gcalctool



gcalctool(1)                                                      gcalctool(1)




NAME

       gcalctool - a desktop calculator


SYNOPSIS

       gcalctool [ -D ] [ -E ] [ -a accuracy ] [ -v ] [ -?  ]


DESCRIPTION

       gcalctool is a desktop calculator. It has been designed to be used with
       either the mouse or the keyboard. It is visually similar to  a  lot  of
       hand-held calculators. There are basic, financial and scientific modes.
       Some of the calculator keys have menu marks. This indicates that  there
       is  a  menu  associated  with  that  key. Each key is discussed in more
       detail below.

       One of the most important things to remember about  gcalctool  is  that
       calculations  are  performed  from  left  to  right, with no arithmetic
       precedence. If you need arithmetic  precedence,  then  you  should  use
       parentheses (see below).

       Internal  arithmetic  is  now  done with multi-precision floating point
       numbers.  Accuracy can be adjusted from zero to nine numeric places  in
       fixed  notation, but numbers can be displayed in engineering and scien-
       tific notation as well.  There is also an  option  to  show  or  remove
       trailing  zeroes  after  the  numeric point.  The calculator reverts to
       scientific notation when the number is larger than  the  display  would
       allow  in fixed notation. In the scientific mode, the base of operation
       can be changed between binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal.  Numbers
       are  initially displayed in fixed notation to nine numeric places, with
       trailing zeroes removed, in the decimal base.

       You can use the Copy  and  Paste  functions  in  conjunction  with  the
       numeric display to store or retrieve characters from the clipboard. You
       can also remove the last digit entered, completely clear the  displayed
       entry and totally reset the calculator.

       There  are  ten memory registers. Numbers can be stored or retrieved in
       these locations, and arithmetic can be  performed  upon  register  con-
       tents.

       On  startup,  gcalctool will use several configuration resources stored
       in a gconf database. These are listed in detail in the  resources  sec-
       tion  of these manual pages. Any constants or function definitions that
       the user defines are also stored in this database.

       Context sensitive help is also available.  Control-F1  toggles  whether
       tooltip help is displayed for the item which currently has focus.


OPTIONS

       -D     Turning on gcalctool debugging.

       -E     Turning  on debugging in the multiple precision arithmetic pack-
              age.

       -a accuracy
              Initial number of digits displayed after the numeric point. This
              value  must  be in the range 0 to 9. The default is nine numeric
              places.

       -v     Show the version number and the usage message of this release of
              the gcalctool program.

       -?     Show the version number and the usage message of this release of
              the gcalctool program.  Note  that  the  ?   character  must  be
              escaped if using csh(1).


RESOURCES

       On  startup,  gcalctool uses the following string type resources stored
       in a gconf database:

       Resource:      /schemes/apps/gcalctool/accuracy
       Values:        Accuracy value
       Description    The number of of  digits  displayed  after  the  numeric
                      point. This value must be in the range 0 to 9.

       Resource:      /schemes/apps/gcalctool/base
       Values:        Numeric Base
       Description    The   initial  numeric  base.  Valid  values  are  "BIN"
                      (binary), "OCT" (octal), "DEC" (decimal) and "HEX" (hex-
                      adecimal).

       Resource:      /schemes/apps/gcalctool/display
       Values:        Display mode
       Description    The  initial display mode. Valid values are "ENG" (engi-
                      neering), "FIX" (fixed-point) and "SCI" (scientific).

       Resource:      /schemes/apps/gcalctool/mode
       Values:        Mode
       Description    The initial calculator mode. Valid values  are  "BASIC",
                      "FINANCIAL" and "SCIENTIFIC".

       Resource:      /schemes/apps/gcalctool/showzeroes
       Values:        true, false (true)
       Description    Whether  trailing  zeroes,  after the numeric point, are
                      shown in the display value.

       Resource:      /schemes/apps/gcalctool/showthousands
       Values:        true, false (false)
       Description    Whether fixed numbers in the decimal base are  displayed
                      with thousands separated.

       Resource:      /schemes/apps/gcalctool/showregisters
       Values:        true, false (true)
       Description    Whether  the  memory  register  window is initially dis-
                      played.

       Resource:      /schemes/apps/gcalctool/trigtype
       Values:        Trig. type
       Description    The initial trigonometric type. Valid values  are  "DEG"
                      (degrees), "GRAD" (grads) and "RAD" (radians).


MENU BAR

       This  section  describes  the  menu items available in the applications
       menubar.

