler.  See attributes.

       Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
           (W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
           See "sprintf" in perlfunc.

       Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum charac-
           ter greater than the maximum character.  One possibility is that
           you forgot the "{}" from your ending "\x{}" - "\x" without the
           curly braces can go only up to "ff".  The <-- HERE shows in the
           regular expression about where the problem was discovered.  See
           perlre.

       Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
           (F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
           character greater than the maximum character.  See perlop.

       Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
           (F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
           elements of an attribute list.  If the previous attribute had a
           parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too
           soon.  See attributes.

       Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
           (W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something
           other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a
           layer list.  If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parame-
           ter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.

       Invalid type ’%s’ in %s
           (F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.  See
           "pack" in perlfunc.  (W) The given character is not a valid pack or
           unpack type but used to be silently ignored.

       ioctl is not implemented
           (F) Your machine apparently doesn’t implement ioctl(), which is
           pretty strange for a machine that supports C.

       ioctl() on unopened %s
           (W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never
           opened.  Check you control flow and number of arguments.

       IO layers (like "%s") unavailable
           (F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
           you cannot use IO layers.  To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
           with ’useperlio’.

       IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
           (F) Your machine doesn’t implement the sockatmark() functionality,
           neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).

       ‘%s’ is not a code reference
           (W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of over-
           load::constant needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous
           subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.

       ‘%s’ is not an overloadable type
           (W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload
           package is unaware of.

       junk on end of regexp
           (P) The regular expression parser is confused.

       Label not found for "last %s"
           (F) You named a loop to break out of, but you’re not currently in a
           loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called
           from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       Label not found for "next %s"
           (F) You named a loop to continue, but you’re not currently in a
           loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called
           from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       Label not found for "redo %s"
           (F) You named a loop to restart, but you’re not currently in a loop
           of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
           See "last" in perlfunc.

       leaving effective %s failed
           (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, switching the real and
           effective uids or gids failed.

       length/code after end of string in unpack
           (F) While unpacking, the string buffer was alread used up when an
           unpack length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This
           results in an undefined value for the length. See "pack" in perl-
           func.

       listen() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket.  Did you
           forget to check the return value of your socket() call?  See "lis-
           ten" in perlfunc.

       Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE
       in m/%s/
           (F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which look-
           behind can handle. This restriction may be eased in a future
           release. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where
           the problem was discovered.

       lstat() on filehandle %s
           (W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle.  What did you mean
           by that?  lstat() makes sense only on filenames.  (Perl did a
           fstat() instead on the filehandle.)

       Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
           (F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and
           hash values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue con-
           text.  See "Lvalue subroutines" in perlsub.

       Malformed integer in [] in  pack
           (F) Between the  brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only
           digits are permitted.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Malformed integer in [] in unpack
           (F) Between the  brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only
           digits are permitted.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
           (F) An error peculiar to OS/2.  PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the
           form

               prefix1;prefix2

           or
               prefix1 prefix2

           with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2.  If "prefix1" is indeed a prefix
           of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted.  The
           error may appear if components are not found, or are too long.  See
           "PERLLIB_PREFIX" in perlos2.

       Malformed prototype for %s: %s
           (F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype.  The
           syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check
           for obvious errors like invalid characters.  A more rigorous check
           is run when the function is called.

       Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
           (W utf8) Perl detected something that didn’t comply with UTF-8
           encoding rules.

           One possible cause is that you read in data that you thought to be
           in UTF-8 but it wasn’t (it was for example legacy 8-bit data).
           Another possibility is careless use of utf8::upgrade().

       Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
           Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
           doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.

       %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The pattern you’ve specified would be an infinite loop
           if the regular expression engine didn’t specifically check for
           that.  The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
           problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       "%s" may clash with future reserved word
           (W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a
           perl4 interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned
           about is "use" or "my".

       % may not be used in pack
           (F) You can’t pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
           checksumming process loses information, and you can’t go the other
           way.  See "unpack" in perlfunc.

       Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
           (F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table
           that doesn’t resolve to a valid subroutine.  See overload.

       Method %s not permitted
           See Server error.

       Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
           (S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been
           caused by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it
           eventually ended earlier on the current line.

       Misplaced _ in number
           (W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
           separate two digits.

       Missing argument to -%c
           (F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
           immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.

       Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
           (F) Wrong syntax of character name literal "\N{charname}" within
           double-quotish context.

       Missing comma after first argument to %s function
           (F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
           "indirect object" before the argument list, this ain’t one of them.

       Missing command in piped open
           (W pipe) You used the "open(FH, "│ command")" or "open(FH, "command
           │")" construction, but the command was missing or blank.

       Missing control char name in \c
           (F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required
           control character name.

       Missing name in "my sub"
           (F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires
           that they have a name with which they can be found.

       Missing $ on loop variable
           (F) Apparently you’ve been programming in csh too much.  Variables
           are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells,
           where it can vary from one line to the next.

       (Missing operator before %s?)
           (S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the
           message "%s found where operator expected".  Often the missing
           operator is a comma.

       Missing right brace on %s
           (F) Missing right brace in "\p{...}" or "\P{...}".

       Missing right curly or square bracket
           (F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
           closing ones.  As a general rule, you’ll find it’s missing near the
           place you were last editing.

       (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
           (S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the
           message "%s found where operator expected".  Don’t automatically
           put a semicolon on the previous line just because you saw this mes-
           sage.

       Modification of a read-only value attempted
           (F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
           constant.  You didn’t, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
           catches that.  But an easy way to do the same thing is:

               sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
               mod(2);

           Another way is to assign to a substr() that’s off the end of the
           string.

           Yet another way is to assign to a "foreach" loop VAR when VAR is
           aliased to a constant in the look LIST:

                   $x = 1;
                   foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
                       $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
                   }

       Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
           (F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
           subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the
           array backwards.

       Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
           (P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
           couldn’t be created for some peculiar reason.

       Module name must be constant
           (F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a
           "use".

       Module name required with -%c option
           (F) The "-M" or "-m" options say that Perl should load some module,
           but you omitted the name of the module.  Consult perlrun for full
           details about "-M" and "-m".

       More than one argument to open
           (F) The "open" function has been asked to open multiple files. This
           can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes
           a list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open
           mode.  See "open" in perlfunc for details.

       msg%s not implemented
           (F) You don’t have System V message IPC on your system.

       Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
           (W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren’t written like $foo[1,2,3].
           They’re written like $foo[1][2][3], as in C.

       ’/’ must be followed by ’a*’, ’A*’ or ’Z*’
           (F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
           Currently the only things that can have their length counted are
           a*, A* or Z*.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       ’/’ must follow a numeric type in unpack
           (F) You had an unpack template that contained a ’/’, but this did
           not follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
           See "pack" in perlfunc.

       "my sub" not yet implemented
           (F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented.  Don’t
           try that yet.

       "my" variable %s can’t be in a package
           (F) Lexically scoped variables aren’t in a package, so it doesn’t
           make sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the
           front.  Use local() if you want to localize a package variable.

       Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
           (W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable
           names.  If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then
           just mention it again somehow to suppress the message.  The "our"
           declaration is provided for this purpose.

           NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so
           $c, @c, %c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format)
           are considered the same; if a program uses $c only once but also
           uses any of the others it will not trigger this warning.

       Negative ’/’ count in unpack
           (F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation
           was negative.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Negative length
           (F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
           length that is less than 0.  This is difficult to imagine.

       Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
           (F) When "vec" is called in an lvalue context, the second argument
           must be greater than or equal to zero.

       Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You can’t quantify a quantifier without intervening parenthe-
           ses. So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows
           in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.

           Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, "*?", "+?", and "??"
           appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren’t.  See perlre.

       %s never introduced
           (S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went
           out of scope before it could possibly have been used.

       Newline in left-justified string for %s
           (W printf) There is a newline in a string to be left justified by
           "printf" or "sprintf".

           The padding spaces will appear after the newline, which is probably
           not what you wanted.  Usually you should remove the newline from
           the string and put formatting characters in the "sprintf" format.

       No %s allowed while running setuid
           (F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid
           or setgid script to even be allowed to attempt.  Generally speaking
           there will be another way to do what you want that is, if not
           secure, at least securable.  See perlsec.

       No comma allowed after %s
           (F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
           not allowed to have a comma between that and the following argu-
           ments.  Otherwise it’d be just another one of the arguments.

           One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
           constant to your name space with use or import while no such
           importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
           system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
           use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see,
           please see "use" in perlfunc and "import" in perlfunc. While an
           explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
           it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
           still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in the
           constants of the symbol import list of use or import or in the con-
           stant name at the line where this error was triggered?

       No command into which to pipe on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line
           redirection, and found a ’│’ at the end of the command line, so it
           doesn’t know where you want to pipe the output from this command.

       No DB::DB routine defined
           (F) The currently executing code was compiled with the -d switch,
           but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
           didn’t define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
           statement.  Which is odd, because the file should have been
           required automatically, and should have blown up the require if it
           didn’t parse right.

       No dbm on this machine
           (P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine
           should supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM.  See
           SDBM_File.

       No DBsub routine
           (F) The currently executing code was compiled with the -d switch,
           but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
           didn’t define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of
           each ordinary subroutine call.

       No -e allowed in setuid scripts
           (F) A setuid script can’t be specified by the user.

       No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line
           redirection, and found a ’2>’ or a ’2>>’ on the command line, but
           can’t find the name of the file to which to write data destined for
           stderr.

       No group ending character ’%c’ found in template
           (F) A pack or unpack template has an opening ’(’ or ’[’ without its
           matching counterpart. See "pack" in perlfunc.

       No input file after < on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line
           redirection, and found a ’<’ on the command line, but can’t find
           the name of the file from which to read data for stdin.

       No #! line
           (F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #!
           line even on machines that don’t support the #! construct.

       "no" not allowed in expression
           (F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time,
           and returns no useful value.  See perlmod.

       No output file after > on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line
           redirection, and found a lone ’>’ at the end of the command line,
           so it doesn’t know where you wanted to redirect stdout.

       No output file after > or >> on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line
           redirection, and found a ’>’ or a ’>>’ on the command line, but
           can’t find the name of the file to which to write data destined for
           stdout.

       No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
           (F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our" decla-
           rations, because that doesn’t make much sense under existing seman-
           tics.  Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.

       No Perl script found in input
           (F) You called "perl -x", but no line was found in the file begin-
           ning with #! and containing the word "perl".

       No setregid available
           (F) Configure didn’t find anything resembling the setregid() call
           for your system.

       No setreuid available
           (F) Configure didn’t find anything resembling the setreuid() call
           for your system.

       No %s specified for -%c
           (F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument,
           but you haven’t specified one.

       No such class %s
           (F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration,
           but this class doesn’t exist at this point in your program.

       No such pipe open
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  The internal routine my_pclose()
           tried to close a pipe which hadn’t been opened.  This should have
           been caught earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.

       No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
           (F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used
           is not defined.  The hash at index 0 should map all valid field
           names to array indices for that to work.

       No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
           (F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
           does not know about the field name.  The field names are looked up
           in the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time.  The
           %FIELDS hash is %usually set up with the ’fields’ pragma.

       No such signal: SIG%s
           (W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that
           was not recognized.  Say "kill -l" in your shell to see the valid
           signal names on your system.

       Not a CODE reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that
           is, a subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead.
           You can use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it
           really was.  See also perlref.

       Not a format reference
           (F) I’m not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an
           anonymous format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn’t
           exist.

       Not a GLOB reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that
           is, a symbol table entry that looks like *foo), but found a refer-
           ence to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to
           find out what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a HASH reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
           found a reference to something else instead.  You can use the ref()
           function to find out what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not an ARRAY reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
           found a reference to something else instead.  You can use the ref()
           function to find out what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a perl script
           (F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #!
           line even on machines that don’t support the #! construct.  The
           line must mention perl.

       Not a SCALAR reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
           found a reference to something else instead.  You can use the ref()
           function to find out what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a subroutine reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that
           is, a subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead.
           You can use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it
           really was.  See also perlref.

       Not a subroutine reference in overload table
           (F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table
           that doesn’t somehow point to a valid subroutine.  See overload.

       Not enough arguments for %s
           (F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.

       Not enough format arguments
           (W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next
           line supplied.  See perlform.

       %s: not found
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
           instead of Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
           into Perl yourself.

       no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl was unable to find the local
           timezone offset, so it’s assuming that local system time is equiva-
           lent to UTC.  If it’s not, define the logical name SYS$TIME-
           ZONE_DIFFERENTIAL to translate to the number of seconds which need
           to be added to UTC to get local time.

       Null filename used
           (F) You can’t require the null filename, especially because on many
           machines that means the current directory!  See "require" in perl-
           func.

       NULL OP IN RUN
           (P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
           pointer.

       Null picture in formline
           (F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
           specification.  It was found to be empty, which probably means you
           supplied it an uninitialized value.  See perlform.

       Null realloc
           (P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.

       NULL regexp argument
           (P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.

       NULL regexp parameter
           (P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.

       Number too long
           (F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs
           to about 250 characters.  You’ve exceeded that length.  Future ver-
           sions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation.
           In the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead
           of "1_000_000").

       Octal number in vector unsupported
           (F) Numbers with a leading 0 are not currently allowed in vectors.
           The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in
           a future version.

       Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
           (W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
           (4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems.  See perl-
           port for more on portability concerns.

           See also perlport for writing portable code.

       Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
           (W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number
           of arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.

       Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
           (W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a
           hash, which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.

       Odd number of elements in hash assignment
           (W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a
           hash, which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.

       Offset outside string
           (F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
           pointing outside the buffer.  This is difficult to imagine.  The
           sole exception to this is that "sysread()"ing past the buffer will
           extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.

       %s() on unopened %s
           (W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that
           was never initialized.  You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a
           socket() call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.

       -%s on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehan-
           dle that isn’t open.  Check your control flow.  See also "-X" in
           perlfunc.

       oops: oopsAV
           (S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.

       oops: oopsHV
           (S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.

       Operation ‘%s’: no method found, %s
           (F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for
           which no handler was defined.  While some handlers can be autogen-
           erated in terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for
           any operation, unless "fallback" overloading key is specified to be
           true.  See overload.

       Operator or semicolon missing before %s
           (S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the
           parser was expecting an operator.  The parser has assumed you
           really meant to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be
           incorrect.  For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be inter-
           preted as if you said "*foo * ’foo’".

       "our" variable %s redeclared
           (W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once
           before in the current lexical scope.

       Out of memory!
           (X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insuffi-
           cient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
           Perl has no option but to exit immediately.

           At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing
           your process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use "limit" and "limit
           datasize n" (where "n" is the number of kilobytes) to check the
           current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use "ulimit -a"
           and "ulimit -d n", respectively.

       Out of memory during %s extend
           (X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string
           beyond the largest possible memory allocation.

       Out of memory during "large" request for %s
           (F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insuffi-
           cient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
           However, the request was judged large enough (compile-time default
           is 64K), so a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is
           granted.

