find



FIND(1)                                                                FIND(1)




NAME

       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy


SYNOPSIS

       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]


DESCRIPTION

       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from left to right, according to the rules of prece-
       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome  is  known  (the  left
       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or), at which point
       find moves on to the next file name.

       If you are using find in an environment  where  security  is  important
       (for example if you are using it to seach directories that are writable
       by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"  chapter
       of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files and comes
       with findutils.   That document also includes a  lot  more  detail  and
       discussion  than  this  manual  page,  so you may find it a more useful
       source of information.


OPTIONS

       The ‘-H’, ‘-L’ and ‘-P’  options  control  the  treatment  of  symbolic
       links.  Command-line arguments following these are taken to be names of
       files or directories to be examined, up  to  the  first  argument  that
       begins  with ‘-’, ‘(’, ‘)’, ‘,’, or ‘!’.  That argument and any follow-
       ing arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is  to  be
       searched  for.   If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
       If no expression is given, the expression ‘-print’  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider using ‘-print0’ instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about  ‘options’ within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi-
       ately  after  the  last path name.  The three ‘real’ options ‘-H’, ‘-L’
       and ‘-P’ must appear before the first path name, if at all.

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
              When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
              a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
              properties of the symbolic link itself.


       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
              about files, the information used shall be taken from the  prop-
              erties  of  the file to which the link points, not from the link
              itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
              examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
              implies -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option,  -noleaf  will
              still  be  in  effect.   If -L is in effect and find discovers a
              symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec-
              tory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
              match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link  points
              to rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro-
              ken).  Using -L causes the -lname and -ilname predicates  always
              to return false.


       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com-
              mand line arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
              about  files, the information used shall be taken from the prop-
              erties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
              behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a sym-
              bolic link, and the link can be resolved.  For  that  situation,
              the  information  used is taken from whatever the link points to
              (that is, the link is followed).  The information about the link
              itself  is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the sym-
              bolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
              the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
              directory, the contents  of  that  directory  will  be  examined
              (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth-
       ers; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the  default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command  line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.  If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example  because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The  same  con-
       sideration applies to -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).




EXPRESSIONS

       The expression is made up of options (which  affect  overall  operation
       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
       tests (which return a true or false value),  and  actions  (which  have
       side effects and return a true or false value), all separated by opera-
       tors.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.  If  the  expres-
       sion  contains no actions other than -prune, -print is performed on all
       files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.  Except for -follow and -daystart, they
       always  take  effect, rather than being processed only when their place
       in the expression is reached.  Therefore, for clarity, it  is  best  to
       place  them at the beginning of the expression.  A warning is issued if
       you don’t do this.

       -daystart
              Measure times (for -amin,  -atime,  -cmin,  -ctime,  -mmin,  and
              -mtime)  from  the  beginning of today rather than from 24 hours
              ago.  This option only affects tests which appear later  on  the
              command line.

       -depth Process each directory’s contents before the directory itself.

       -d     A  synonym  for  -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD,
              MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -follow
              Deprecated; use the -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic
              links.   Implies  -noleaf.   Unless the -H or -L option has been
              specified, the  position  of  the  -follow  option  changes  the
              behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files listed as the argu-
              ment of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic  links.
              The  same  consideration  applies to -anewer and -cnewer.  Simi-
              larly, the -type predicate will always match against the type of
              the  file  that  a  symbolic link points to rather than the link
              itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname and -ilname  predicates
              always to return false.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally,  find will emit an error message when it fails to stat
              a file.  If you give this option and a file is  deleted  between
              the  time find reads the name of the file from the directory and
              the time it tries to stat the file, no  error  message  will  be
              issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names
              are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at  the
              time  the  command  line  is  read,  which means that you cannot
              search one part of the filesystem with this option on  and  part
              of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do that, you will
              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
              one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of direc-
              tories below the command line arguments.   ‘-maxdepth  0’  means
              only  apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels  (a
              non-negative  integer).   ‘-mindepth  1’ means process all files
              except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don’t descend directories on other  filesystems.   An  alternate
              name  for  -xdev,  for compatibility with some other versions of
              find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that  directories  contain  2  fewer
              subdirectories  than  their  hard  link  count.   This option is
              needed when searching filesystems that do not  follow  the  Unix
              directory-link  convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
              or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory  on  a  normal  Unix
              filesystem  has  at  least  2  hard  links: its name and its ‘.’
              entry.  Additionally, its subdirectories (if any)  each  have  a
              ‘..’   entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a
              directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than  the
              directory’s link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
              the directory are non-directories (‘leaf’ files in the directory
              tree).   If  only the files’ names need to be examined, there is
              no need to stat them;  this  gives  a  significant  increase  in
              search speed.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn  warning  messages on or off.  These warnings apply only to
              the command line usage, not to any conditions  that  find  might
              encounter  when  it searches directories.  The default behaviour
              corresponds to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to  -nowarn
              otherwise.