   Calculator Menu
       Quit [ Control-Q ]
                         Exit without user verification.
   Edit Menu
       Copy [ Control-C ]
                         Copy the calculators numeric  display  to  the  clip-
                         board.
       Paste     [ Control-V ]
                         Paste the contents of the clipboard into the calcula-
                         tors numeric display.
       Insert ASCII Value  [ Control-I ]
                         A separate window is displayed which  allows  you  to
                         enter any character.  The ASCII value of this charac-
                         ter is then displayed in the current base.
   View Menu
       Basic Mode    [ Control-B ]
                         Display the calculator in basic mode.
       Financial Mode    [ Control-F ]
                         Display the calculator in financial mode.
       Scientific Mode    [ Control-S ]
                         Display the calculator in scientific mode.
       Memory Registers    [ Control-M ]
                         Display the memory registers window.
   Help Menu
       Contents...    [ F1 ]
                         Display the online help for the calculator in a sepa-
                         rate window.
       About Gcalctool    [ Control-A ]
                         Display information about this application, including
                         the version number and the author.

CALCULATOR BUTTONS

       This  section  describes  the  calculator  keys  present  in  the  main
       gcalctool window.  gcalctool has three modes; basic, financial and sci-
       entific. The keys associated with each of these modes are described  in
       separate sections below.

       Keyboard  equivalents appear in the square brackets. Note that Alt fol-
       lowed by a letter indicates that the Alt key and  this  key  should  be
       pressed together.


BASIC MODE

   Numerical Keys [ 0-9 . = <Return> ].
       Enter  a digit (decimal digits 0-9) into the display. The ’.’ character
       acts as the numeric point, and ’=’ (or  Return)  is  used  to  complete
       numerical entry.

       Upto forty digits may be entered.

   Arithmetical Operations [ + - x * / ].
       Perform an arithmetical operation using the previous entry and the next
       entry as operands. Addition, subtraction, multiplication  and  division
       are  denoted  by the characters ’+’, ’-’, ’*’ and ’/’ respectively (’x’
       is also synonymous with multiplication).

   Number Manipulation Operators.
       Int  [ i ]        Return the integer portion of the current entry.
       Frac [ : ]        Return the fractional portion of the current entry.
       Abs  [ u ]        Return the absolute value of the current entry.
       +/-  [ c ]        Change the arithmetic sign of the current entry.
       1/x  [ r ]        Return the value of 1 divided by the current entry.
       x^2  [ @ ]        Return the square of the current entry.
       %    [ % ]        Perform a percentage calculation using the last entry
                         and the next entry.
       Sqrt [ s ]        Perform a square root operation on the current entry.

   Menu Operations.
       Each of these operations has a popup menu associated with  it.   It  is
       also  possible  to  use  just the keyboard to achieve the same results.
       The first keyboard value selects the menu operation;  the  second  key-
       board  character  selects  the new value for this operation. Unlike the
       menu facility available with the mouse, there is no visual feedback  on
       what  choices  are  available to you, so the user has to know what item
       they wish to select.
       Acc  [ a ]        Set the display accuracy. Between 0 and  9  [  0-9  ]
                         significant digits can be displayed.
       Rcl  [ R ]        Retrieve  memory register value. There are ten memory
                         registers [ 0-9 ].
       Sto  [ S ]        Store value in memory register. There are ten  memory
                         registers  [ 0-9 ].   The register number may be pre-
                         ceded by an arithmetic operation (addition,  subtrac-
                         tion,  multiplication or division), in which case the
                         specified operation is carried out between  the  dis-
                         played  entry and the value currently in the selected
                         memory register, and the result is placed in the mem-
                         ory register.
       Exch [ X ]        Exchange  the  current display with the contents of a
                         memory register. There are ten memory registers [ 0-9
                         ].
   Other Operations.
       Clr  [ Delete ]   Clear the display, and reset the calculator.
       CE   [ Control-Back Space or Escape ]
                         Clear the display.
       Bksp [ Back Space ]
                         Remove  the rightmost character of the current entry,
                         and recalculate the displayed value.


FINANCIAL MODE

       An example of how to use  each  of  these  financial  calculations,  is
       available via the tooltip help facility.
       Ctrm [ m ]        Compounding  term. Computes the number of compounding
                         periods it will take an investment of  present  value
                         pv  to  grow to a future value of fv, earning a fixed
                         interest rate int per compounding period.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     int  (periodic interest rate).
                         Register 1     fv   (future value).
                         Register 2     pv   (present value).