       Out of memory during request for %s
           (X│F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insuf-
           ficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
           request.

           The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
           depends on the way perl was compiled.  By default it is not trap-
           pable.  However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of
           $^M as an emergency pool after die()ing with this message.  In this
           case the error is trappable once, and the error message will
           include the line and file where the failed request happened.

       Out of memory during ridiculously large request
           (F) You can’t allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.  This
           error is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program.
           e.g., $arr[time] instead of $arr[$time].

       Out of memory for yacc stack
           (F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
           parsing, but realloc() wouldn’t give it more memory, virtual or
           otherwise.

       ’@’ outside of string in unpack
           (F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
           the string being unpacked.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
           (W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a pack-
           age-specific handler.  That name might have a meaning to Perl
           itself some day, even though it doesn’t yet.  Perhaps you should
           use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.  See attributes.

       pack/unpack repeat count overflow
           (F) You can’t specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
           your signed integers.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       page overflow
           (W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on
           a page.  See perlform.

       panic: %s
           (P) An internal error.

       panic: ck_grep
           (P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.

       panic: ck_split
           (P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.

       panic: corrupt saved stack index
           (P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values
           than there are in the savestack.

       panic: del_backref
           (P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a
           weak reference.

       panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
           (P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
           last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called
           from an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter.
           This is a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.

       panic: die %s
           (P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then dis-
           covered it wasn’t an eval context.

       panic: do_subst
           (P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid opera-
           tional data.

       panic: do_trans_%s
           (P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid opera-
           tional data.

       panic: frexp
           (P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impos-
           sible.

       panic: goto
           (P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified
           label, and then discovered it wasn’t a context we know how to do a
           goto in.

       panic: INTERPCASEMOD
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.

       panic: INTERPCONCAT
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.

       panic: kid popen errno read
           (F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its
           errno.

       panic: last
           (P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then dis-
           covered it wasn’t a block context.

       panic: leave_scope clearsv
           (P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
           scope.

       panic: leave_scope inconsistency
           (P) The savestack probably got out of sync.  At least, there was an
           invalid enum on the top of it.

       panic: magic_killbackrefs
           (P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all
           weak references to an object.

       panic: malloc
           (P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.

       panic: mapstart
           (P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.

       panic: memory wrap
           (P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.

       panic: null array
           (P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV
           pointer.

       panic: pad_alloc
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allo-
           cating and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_free curpad
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allo-
           cating and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_free po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pad_reset curpad
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allo-
           cating and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_sv po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pad_swipe curpad
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allo-
           cating and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_swipe po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pp_iter
           (P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.

       panic: pp_match%s
           (P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid opera-
           tional data.

       panic: pp_split
           (P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.

       panic: realloc
           (P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.

       panic: restartop
           (P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it),
           and didn’t supply the destination.

       panic: return
           (P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context,
           and then discovered it wasn’t a subroutine or eval context.

       panic: scan_num
           (P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn’t a number.

       panic: sv_insert
           (P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than
           there was string.

       panic: top_env
           (P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like
           that.

       panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
           (P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
           to even) byte length.

       panic: yylex
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modi-
           fier.

       Parentheses missing around "%s" list
           (W parenthesis) You said something like

               my $foo, $bar = @_;

           when you meant

               my ($foo, $bar) = @_;

           Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.

       "-p" destination: %s
           (F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the
           "-p" command-line switch.  (This output goes to STDOUT unless
           you’ve redirected it with select().)

       (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
           (F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
           "Can’t locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"".  It often
           means that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.

       Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
           (F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
           recent than the currently running version.  How long has it been
           since you upgraded, anyway?  See "require" in perlfunc.

       PERL_SH_DIR too long
           (F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find
           the "sh"-shell in.  See "PERL_SH_DIR" in perlos2.

       PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
           See "PERL_SIGNALS" in perlrun for legal values.

       perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
           (S) The whole warning message will look something like:

                   perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
                   perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
                           LC_ALL = "En_US",
                           LANG = (unset)
                       are supported and installed on your system.
                   perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").

           Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies.  In the above
           the settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no
           value.  This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your
           operating system supplier and/or system administrator have set up
           the so-called locale system but Perl could not use those settings.
           This was not dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale"
           called "C" that Perl can and will use, the script will be run.
           Before you really fix the problem, however, you will get the same
           error message each time you run Perl.  How to really fix the prob-
           lem can be found in perllocale section LOCALE PROBLEMS.

       Permission denied
           (F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.

       pid %x not a child
           (W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Waitpid() was asked to wait
           for a process which isn’t a subprocess of the current process.
           While this is fine from VMS’ perspective, it’s probably not what
           you intended.

       ’P’ must have an explicit size in unpack
           (F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".

       -P not allowed for setuid/setgid script
           (F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by
           name, which provides a race condition that breaks security.

       POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.  The
           <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem
           was discovered.  Note that the POSIX character classes do not have
           the "is" prefix the corresponding C interfaces have: in other
           words, it’s "[[:print:]]", not "isprint".  See perlre.

       POSIX getpgrp can’t take an argument
           (F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument,
           unlike the BSD version, which takes a pid.

       POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by
       <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .]
           go inside character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for
           example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/.  Note that [= =] and [. .] are not
           currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for future
           extensions and will cause fatal errors.  The <-- HERE shows in the
           regular expression about where the problem was discovered.  See
           perlre.

       POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked
       by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the
           syntax beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for
           future extensions.  If you need to represent those character
           sequences inside a regular expression character class, just quote
           the square brackets with the backslash: "\[." and ".\]".  The <--
           HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
           discovered.  See perlre.

       POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked
       by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
           beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future
           extensions.  If you need to represent those character sequences
           inside a regular expression character class, just quote the square
           brackets with the backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".  The <-- HERE shows
           in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
           See perlre.

       Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
           (W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with
           literal strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are
           instead treated as literal data.  (You may have used different
           delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also fre-
           quently used.)

           You probably wrote something like this:

               @list = qw(
                   a # a comment
                   b # another comment
               );

           when you should have written this:

               @list = qw(
                   a
                   b
               );

           If you really want comments, build your list the old-fashioned way,
           with quotes and commas:

               @list = (
                   ’a’,    # a comment
                   ’b’,    # another comment
               );

       Possible attempt to separate words with commas
           (W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
           commas aren’t needed to separate the items.  (You may have used
           different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are
           also frequently used.)

           You probably wrote something like this:

               qw! a, b, c !;

           which puts literal commas into some of the list items.  Write it
           without commas if you don’t want them to appear in your data:

               qw! a b c !;

       Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
           (F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining
           for.  Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel
           byte at the end of the buffer just in case.  This sentinel byte got
           clobbered, and Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted.  See
           "ioctl" in perlfunc.

       Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
           (W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical operator in con-
           junction with a numeric comparison operator, like this :

               if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }

           This expression is actually equivalent to "$x & ($y == 0)", due to
           the higher precedence of "==". This is probably not what you want.
           (If you really meant to write this, disable the warning, or, bet-
           ter, put the parentheses explicitly and write "$x & ($y == 0)").

       Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
           (W ambiguous) You said something like ‘@foo’ in a double-quoted
           string but there was no array @foo in scope at the time. If you
           wanted a literal @foo, then write it as \@foo; otherwise find out
           what happened to the array you apparently lost track of.

       Possible Y2K bug: %s
           (W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number,
           which could be a potential Year 2000 problem.

       pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
           (D deprecated) You have written something like this:

               sub doit
               {
                   use attrs qw(locked);
               }

           You should use the new declaration syntax instead.

               sub doit : locked
               {
                   ...