       -xdev  Don’t descend directories on other filesystems.


   TESTS
       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
              file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
              effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When  find  figures  out
              how  many  24-hour  preiods  ago the file was last accessed, any
              fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
              have been modified at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File’s status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File’s status was last changed more recently than file was modi-
              fied.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H option  or  the  -L
              option  is  in  effect,  the  status-change  time of the file it
              points to is always used.


       -ctime n
              File’s status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of  type  type.   The  valid  filesystem
              types  vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
              of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
              another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can
              use -printf with the %F directive  to  see  the  types  of  your
              filesystems.

       -gid n File’s numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like  -lname,  but  the  match  is  case insensitive.  If the -L
              option or the -follow option is in  effect,  this  test  returns
              false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
              patterns ‘fo*’ and ‘F??’ match  the  file  names  ‘Foo’,  ‘FOO’,
              ‘foo’,  ‘fOo’,  etc.   In these patterns, unlike filename expan-
              sion by the shell, an initial ’.’ can be matched by  ’*’.   That
              is, find -name *bar will match the file ‘.foobar’.


       -inum n
              File  has  inode  number  n.   It  is normally easier to use the
              -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Behaves in the same way as -iwholename.  This option  is  depre-
              cated, so please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
              File has n links.

       -lname pattern
              File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat-
              tern.  The metacharacters do not treat ‘/’ or ‘.’ specially.  If
              the  -L  option  or  the  -follow option is in effect, this test
              returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File’s data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File’s data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the  comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base of  file  name  (the  path  with  the  leading  directories
              removed)  matches  shell  pattern  pattern.   The metacharacters
              (‘*’, ‘?’, and ‘[]’) match a ‘.’ at the start of the  base  name
              (this is a change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CON-
              FORMANCE below).  To ignore a directory and the files under  it,
              use  -prune;  see  an  example in the description of -wholename.
              Braces are not recognised as being  special,  despite  the  fact
              that  some  shells  including  Bash  imbue braces with a special
              meaning in shell patterns.  The filename matching  is  performed
              with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.

       -newer file
              File  was  modified  more recently than file.  If file is a sym-
              bolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect,  the
              modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file’s numeric user ID.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file’s numeric group ID.

       -path pattern
              See -wholename.   The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX
              find.

       -perm mode
              File’s permission bits are exactly  mode  (octal  or  symbolic).
              Since  an  exact match is required, if you want to use this form
              for symbolic modes, you may have to  specify  a  rather  complex
              mode  string.   For  example  ’-perm  g=w’ will only match files
              which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group  write  per-
              mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you
              will want to use the ’+’ or ’-’ forms, for example ’-perm -g=w’,
              which  matches  any  file  with group write permission.  See the
              EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
              modes  are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way in
              which would want to use them.  You must specify ’u’, ’g’ or  ’o’
              if  you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some
              illustrative examples.

       -perm +mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
              modes  are  accepted in this form.  You must specify ’u’, ’g’ or
              ’o’ if you use a symbolic mode.  See the  EXAMPLES  section  for
              some illustrative examples.

       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
              on the whole path, not a search.  For example, to match  a  file
              named ‘./fubar3’, you can use the regular expression ‘.*bar.’ or
              ‘.*b.*3’, but not ‘f.*r3’.  The regular  expressions  understood
              by  find  follow the conventions for the re_match system library
              function where this is present (i.e. on systems using the GNU  C
              Library).  On other systems, the implementation within Gnulib is
              used; by default, Gnulib provides ‘‘basic’’ regular expressions.