       Ddb  [ d ]        Double-declining depreciation. Computes the deprecia-
                         tion  allowance on an asset for a specified period of
                         time, using the double-declining balance method.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     cost (amount paid for asset).
                         Register 1     salvage   (value of asset  at  end  of
                         life).
                         Register 2     life (useful life of the asset).
                         Register  3     period    (time  period for deprecia-
                         tion allowance).

       Fv   [ v ]        Future value. This calculation determines the  future
                         value of an investment.  It computes the future value
                         based on a series of equal payments, each  of  amount
                         pmt,  earning  periodic  interest  rate int, over the
                         number of payment periods in term.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     pmt  (periodic payment).
                         Register 1     int  (periodic interest rate).
                         Register 2     n    (number of periods).

       Pmt  [ P ]        Periodic payment. Computes the amount of the periodic
                         payment  of  a loan.  Most installment loans are com-
                         puted like ordinary annuities, in that  payments  are
                         made at the end of each payment period.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     prin (principal).
                         Register 1     int  (periodic interest rate).
                         Register 2     n    (term).

       Pv   [ p ]        Present  value.  Determines  the  present value of an
                         investment. It computes the present value based on  a
                         series  of  equal  payments, each of amount pmt, dis-
                         counted at periodic interest rate int, over the  num-
                         ber of periods in term.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     pmt  (periodic payment).
                         Register 1     int  (periodic interest rate).
                         Register 2     n    (term).

       Rate [ T ]        Periodic interest rate. Returns the periodic interest
                         necessary for a present value of  pv  to  grow  to  a
                         future  value  of  fv  over the number of compounding
                         periods in term.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     fv   (future value).
                         Register 1     pv   (present value).
                         Register 2     n    (term).

       Sln  [ l ]        Straight-line depreciation.  Computes  the  straight-
                         line  depreciation  of  an  asset for one period. The
                         straight-line  method  of  depreciation  divides  the
                         depreciable  cost  (cost  -  salvage) evenly over the
                         useful life of an asset.  The useful life is the num-
                         ber  of periods (typically years) over which an asset
                         is depreciated.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     cost (cost of the asset).
                         Register  1     salvage   (salvage   value   of   the
                         asset).
                         Register 2     life (useful life of the asset).

       Syd  [ Y ]        Sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation. The sum-of-the-
                         years’-digits method of depreciation accelerates  the
                         rate  of  depreciation,  so  that  more  depreciation
                         expense occurs in earlier periods than in later ones.
                         The depreciable cost is the actual cost minus salvage
                         value. The useful life is the number of periods (typ-
                         ically years) over which an asset is depreciated.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     cost (cost of the asset).
                         Register   1     salvage   (salvage   value   of  the
                         asset).
                         Register 2     life (useful life of the asset).
                         Register    3     period    (period     for     which
                         depreciation is computed).

       Term [ t ]        Payment period. Returns the number of payment periods
                         in the term of an ordinary annuity necessary to accu-
                         mulate  a  future  value  of  fv,  earning a periodic
                         interest rate of int. Each payment is equal to amount
                         pmt.
                         Memory register usage:
                         Register 0     pmt  (periodic payment).
                         Register 1     fv   (future value).
                         Register 2     int  (periodic interest rate).


SCIENTIFIC MODE

       This  section  describes the functionality available in the calculators
       scientific mode. This also includes a special mode panel used for  set-
       ting various options.

   Mode Panel.
       Numeric Base      Set  the  numeric  base  of  operation.  Choices  are
                         binary, octal, decimal (the default) and hexadecimal.

       Display Type      Set  the  display mode. Valid values are "Eng" (engi-
                         neering), "Fix" (fixed-point) and "Sci" (scientific).

       Trigonometric Type
                         Set the trigonometric type. Valid values are Degrees,
                         Gradians and Radians.

       Hyp               Toggle the hyperbolic function indicator. This switch
                         affects the type of sine, cosine and tangent trigono-
                         metric functions performed.

       Inv               Toggle the inverse function  indicator.  This  switch
                         affects the type of sine, cosine and tangent trigono-
                         metric functions performed.