           The "use attrs" pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
           backward-compatibility. See "Subroutine Attributes" in perlsub.

       Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
           (S precedence) The old irregular construct

               open FOO ││ die;

           is now misinterpreted as

               open(FOO ││ die);

           because of the strict regularization of Perl 5’s grammar into unary
           and list operators.  (The old open was a little of both.)  You must
           put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
           instead of "││".

       Premature end of script headers
           See Server error.

       printf() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you’re writing to got itself closed some-
           time before now.  Check your control flow.

       print() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you’re printing on got itself closed
           sometime before now.  Check your control flow.

       Process terminated by SIG%s
           (W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while
           *nix applications die in silence.  It is considered a feature of
           the OS/2 port.  One can easily disable this by appropriate sighan-
           dlers, see "Signals" in perlipc.  See also "Process terminated by
           SIGTERM/SIGINT" in perlos2.

       Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
           (S prototype) The subroutine being declared or defined had previ-
           ously been declared or defined with a different function prototype.

       Prototype not terminated
           (F) You’ve omitted the closing parenthesis in a function prototype
           definition.

       Pseudo-hashes are deprecated
           (D deprecated)  Pseudo-hashes were deprecated in Perl 5.8.0 and
           they will be removed in Perl 5.10.0, see perl58delta for more
           details.  You can continue to use the "fields" pragma.

       Quantifier follows nothing in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash
           it if you meant it literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
           expression about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max val-
           ues of the {min,max} construct. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
           expression about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place
           where it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.  Try
           putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead.  For example,
           the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three repe-
           titions of "xyz" is "/abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/", not "/abc(?=xyz){3}/".

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the prob-
           lem was discovered.

       Range iterator outside integer range
           (F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator
           ".."  are outside the range which can be represented by integers
           internally.  One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magi-
           cal string increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.

       readline() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you’re reading from got itself closed
           sometime before now.  Check your control flow.

       read() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.

       read() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that was never
           opened.

       Reallocation too large: %lx
           (F) You can’t allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.

       realloc() of freed memory ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
           had already been freed.

       Recompile perl with -DDEBUGGING to use -D switch
           (F debugging) You can’t use the -D option unless the code to pro-
           duce the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some
           overhead, which is why it’s currently left out of your copy.

       Recursive inheritance detected in package ’%s’
           (F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used.  Probably indi-
           cates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.

       Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
           (F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while
           invoking a method.  Probably indicates an unintended loop in your
           inheritance hierarchy.

       Reference found where even-sized list expected
           (W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a
           list with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash).
           This usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you
           meant to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value pairs.

               %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, };    # WRONG
               %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ];    # WRONG
               %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, );    # right
               %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 );                  # also fine

       Reference is already weak
           (W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already
           weak.  Doing so has no effect.

       Reference miscount in sv_replace()
           (W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV
           with a reference count of other than 1.

       Reference to nonexistent group in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used something like "\7" in your regular expression, but
           there are not at least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the
           expression. If you wanted to have the character with value 7
           inserted into the regular expression, prepend a zero to make the
           number at least two digits: "\07"

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the prob-
           lem was discovered.

       regexp memory corruption
           (P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
           expression compiler gave it.

       Regexp out of space
           (P) A "can’t happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught
           it earlier.

       Repeated format line will never terminate (~~ and @# incompatible)
           (F) Your format containes the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence and a
           numeric field that will never go blank so that the repetition never
           terminates. You might use ^# instead.  See perlform.

       Reversed %s= operator
           (W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards.  The =
           must always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary
           operators.

       Runaway format
           (F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but
           it produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly
           like the 199th line.  Apparently you didn’t arrange for the argu-
           ments to exhaust themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for
           scalar variables), or by shifting or popping (for array variables).
           See perlform.

       Scalars leaked: %d
           (P) Something went wrong in Perl’s internal bookkeeping of scalars:
           not all scalar variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.
           What this usually indicates is a memory leak, which is of course
           bad, especially if the Perl program is intended to be long-running.

       Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
           (W syntax) You’ve used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
           single element of an array.  Generally it’s better to ask for a
           scalar value (indicated by $).  The difference is that $foo[&bar]
           always behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when
           evaluating its argument, while @foo[&bar] behaves like a list when
           you assign to it, and provides a list context to its subscript,
           which can do weird things if you’re expecting only one subscript.

           On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
           element as a list, you need to look into how references work,
           because Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists
           for you.  See perlref.

       Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
           (W syntax) You’ve used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a
           single element of a hash.  Generally it’s better to ask for a
           scalar value (indicated by $).  The difference is that $foo{&bar}
           always behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when
           evaluating its argument, while @foo{&bar} behaves like a list when
           you assign to it, and provides a list context to its subscript,
           which can do weird things if you’re expecting only one subscript.

           On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
           element as a list, you need to look into how references work,
           because Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists
           for you.  See perlref.

       Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
           (F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a
           setuid or setgid bit set.  This doesn’t make much sense.

       Search pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn’t find the final delimiter of a // or m{} con-
           struct.  Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
           Missing the leading "$" from a variable $m may cause this error.

           Note that since Perl 5.9.0 a // can also be the defined-or con-
           struct, not just the empty search pattern.  Therefore code written
           in Perl 5.9.0 or later that uses the // as the defined-or can be
           misparsed by pre-5.9.0 Perls as a non-terminated search pattern.

       %sseek() on unopened filehandle
           (W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a
           filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.

       select not implemented
           (F) This machine doesn’t implement the select() system call.

       Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
           (F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not supported in the
           current implementation.

       Semicolon seems to be missing
           (W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a miss-
           ing semicolon, or possibly some other missing operator, such as a
           comma.

       semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
           (S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate
           a scalar that had previously been marked as free.

       sem%s not implemented
           (F) You don’t have System V semaphore IPC on your system.

       send() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) The socket you’re sending to got itself closed sometime
           before now.  Check your control flow.

       Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. The
           <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem
           was discovered. See perlre.

       Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character
           reserved but has not yet been written. The <-- HERE shows in the
           regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
           perlre.

       Sequence (?%s...) not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn’t make
           sense.  The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where
           the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
           parenthesis.  Embedded parentheses aren’t allowed.  The <-- HERE
           shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discov-
           ered. See perlre.

       Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in regex; marked by
       <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) If the contents of a (?{...}) clause contains braces, they must
           balance for Perl to properly detect the end of the clause. The <--
           HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
           discovered. See perlre.

       500 Server error
           See Server error.

       Server error
           This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when
           trying to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The
           actual error text varies widely from server to server. The most
           frequently-seen variants are "500 Server error", "Method (some-
           thing) not permitted", "Document contains no data", "Premature end
           of script headers", and "Did not produce a valid header".

           This is a CGI error, not a Perl error.

           You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by
           the user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the
           user account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment
           variables (like PATH) from the user it isn’t running under, and
           isn’t in a location where the CGI server can’t find it, basically,
           more or less.  Please see the following for more information:

                   http://www.perl.org/CGI_MetaFAQ.html
                   http://www.htmlhelp.org/faq/cgifaq.html
                   http://www.w3.org/Security/Faq/

           You should also look at perlfaq9.

       setegid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $), and your operating system doesn’t
           support the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Con-
           figure didn’t think so.

       seteuid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $>, and your operating system doesn’t
           support the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Con-
           figure didn’t think so.

       setpgrp can’t take arguments
           (F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no
           arguments, unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and
           process group ID.

       setrgid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $(, and your operating system doesn’t
           support the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Con-
           figure didn’t think so.

       setruid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $<, and your operating system doesn’t
           support the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Con-
           figure didn’t think so.

       setsockopt() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket.
           Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
           See "setsockopt" in perlfunc.

