nsupdate



NSUPDATE(8)                                                        NSUPDATE(8)




NAME

       nsupdate - Dynamic DNS update utility


SYNOPSIS

       nsupdate  [  -d  ]   [   [ -y keyname:secret ]  [ -k keyfile ]  ]  [ -t
       timeout ]  [ -u udptimeout ]  [ -r udpretries ]  [ -v ]  [ filename ]


DESCRIPTION

       nsupdate is used to submit Dynamic DNS Update requests  as  defined  in
       RFC2136  to a name server.  This allows resource records to be added or
       removed from a zone without manually editing the zone file.   A  single
       update  request  can  contain  requests  to add or remove more than one
       resource record.

       Zones that are under dynamic control via  nsupdate  or  a  DHCP  server
       should not be edited by hand.  Manual edits could conflict with dynamic
       updates and cause data to be lost.

       The resource records that are dynamically added or removed  with  nsup-
       date have to be in the same zone.  Requests are sent to the zone’s mas-
       ter server.  This is identified by the MNAME field of  the  zone’s  SOA
       record.

       The  -d  option  makes  nsupdate  operate in debug mode.  This provides
       tracing information about the update requests that  are  made  and  the
       replies received from the name server.

       Transaction  signatures  can  be  used  to authenticate the Dynamic DNS
       updates.  These use the TSIG resource record type described in  RFC2845
       or  the SIG(0) record described in RFC3535 and RFC2931.  TSIG relies on
       a shared secret that should only be known  to  nsupdate  and  the  name
       server.  Currently, the only supported encryption algorithm for TSIG is
       HMAC-MD5, which is defined in RFC  2104.   Once  other  algorithms  are
       defined  for  TSIG,  applications  will  need to ensure they select the
       appropriate algorithm as well  as  the  key  when  authenticating  each
       other.   For instance suitable key and server statements would be added
       to /etc/named.conf so that the name server can associate the  appropri-
       ate secret key and algorithm with the IP address of the client applica-
       tion that will be using TSIG authentication.  SIG(0)  uses  public  key
       cryptography.  To  use a SIG(0) key, the public key must be stored in a
       KEY record in a zone served by the name server.  nsupdate does not read
       /etc/named.conf.

       nsupdate uses the -y or -k option (with an HMAC-MD5 key) to provide the
       shared secret needed to  generate  a  TSIG  record  for  authenticating
       Dynamic  DNS  update  requests.   These options are mutually exclusive.
       With the -k option, nsupdate reads the shared secret from the file key-
       file,  whose  name  is of the form K{name}.+157.+{random}.private.  For
       historical reasons, the file K{name}.+157.+{random}.key  must  also  be
       present. When the -y option is used, a signature is generated from key-
       name:secret.  keyname is the name of the key, and secret is the  base64
       encoded shared secret.  Use of the -y option is discouraged because the
       shared secret is supplied as a command line  argument  in  clear  text.
       This may be visible in the output from ps(1) or in a history file main-
       tained by the user’s shell.

       The -k may also be used to specify a SIG(0) key  used  to  authenticate
       Dynamic  DNS update requests. In this case, the key specified is not an
       HMAC-MD5 key.

       By default nsupdate uses UDP to send update requests to the name server
       unless  they  are  too  large to fit in a UDP request in which case TCP
       will be used.  The -v option makes nsupdate use a TCP connection.  This
       may be preferable when a batch of update requests is made.

       The -t option sets the maximum time a update request can take before it
       is aborted. The default is 300 seconds. Zero can be used to disable the
       timeout.

       The -u option sets the UDP retry interval. The default is 3 seconds. If
       zero the interval will be computed from the timeout interval and number
       of UDP retries.

       The -r option sets the number of UDP retries. The default is 3. If zero
       only one update request will be made.


INPUT FORMAT

       nsupdate reads input from filename or standard input.  Each command  is
       supplied  on exactly one line of input.  Some commands are for adminis-
       trative purposes.  The others are either update instructions or prereq-
       uisite checks on the contents of the zone.  These checks set conditions
       that some name or set of resource records (RRset) either exists  or  is
       absent  from  the  zone.   These  conditions  must be met if the entire
       update request is to succeed.  Updates will be rejected  if  the  tests
       for the prerequisite conditions fail.

       Every update request consists of zero or more prerequisites and zero or
       more updates.  This allows a suitably authenticated update  request  to
       proceed  if some specified resource records are present or missing from
       the zone.  A blank input line (or the send command) causes the  accumu-
       lated commands to be sent as one Dynamic DNS update request to the name
       server.