   Menu Operations.
       Con  [ # ]        Retrieve and display a constant value. There are  ten
                         constant  values  [ 0-9 ], and each one has a default
                         value which can be overridden when the  user  creates
                         their  own constant definitions. The ten default val-
                         ues are:

                         0    0.621          kilometers per hour or miles  per
                         hour
                         1    1.414213562    square root of 2
                         2    2.718281828    e
                         3    3.141592653    pi
                         4    0.3937007 centimeters or inches
                         5    57.295779513   degrees in a radian
                         6    1048576.0 2 to the power of 20
                         7    0.0353         grams or ounces
                         8    0.948          kilojoules or British thermals
                         9    0.0610         cubic centimeters or cubic inches
       Fun  [ f ]        Retrieve and execute a function expression. There can
                         be  upto ten functions expression defined by the user
                         [0 - 9]. There are no default function values.

   Scientific buttons.
       <    [ < ]        Shift the current entry to the left. The shift can be
                         between 1 and 15 places [ 1-9, A-F ]. This calculator
                         key has a popup menu associated with it.
       >    [ > ]        Shift the current entry to the right. The  shift  can
                         be  between 1 and 15 places [ 1-9, A-F ]. This calcu-
                         lator key has a popup menu associated with it.
       &16  [ ] ]        Truncate the current entry to a 16 bit unsigned inte-
                         ger.
       &32  [ [ ]        Truncate the current entry to a 32 bit unsigned inte-
                         ger.
       ( and ) [ ( and ) ]
                         Parentheses. Allow precedence with arithmetic  calcu-
                         lations.  Note  that parentheses can be nested to any
                         level, and gcalctool provides a  visual  feedback  of
                         what  is  being  typed in, in the calculator display.
                         The calculation doesn’t take  place  until  the  last
                         parenthesis  is  matched, then the display is updated
                         with the new result.
       Exp  [ e ]        This is used to allow numbers to be entered in scien-
                         tific  notation.  The  mantissa  should  be initially
                         entered, then the Exp key selected. The  exponent  is
                         then entered. If no numerical input had occurred when
                         the Exp key was selected, then a mantissa of  1.0  is
                         assumed.
       e^x  [ { ]        Returns e raised to the power of the current entry.
       10^x [ } ]        Returns  10 raised to the power of the current entry.
       y^x  [ y ]        Take the last entry and raise it to the power of  the
                         next entry.
       x!   [ ! ]        Return  the factorial of the current entry. Note that
                         the factorial function is  only  valid  for  positive
                         integers.
       Rand [ ? ]        Return a random number between 0.0 and 1.0.
       Hexadecimal Keys [ A-F ]
                         The  hexadecimal  numerical digits A-F. These buttons
                         will be insensitive unless  the  calculator  is  cur-
                         rently in the hexadecimal mode.
       Cos  [ J ]        Return  the  trigonometric cosine, arc cosine, hyper-
                         bolic cosine or inverse hyperbolic cosine of the cur-
                         rent  display, depending upon the current settings of
                         the hyperbolic and  inverse  function  switches.  The
                         result  is  displayed  in  the  current trigonometric
                         units (degrees, radians or grads).
       Sin  [ K ]        Return the trigonometric sine, arc  sine,  hyperbolic
                         sine  or  inverse hyperbolic sine of the current dis-
                         play, depending upon  the  current  settings  of  the
                         hyperbolic  and inverse function switches. The result
                         is  displayed  in  the  current  trigonometric  units
                         (degrees, radians or grads).
       Tan  [ L ]        Return the trigonometric tangent, arc tangent, hyper-
                         bolic tangent or inverse hyperbolic  tangent  of  the
                         current  display, depending upon the current settings
                         of the hyperbolic and inverse function switches.  The
                         result  is  displayed  in  the  current trigonometric
                         units (degrees, radians or grads).
       Ln   [ N ]        Return the natural logarithm of the current entry.
       Log  [ G ]        Return the base 10 logarithm of the current entry.
       Or   [ | ]        Perform a logical OR operation on the  current  entry
                         and the next entry,
       And  [ & ]        Perform  a logical AND operation on the current entry
                         and the next entry, treating both numbers as unsigned
                         long integers.
       Not  [ ~ ]        Perform a logical NOT operation on the current entry.
       Xor  [ ^ ]        Perform a logical XOR operation on the current  entry
                         and the next entry, treating both numbers as unsigned
                         long integers.
       Xnor [ n ]        Perform a logical XNOR operation on the current entry
                         and the next entry, treating both numbers as unsigned
                         long integers.


FILES

       ~/.gcalctoolrc    user’s personal gcalctool resources  for  customizing
                         the appearance and color of gcalctool




                                7 February 2005                   gcalctool(1)

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