       Setuid/gid script is writable by world
           (F) The setuid emulator won’t run a script that is writable by the
           world, because the world might have written on it already.

       shm%s not implemented
           (F) You don’t have System V shared memory IPC on your system.

       <> should be quotes
           (F) You wrote "require <file>" when you should have written
           "require ’file’".

       /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
           (W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a
           string, as in the first argument to "join".  Perl will treat the
           true or false result of matching the pattern against $_ as the
           string, which is probably not what you had in mind.

       shutdown() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket.  Seems a
           bit superfluous.

       SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
           (W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn’t, in fact,
           exist.  Perhaps you put it into the wrong package?

       sort is now a reserved word
           (F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into any-
           more.  But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a
           filehandle.

       Sort subroutine didn’t return a numeric value
           (F) A sort comparison routine must return a number.  You probably
           blew it by not using "<=>" or "cmp", or by not using them cor-
           rectly.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Sort subroutine didn’t return single value
           (F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with
           more or less than one element.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       splice() offset past end of array
           (W misc) You attempted to specify an offset that was past the end
           of the array passed to splice(). Splicing will instead commence at
           the end of the array, rather than past it. If this isn’t what you
           want, try explicitly pre-extending the array by assigning $#array =
           $offset. See "splice" in perlfunc.

       Split loop
           (P) The split was looping infinitely.  (Obviously, a split
           shouldn’t iterate more times than there are characters of input,
           which is what happened.) See "split" in perlfunc.

       Statement unlikely to be reached
           (W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than
           a die().  This is almost always an error, because exec() never
           returns unless there was a failure.  You probably wanted to use
           system() instead, which does return.  To suppress this warning, put
           the exec() in a block by itself.

       stat() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a filehandle
           that was either never opened or has since been closed.

       Stub found while resolving method ‘%s’ overloading %s
           (P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importa-
           tion stubs.  Stubs should never be implicitly created, but explicit
           calls to "can" may break this.

       Subroutine %s redefined
           (W redefine) You redefined a subroutine.  To suppress this warning,
           say

               {
                   no warnings ’redefine’;
                   eval "sub name { ... }";
               }

       Substitution loop
           (P) The substitution was looping infinitely.  (Obviously, a substi-
           tution shouldn’t iterate more times than there are characters of
           input, which is what happened.)  See the discussion of substitution
           in "Quote and Quote-like Operators" in perlop.

       Substitution pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn’t find the interior delimiter of an s/// or
           s{}{} construct.  Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting
           level.  Missing the leading "$" from variable $s may cause this
           error.

       Substitution replacement not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn’t find the final delimiter of an s/// or s{}{}
           construct.  Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting
           level.  Missing the leading "$" from variable $s may cause this
           error.

       substr outside of string
           (W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed out-
           side of a string.  That is, the absolute value of the offset was
           larger than the length of the string.  See "substr" in perlfunc.
           This warning is fatal if substr is used in an lvalue context (as
           the left hand side of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for
           example).

       suidperl is no longer needed since %s
           (F) Your Perl was compiled with -DSETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW,
           but a version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.

       Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches in regex; marked by
       <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A (?(condition)if-clause│else-clause) construct can have at
           most two branches (the if-clause and the else-clause). If you want
           one or both to contain alternation, such as using
           "this│that│other", enclose it in clustering parentheses:

               (?(condition)(?:this│that│other)│else-clause)

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the prob-
           lem was discovered. See perlre.

       Switch condition not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) If the argument to the (?(...)if-clause│else-clause) construct
           is a number, it can be only a number. The <-- HERE shows in the
           regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
           perlre.

       switching effective %s is not implemented
           (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, we cannot switch the
           real and effective uids or gids.

       %s syntax
           (F) The final summary message when a "perl -c" succeeds.

       syntax error
           (F) Probably means you had a syntax error.  Common reasons include:

               A keyword is misspelled.
               A semicolon is missing.
               A comma is missing.
               An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
               An opening or closing brace is missing.
               A closing quote is missing.

           Often there will be another error message associated with the syn-
           tax error giving more information.  (Sometimes it helps to turn on
           -w.)  The error message itself often tells you where it was in the
           line when it decided to give up.  Sometimes the actual error is
           several tokens before this, because Perl is good at understanding
           random input.  Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and
           once in a blue moon the only way to figure out what’s triggering
           the error is to call "perl -c" repeatedly, chopping away half the
           program each time to see if the error went away.  Sort of the
           cybernetic version of 20 questions.

       syntax error at line %d: ‘%s’ unexpected
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
           instead of Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
           into Perl yourself.

       syntax error in file %s at line %d, next 2 tokens "%s"
           (F) This error is likely to occur if you run a perl5 script through
           a perl4 interpreter, especially if the next 2 tokens are "use
           strict" or "my $var" or "our $var".

       sysread() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.

       sysread() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that was never
           opened.

       System V %s is not implemented on this machine
           (F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
           "shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
           machine.  In some machines the functionality can exist but be
           unconfigured.  Consult your system support.

       syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you’re writing to got itself closed some-
           time before now.  Check your control flow.

       "-T" and "-B" not implemented on filehandles
           (F) Perl can’t peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it
           doesn’t know about your kind of stdio.  You’ll have to use a file-
           name instead.

       Target of goto is too deeply nested
           (F) You tried to use "goto" to reach a label that was too deeply
           nested for Perl to reach.  Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.

       tell() on unopened filehandle
           (W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle
           that was either never opened or has since been closed.

       That use of $[ is unsupported
           (F) Assignment to $[ is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted
           as a compiler directive.  You may say only one of

               $[ = 0;
               $[ = 1;
               ...
               local $[ = 0;
               local $[ = 1;
               ...

           This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array
           base out from under another module inadvertently.  See "$[" in per-
           lvar.

       The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
           (F) Configure couldn’t find the crypt() function on your machine,
           probably because your vendor didn’t supply it, probably because
           they think the U.S. Government thinks it’s a secret, or at least
           that they will continue to pretend that it is.  And if you quote me
           on that, I will deny it.

       The %s function is unimplemented
           The function indicated isn’t implemented on this architecture,
           according to the probings of Configure.

       The stat preceding %s wasn’t an lstat
           (F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic
           linkhood if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already
           went past the symlink to get to the real file.  Use an actual file-
           name instead.

       The ’unique’ attribute may only be applied to ’our’ variables
           (F) Currently this attribute is not supported on "my" or "sub" dec-
           larations.  See "our" in perlfunc.

       This Perl can’t reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
       This Perl can’t set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
           (W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS.  You tried to change or
           delete an element of the CRTL’s internal environ array, but your
           copy of Perl wasn’t built with a CRTL that contained the setenv()
           function.  You’ll need to rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or
           redefine PERL_ENV_TABLES (see perlvms) so that the environ array
           isn’t the target of the change to %ENV which produced the warning.

       thread failed to start: %s
           (F) The entry point function of threads->create() failed for some
           reason.

       5.005 threads are deprecated
           (D deprecated)  The 5.005-style threads (activated by "use
           Thread;") are deprecated and one should use the new ithreads
           instead, see perl58delta for more details.

       times not implemented
           (F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn’t do times().  I
           suspect you’re not running on Unix.

       "-T" is on the #! line, it must also be used on the command line
           (X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
           -T option, but Perl was not invoked with -T in its command line.
           This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a -T in a
           script, it’s too late to properly taint everything from the envi-
           ronment.  So Perl gives up.

           If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
           mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be
           fixed by editing the #! line so that the -T option is a part of
           Perl’s first argument: e.g. change "perl -n -T" to "perl -T -n".