       The command formats and their meaning are as follows:

       server servername [ port ]
              Sends all dynamic update requests to the name server servername.
              When no server statement is provided, nsupdate will send updates
              to the master server of the correct zone.  The  MNAME  field  of
              that  zone’s SOA record will identify the master server for that
              zone.  port is the port number on servername where  the  dynamic
              update  requests  get sent.  If no port number is specified, the
              default DNS port number of 53 is used.

       local address [ port ]
              Sends all dynamic update requests using the local address.  When
              no local statement is provided, nsupdate will send updates using
              an address and port chosen by the system.  port can additionally
              be  used to make requests come from a specific port.  If no port
              number is specified, the system will assign one.

       zone zonename
              Specifies that all updates are to be made to the zone  zonename.
              If  no  zone statement is provided, nsupdate will attempt deter-
              mine the correct zone to update based on the rest of the  input.

       class classname
              Specify the default class.  If no class is specified the default
              class is IN.

       key name secret
              Specifies that all updates are to be TSIG signed using the  key-
              name  keysecret  pair.  The key command overrides any key speci-
              fied on the command line via -y or -k.

       prereq nxdomain domain-name
              Requires that no resource record of any type  exists  with  name
              domain-name.

       prereq yxdomain domain-name
              Requires  that  domain-name exists (has as at least one resource
              record, of any type).

       prereq nxrrset domain-name [ class ]  type
              Requires that no resource record exists of the  specified  type,
              class  and  domain-name.   If class is omitted, IN (internet) is
              assumed.

       prereq yxrrset domain-name [ class ]  type
              This requires that a resource  record  of  the  specified  type,
              class  and  domain-name  must  exist.   If  class is omitted, IN
              (internet) is assumed.

       prereq yxrrset domain-name [ class ]  type data...
              The data from each set of prerequisites of this form  sharing  a
              common  type,  class, and domain-name are combined to form a set
              of RRs. This set of RRs must exactly match the set of RRs exist-
              ing  in the zone at the given type, class, and domain-name.  The
              data are written in the  standard  text  representation  of  the
              resource record’s RDATA.

       update delete domain-name [ ttl ]  [ class ]  [ type  [ data... ]  ]
              Deletes  any  resource  records  named domain-name.  If type and
              data  is  provided,  only  matching  resource  records  will  be
              removed.   The  internet  class  is assumed if class is not sup-
              plied. The ttl is ignored, and is only allowed  for  compatibil-
              ity.

       update add domain-name ttl [ class ]  type data...
              Adds  a  new  resource  record with the specified ttl, class and
              data.

       show   Displays the current message, containing all  of  the  prerequi-
              sites and updates specified since the last send.

       send   Sends  the  current  message.  This  is equivalent to entering a
              blank line.

       answer Displays the answer.

       Lines beginning with a semicolon are comments and are ignored.


EXAMPLES

       The examples below show how nsupdate could be used to insert and delete
       resource  records  from the example.com zone.  Notice that the input in
       each example contains a trailing blank line so that a group of commands
       are  sent  as  one dynamic update request to the master name server for
       example.com.

       # nsupdate
       > update delete oldhost.example.com A
       > update add newhost.example.com 86400 A 172.16.1.1
       > send


       Any A records for oldhost.example.com are deleted.  and an A record for
       newhost.example.com it IP address 172.16.1.1 is added.  The newly-added
       record has a 1 day TTL (86400 seconds)

       # nsupdate
       > prereq nxdomain nickname.example.com
       > update add nickname.example.com 86400 CNAME somehost.example.com
       > send


       The prerequisite condition gets the name server to check that there are
       no  resource  records  of  any type for nickname.example.com.  If there
       are, the update request fails.  If this name does not  exist,  a  CNAME
       for  it is added.  This ensures that when the CNAME is added, it cannot
       conflict with the long-standing rule in RFC1034 that a  name  must  not
       exist  as any other record type if it exists as a CNAME.  (The rule has
       been updated for DNSSEC in RFC2535  to  allow  CNAMEs  to  have  RRSIG,
       DNSKEY and NSEC records.)


FILES

       /etc/resolv.conf
              used to identify default name server

       K{name}.+157.+{random}.key
              base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by dnssec-keygen(8).

       K{name}.+157.+{random}.private
              base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by dnssec-keygen(8).


SEE ALSO

       RFC2136,   RFC3007,   RFC2104,   RFC2845,  RFC1034,  RFC2535,  RFC2931,
       named(8), dnssec-keygen(8).


BUGS

       The TSIG key is redundantly stored in two separate files.   This  is  a
       consequence  of  nsupdate  using  the DST library for its cryptographic
       operations, and may change in future releases.



BIND9                            Jun 30, 2000                      NSUPDATE(8)

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