           If the Perl script is being executed as "perl scriptname", then the
           -T option must appear on the command line: "perl -T scriptname".

       To%s: illegal mapping ’%s’
           (F) You tried to define a customized To-mapping for lc(), lcfirst,
           uc(), or ucfirst() (or their string-inlined versions), but you
           specified an illegal mapping.  See "User-Defined Character Proper-
           ties" in perlunicode.

       Too deeply nested ()-groups
           (F) Your template contains ()-groups with a ridiculously deep nest-
           ing level.

       Too few args to syscall
           (F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify
           the system call to call, silly dilly.

       Too late for "-%s" option
           (X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
           -M or -m option.  This is an error because -M and -m options are
           not intended for use inside scripts.  Use the "use" pragma instead.

       Too late to run %s block
           (W void) A CHECK or INIT block is being defined during run time
           proper, when the opportunity to run them has already passed.  Per-
           haps you are loading a file with "require" or "do" when you should
           be using "use" instead.  Or perhaps you should put the "require" or
           "do" inside a BEGIN block.

       Too many args to syscall
           (F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().

       Too many arguments for %s
           (F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.

       Too many )’s
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through csh instead of
           Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
           yourself.

       Too many (’s
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through csh instead of
           Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
           yourself.

       Trailing \ in regex m/%s/
           (F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash.
           Backslash it.   See perlre.

       Transliteration pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn’t find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or
           tr[][] or y/// or y[][] construct.  Missing the leading "$" from
           variables $tr or $y may cause this error.

       Transliteration replacement not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn’t find the final delimiter of a tr///, tr[][],
           y/// or y[][] construct.

       ’%s’ trapped by operation mask
           (F) You tried to use an operator from a Safe compartment in which
           it’s disallowed. See Safe.

       truncate not implemented
           (F) Your machine doesn’t implement a file truncation mechanism that
           Configure knows about.

       Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
           (F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
           certain type.  Arrays must be @NAME or "@{EXPR}".  Hashes must be
           %NAME or "%{EXPR}".  No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
           {EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference.  See perlref.

       umask not implemented
           (F) Your machine doesn’t implement the umask function and you tried
           to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).

       Unable to create sub named "%s"
           (F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal
           name.

       Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
           (W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in
           how many execution contexts were entered and left.

       Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
           (W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in
           how many values were temporarily localized.

       Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
           (W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in
           how many blocks were entered and left.

       Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
           (W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in
           how many mortal scalars were allocated and freed.

       Undefined format "%s" called
           (F) The format indicated doesn’t seem to exist.  Perhaps it’s
           really in another package?  See perlform.

       Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
           (F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn’t seem to exist.
           Perhaps it’s in a different package?  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Undefined subroutine &%s called
           (F) The subroutine indicated hasn’t been defined, or if it was, it
           has since been undefined.

       Undefined subroutine called
           (F) The anonymous subroutine you’re trying to call hasn’t been
           defined, or if it was, it has since been undefined.

       Undefined subroutine in sort
           (F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn’t
           seem to have been defined yet.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Undefined top format "%s" called
           (F) The format indicated doesn’t seem to exist.  Perhaps it’s
           really in another package?  See perlform.

       Undefined value assigned to typeglob
           (W misc) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la "*foo
           = undef".  This does nothing.  It’s possible that you really mean
           "undef *foo".

       %s: Undefined variable
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through csh instead of
           Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
           yourself.

       unexec of %s into %s failed!
           (F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason.  See your local
           FSF representative, who probably put it there in the first place.

       Unicode character %s is illegal
           (W utf8) Certain Unicode characters have been designated off-limits
           by the Unicode standard and should not be generated.  If you really
           know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by "no warn-
           ings ’utf8’;".

       Unknown BYTEORDER
           (F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this
           byte order.

       Unknown open() mode ’%s’
           (F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
           of valid modes: "<", ">", ">>", "+<", "+>", "+>>", "-│", "│-",
           "<&", ">&".

       Unknown PerlIO layer "%s"
           (W layer) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer onto the
           Perl I/O system.  (Layers take care of transforming data between
           external and internal representations.)  Note that some layers,
           such as "mmap", are not supported in all environments.  If your
           program didn’t explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
           the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.

       Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl was reading values for %ENV
           before iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the
           stream of data Perl expected.  Someone’s very confused, or perhaps
           trying to subvert Perl’s population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.

       Unknown "re" subpragma ’%s’ (known ones are: %s)
           You tried to use an unknown subpragma of the "re" pragma.

       Unknown switch condition (?(%.2s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The condition part of a (?(condition)if-clause│else-clause)
           construct is not known. The condition may be lookahead or lookbe-
           hind (the condition is true if the lookahead or lookbehind is
           true), a (?{...})  construct (the condition is true if the code
           evaluates to a true value), or a number (the condition is true if
           the set of capturing parentheses named by the number matched).

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the prob-
           lem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Unknown Unicode option letter ’%c’
           You specified an unknown Unicode option.  See perlrun documentation
           of the "-C" switch for the list of known options.

       Unknown Unicode option value %x
           You specified an unknown Unicode option.  See perlrun documentation
           of the "-C" switch for the list of known options.

       Unknown warnings category ’%s’
           (F) An error issued by the "warnings" pragma. You specified a warn-
           ings category that is unknown to perl at this point.

           Note that if you want to enable a warnings category registered by a
           module (e.g. "use warnings ’File::Find’"), you must have imported
           this module first.

       unmatched [ in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish
           to include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or
           put it first. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
           where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       unmatched ( in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
           expressions. If you’re a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
           the matching parenthesis. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expres-
           sion about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Unmatched right %s bracket
           (F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
           opening ones, so you’re probably missing a matching opening
           bracket.  As a general rule, you’ll find the missing one (so to
           speak) near the place you were last editing.

       Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
           (W reserved) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a
           reserved word.  It’s best to put such a word in quotes, or capital-
           ize it somehow, or insert an underbar into it.  You might also
           declare it as a subroutine.

       Unrecognized character %s
           (F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified char-
           acter in your Perl script (or eval).  Perhaps you tried to run a
           compressed script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl pro-
           gram.

       /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
           (W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not
           recognized by Perl inside character classes.  The character was
           understood literally.

       Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
           (W misc) You used a backslash-character combination which is not
           recognized by Perl.

       Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not
           recognized by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated
           variable or a "’"-delimited regular expression. The character was
           understood literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
           about where the escape was discovered.

       Unrecognized signal name "%s"
           (F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not
           recognized.  Say "kill -l" in your shell to see the valid signal
           names on your system.

       Unrecognized switch: -%s  (-h will show valid options)
           (F) You specified an illegal option to Perl.  Don’t do that.  (If
           you think you didn’t do that, check the #! line to see if it’s sup-
           plying the bad switch on your behalf.)

       Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
           (W newline) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that
           operation failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a new-
           line, PROBABLY because you forgot to chomp() it off.  See "chomp"
           in perlfunc.

       Unsupported directory function "%s" called
           (F) Your machine doesn’t support opendir() and readdir().

       Unsupported function %s
           (F) This machine doesn’t implement the indicated function, appar-
           ently.  At least, Configure doesn’t think so.

       Unsupported function fork
           (F) Your version of executable does not support forking.

           Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different
           flavors of Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some
           not. Try changing the name you call Perl by to "perl_", "perl__",
           and so on.

       Unsupported script encoding %s
           (F) Your program file begins with a Unicode Byte Order Mark (BOM)
           which declares it to be in a Unicode encoding that Perl cannot
           read.

       Unsupported socket function "%s" called
           (F) Your machine doesn’t support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or
           at least that’s what Configure thought.

       Unterminated attribute list
           (F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the
           start of an attribute, and it wasn’t a semicolon or the start of a
           block.  Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous
           attribute too soon.  See attributes.

       Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
           (F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while
           parsing an attribute list, but the matching closing (right) paren-
           thesis character was not found.  You may need to add (or remove) a
           backslash character to get your parentheses to balance.  See
           attributes.

       Unterminated compressed integer
           (F) An argument to unpack("w",...) was incompatible with the BER
           compressed integer format and could not be converted to an integer.
           See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Unterminated <> operator
           (F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was
           expecting a term, so it’s looking for the corresponding right angle
           bracket, and not finding it.  Chances are you left some needed
           parentheses out earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less
           than".

       untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
           (W untie) A copy of the object returned from "tie" (or "tied") was
           still valid when "untie" was called.

       Usage: POSIX::%s(%s)
           (F) You called a POSIX function with incorrect arguments.  See
           "FUNCTIONS" in POSIX for more information.

       Usage: Win32::%s(%s)
           (F) You called a Win32 function with incorrect arguments.  See
           Win32 for more information.

       Useless (?-%s) - don’t use /%s modifier in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (W regexp) You have used an internal modifier such as (?-o) that
           has no meaning unless removed from the entire regexp:

               if ($string =~ /(?-o)$pattern/o) { ... }

           must be written as

               if ($string =~ /$pattern/) { ... }

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the prob-
           lem was discovered. See perlre.

       Useless (?%s) - use /%s modifier in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You have used an internal modifier such as (?o) that has
           no meaning unless applied to the entire regexp:

               if ($string =~ /(?o)$pattern/) { ... }

           must be written as

               if ($string =~ /$pattern/o) { ... }

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the prob-
           lem was discovered. See perlre.

       Useless use of %s in void context
           (W void) You did something without a side effect in a context that
           does nothing with the return value, such as a statement that
           doesn’t return a value from a block, or the left side of a scalar
           comma operator.  Very often this points not to stupidity on your
           part, but a failure of Perl to parse your program the way you
           thought it would.  For example, you’d get this if you mixed up your
           C precedence with Python precedence and said

               $one, $two = 1, 2;

           when you meant to say

               ($one, $two) = (1, 2);

           Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a
           list reference when you should be using square or curly brackets,
           for example, if you say

               $array = (1,2);

           when you should have said

               $array = [1,2];

           The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar
           value, while parentheses do not.  So when a parenthesized list is
           evaluated in a scalar context, the comma is treated like C’s comma
           operator, which throws away the left argument, which is not what
           you want.  See perlref for more on this.

           This warning will not be issued for numerical constants equal to 0
           or 1 since they are often used in statements like

               1 while sub_with_side_effects() ;

           String constants that would normally evaluate to 0 or 1 are warned
           about.

       Useless use of "re" pragma
           (W) You did "use re;" without any arguments.   That isn’t very use-
           ful.

       Useless use of sort in scalar context
           (W void) You used sort in scalar context, as in :

               my $x = sort @y;

           This is not very useful, and perl currently optimizes this away.

       Useless use of %s with no values
           (W syntax) You used the push() or unshift() function with no argu-
           ments apart from the array, like "push(@x)" or "unshift(@foo)".
           That won’t usually have any effect on the array, so is completely
           useless. It’s possible in principle that push(@tied_array) could
           have some effect if the array is tied to a class which implements a
           PUSH method. If so, you can write it as "push(@tied_array,())" to
           avoid this warning.

       "use" not allowed in expression
           (F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time,
           and returns no useful value.  See perlmod.

       Use of bare << to mean <<"" is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted
           form if you wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the
           here-document.

       Use of chdir(’’) or chdir(undef) as chdir() deprecated
           (D deprecated) chdir() with no arguments is documented to change to
           $ENV{HOME} or $ENV{LOGDIR}.  chdir(undef) and chdir(’’) share this
           behavior, but that has been deprecated.  In future versions they
           will simply fail.

           Be careful to check that what you pass to chdir() is defined and
           not blank, else you might find yourself in your home directory.

       Use of /c modifier is meaningless in s///
           (W regexp) You used the /c modifier in a substitution.  The /c mod-
           ifier is not presently meaningful in substitutions.

       Use of /c modifier is meaningless without /g
           (W regexp) You used the /c modifier with a regex operand, but
           didn’t use the /g modifier.  Currently, /c is meaningful only when
           /g is used.  (This may change in the future.)

       Use of freed value in iteration
           (F) Perhaps you modified the iterated array within the loop?  This
           error is typically caused by code like the following:

               @a = (3,4);
               @a = () for (1,2,@a);

           You are not supposed to modify arrays while they are being iterated
           over.  For speed and efficiency reasons, Perl internally does not
           do full reference-counting of iterated items, hence deleting such
           an item in the middle of an iteration causes Perl to see a freed
           value.

       Use of *glob{FILEHANDLE} is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the shorter *glob{IO}
           form to access the filehandle slot within a typeglob.

       Use of /g modifier is meaningless in split
           (W regexp) You used the /g modifier on the pattern for a "split"
           operator.  Since "split" always tries to match the pattern repeat-
           edly, the "/g" has no effect.

       Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
           (D deprecated) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you
           clobber a subroutine’s argument list, so it’s better if you assign
           the results of a split() explicitly to an array (or list).

       Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
           (D deprecated) As an (ahem) accidental feature, "AUTOLOAD" subrou-
           tines are looked up as methods (using the @ISA hierarchy) even when
           the subroutines to be autoloaded were called as plain functions
           (e.g.  "Foo::bar()"), not as methods (e.g. "Foo->bar()" or
           "$obj->bar()").

           This bug will be rectified in future by using method lookup only
           for methods’ "AUTOLOAD"s.  However, there is a significant base of
           existing code that may be using the old behavior.  So, as an
           interim step, Perl currently issues an optional warning when non-
           methods use inherited "AUTOLOAD"s.

           The simple rule is:  Inheritance will not work when autoloading
           non-methods.  The simple fix for old code is:  In any module that
           used to depend on inheriting "AUTOLOAD" for non-methods from a base
           class named "BaseClass", execute "*AUTOLOAD = \&Base-
           Class::AUTOLOAD" during startup.

           In code that currently says "use AutoLoader; @ISA =
           qw(AutoLoader);" you should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change
           "use AutoLoader;" to "use AutoLoader ’AUTOLOAD’;".

       Use of %s in printf format not supported
           (F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible
           from only C.  This usually means there’s a better way to do it in
           Perl.

       Use of $* is deprecated
           (D deprecated) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern
           matching, both for you and for any luckless subroutine that you
           happen to call.  You should use the new "//m" and "//s" modifiers
           now to do that without the dangerous action-at-a-distance effects
           of $*.

       Use of $# is deprecated
           (D deprecated) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly
           defined awk feature.  Use an explicit printf() or sprintf()
           instead.

       Use of %s is deprecated
           (D deprecated) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for
           use, generally because there’s a better way to do it, and also
           because the old way has bad side effects.

       Use of -l on filehandle %s
           (W io) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened
           the file it already went past any symlink you are presumably trying
           to look for.  The operation returned "undef".  Use a filename
           instead.

       Use of "package" with no arguments is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You used the "package" keyword without specifying a
           package name. So no namespace is current at all. Using this can
           cause many otherwise reasonable constructs to fail in baffling
           ways. "use strict;" instead.

       Use of reference "%s" as array index
           (W misc) You tried to use a reference as an array index; this prob-
           ably isn’t what you mean, because references in numerical context
           tend to be huge numbers, and so usually indicates programmer error.

           If you really do mean it, explicitly numify your reference, like
           so: $array[0+$ref].  This warning is not given for overloaded
           objects, either, because you can overload the numification and
           stringification operators and then you assumedly know what you are
           doing.

       Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
           (D deprecated) The indicated bareword is a reserved word.  Future
           versions of perl may use it as a keyword, so you’re better off
           either explicitly quoting the word in a manner appropriate for its
           context of use, or using a different name altogether.  The warning
           can be suppressed for subroutine names by either adding a "&" pre-
           fix, or using a package qualifier, e.g. "&our()", or "Foo::our()".

       Use of tainted arguments in %s is deprecated
           (W taint, deprecated) You have supplied "system()" or "exec()" with
           multiple arguments and at least one of them is tainted.  This used
           to be allowed but will become a fatal error in a future version of
           perl.  Untaint your arguments.  See perlsec.

       Use of uninitialized value%s
           (W uninitialized) An undefined value was used as if it were already
           defined.  It was interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a
           mistake.  To suppress this warning assign a defined value to your
           variables.

           To help you figure out what was undefined, perl tells you what
           operation you used the undefined value in.  Note, however, that
           perl optimizes your program and the operation displayed in the
           warning may not necessarily appear literally in your program.  For
           example, "that $foo" is usually optimized into ""that " . $foo",
           and the warning will refer to the "concatenation (.)" operator,
           even though there is no "." in your program.

       Using a hash as a reference is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
           "%foo->{"bar"}" or "%$ref->{"hello"}".  Versions of perl <= 5.6.1
           used to allow this syntax, but shouldn’t have. It is now depre-
           cated, and will be removed in a future version.

       Using an array as a reference is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
           "@foo->[23]" or "@$ref->[99]".  Versions of perl <= 5.6.1 used to
           allow this syntax, but shouldn’t have. It is now deprecated, and
           will be removed in a future version.

       UTF-16 surrogate %s
           (W utf8) You tried to generate half of an UTF-16 surrogate by
           requesting a Unicode character between the code points 0xD800 and
           0xDFFF (inclusive).  That range is reserved exclusively for the use
           of UTF-16 encoding (by having two 16-bit UCS-2 characters); but
           Perl encodes its characters in UTF-8, so what you got is a very
           illegal character.  If you really know what you are doing you can
           turn off this warning by "no warnings ’utf8’;".

       Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
           (W misc) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*>
           (glob), "each()", or "readdir()" as a boolean value.  Each of these
           constructs can return a value of "0"; that would make the condi-
           tional expression false, which is probably not what you intended.
           When using these constructs in conditional expressions, test their
           values with the "defined" operator.

       Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
           (W misc) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read the value
           of an %ENV element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant
           string longer than 1024 characters.  The return value has been
           truncated to 1024 characters.

       Variable "%s" is not imported%s
           (F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
           that you apparently thought was imported from another module,
           because something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is
           exported by that module.  It usually means you put the wrong funny
           character on the front of your variable.

       Variable length lookbehind not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE
       in m/%s/
           (F) Lookbehind is allowed only for subexpressions whose length is
           fixed and known at compile time. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
           expression about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
           (W misc) A "my" or "our" variable has been redeclared in the cur-
           rent scope or statement, effectively eliminating all access to the
           previous instance.  This is almost always a typographical error.
           Note that the earlier variable will still exist until the end of
           the scope or until all closure referents to it are destroyed.

       Variable "%s" may be unavailable
           (W closure) An inner (nested) anonymous subroutine is inside a
           named subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the
           anonymous (innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable
           defined in the outermost subroutine.  For example:

              sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }

           If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
           indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the vari-
           able as you would expect.  But if the anonymous subroutine is
           called or referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active,
           it will see the value of the shared variable as it was before and
           during the *first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is prob-
           ably not what you want.

           In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle sub-
           routine anonymous, using the "sub {}" syntax.  Perl has specific
           support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a
           named subroutine in between interferes with this feature.

       Variable syntax
           (A) You’ve accidentally run your script through csh instead of
           Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
           yourself.

       Variable "%s" will not stay shared
           (W closure) An inner (nested) named subroutine is referencing a
           lexical variable defined in an outer subroutine.

           When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value
           of the outer subroutine’s variable as it was before and during the
           *first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
           call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer sub-
           routines will no longer share a common value for the variable.  In
           other words, the variable will no longer be shared.

           Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
           lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subrou-
           tines will never share the given variable.

           This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
           anonymous, using the "sub {}" syntax.  When inner anonymous subs
           that reference variables in outer subroutines are called or refer-
           enced, they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
           variables.

       Version number must be a constant number
           (P) The attempt to translate a "use Module n.n LIST" statement into
           its equivalent "BEGIN" block found an internal inconsistency with
           the version number.

       Warning: something’s wrong
           (W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of "warn """)
           or you called it with no args and $_ was empty.

       Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
           (S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication
           on the close().  This usually indicates your file system ran out of
           disk space.

       Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
           (S ambiguous) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that
           looks like a binary operator that could also have been interpreted
           as a term or unary operator.  For instance, if you know that the
           rand function has a default argument of 1.0, and you write

               rand + 5;

           you may THINK you wrote the same thing as

               rand() + 5;

           but in actual fact, you got

               rand(+5);

           So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.

       Wide character in %s
           (W utf8) Perl met a wide character (>255) when it wasn’t expecting
           one.  This warning is by default on for I/O (like print).  The eas-
           iest way to quiet this warning is simply to add the ":utf8" layer
           to the output, e.g. "binmode STDOUT, ’:utf8’".  Another way to turn
           off the warning is to add "no warnings ’utf8’;" but that is often
           closer to cheating.  In general, you are supposed to explicitly
           mark the filehandle with an encoding, see open and "binmode" in
           perlfunc.

       Within []-length ’%c’ not allowed
           (F) The count in the (un)pack template may be replaced by "[TEM-
           PLATE]" only if "TEMPLATE" always matches the same amount of packed
           bytes that can be determined from the template alone. This is not
           possible if it contains an of the codes @, /, U, u, w or a
           *-length. Redesign the template.

       write() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you’re writing to got itself closed some-
           time before now.  Check your control flow.

       %s "\x%s" does not map to Unicode
           When reading in different encodings Perl tries to map everything
           into Unicode characters.  The bytes you read in are not legal in
           this encoding, for example

               utf8 "\xE4" does not map to Unicode

           if you try to read in the a-diaereses Latin-1 as UTF-8.

       ’X’ outside of string
           (F) You had a (un)pack template that specified a relative position
           before the beginning of the string being (un)packed.  See "pack" in
           perlfunc.

       ’x’ outside of string in unpack
           (F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position
           after the end of the string being unpacked.  See "pack" in perl-
           func.

       Xsub "%s" called in sort
           (F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not
           yet supported.

       Xsub called in sort
           (F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not
           yet supported.

       YOU HAVEN’T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
           (F) And you probably never will, because you probably don’t have
           the sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn’t give a
           rip about what you want.  Your best bet is to put a setuid C wrap-
           per around your script.

       You need to quote "%s"
           (W syntax) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name.
           Unfortunately, you already have a subroutine of that name declared,
           which means that Perl 5 will try to call the subroutine when the
           assignment is executed, which is probably not what you want.  (If
           it IS what you want, put an & in front.)

       Your random numbers are not that random
           (F) When trying to initialise the random seed for hashes, Perl
           could not get any randomness out of your system.  This usually
           indicates Something Very Wrong.



perl v5.8.6                       2004-11-05                       PERLDIAG(1)

Man(1) output converted with man2html