       -samefile name
              File  refers  to the same inode as name.   When -L is in effect,
              this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

              ‘b’    for  512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is
                     used)

              ‘c’    for bytes

              ‘w’    for two-byte words

              ‘k’    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

              ‘M’    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

              ‘G’    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

              The size does not count  indirect  blocks,  but  it  does  count
              blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
              mind that the ‘%k’ and ‘%b’ format specifiers of -printf  handle
              sparse   files  differently.   The  ‘b’  suffix  always  denotes
              512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is  different
              to the behaviour of -ls.


       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link (never true if the -L option or the -follow
                     option is in effect, unless the symbolic link is broken).

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File’s numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
              File name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters  do
              not treat ‘/’ or ‘.’ specially; so, for example,
                        find . -wholename ’./sr*sc’
              will  print an entry for a directory called ’./src/misc’ (if one
              exists).  To ignore a whole directory tree,  use  -prune  rather
              than  checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip the
              directory ‘src/emacs’ and all files and  directories  under  it,
              and  print the names of the other files found, do something like
              this:
                        find . -wholename ’./src/emacs’ -prune -o -print

       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For  sym-
              bolic  links:  if the -H or -P option was specified, true if the
              file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
              given,  true  if  c is ‘l’.  In other words, for symbolic links,
              -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context scontext

       --context scontext
              (SELinux only) File has the security context scontext.


   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,
              an error message is issued.


       -exec command ;
              Execute  command;  true  if 0 status is returned.  All following
              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
              an  argument  consisting of ‘;’ is encountered.  The string ‘{}’
              is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
              it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
              where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both  of  these
              constructions might need to be escaped (with a ‘\’) or quoted to
              protect them from expansion by the shell.  See the EXAMPLES sec-
              tion  for examples of the use of the ‘-exec’ option.  The speci-
              fied command is run once for each matched file.  The command  is
              executed  in  the  starting  directory.    There are unavoidable
              security problems surrounding  use  of  the  -exec  option;  you
              should use the -execdir option instead.


       -exec command {} +
              This  variant  of the -exec option runs the specified command on
              the selected files, but the command line is built  by  appending
              each  selected file name at the end; the total number of invoca-
              tions of the command will  be  much  less  than  the  number  of
              matched  files.   The command line is built in much the same way
              that xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of  ’{}’
              is  allowed  within the command.  The command is executed in the
              starting directory.


       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the  subdirec-
              tory  containing  the  matched  file,  which is not normally the
              directory in which you started find.  This a  much  more  secure
              method  for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions dur-
              ing resolution of the paths to the matched files.  As  with  the
              -exec option, the ’+’ form of -execdir will build a command line
              to process more than one matched file, but any given  invocation
              of command will only list files that exist in the same subdirec-
              tory.  If you use this option, you must ensure that  your  $PATH
              environment  variable  does not reference the current directory;
              otherwise, an attacker can run any commands they like by leaving
              an appropriately-named file in a directory in which you will run
              -execdir.


       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
              is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
              exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist,  it  is
              truncated.   The  file names ‘‘/dev/stdout’’ and ‘‘/dev/stderr’’
              are handled specially; they refer to  the  standard  output  and
              standard  error output, respectively.  The output file is always
              created, even if the predicate is never matched.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.   The  output
              file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.

       -fprintf file format
              True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.   The  output
              file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first (on the  standard  input);  if
              the response does not start with ‘y’ or ‘Y’, do not run the com-
              mand, and return false.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
              by  a  newline.    If  you  are  piping  the output of find into
              another program and there is the faintest possibility  that  the
              files  which you are searching for might contain a newline, then
              you should seriously consider using the ‘-print0’ option instead
              of ‘-print’.

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first (on the standard input); if
              the response does not start with ‘y’ or ‘Y’, do not run the com-
              mand, and return false.

       -print0
              True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a null character  (instead  of  the  newline  character  that
              ‘-print’ uses).  This allows file names that contain newlines or
              other types of white space to be correctly interpreted  by  pro-
              grams  that process the find output.  This option corresponds to
              the ‘-0’ option of xargs.

       -printf format
              True; print format on  the  standard  output,  interpreting  ‘\’
              escapes  and ‘%’ directives.  Field widths and precisions can be
              specified as with the ‘printf’ C  function.   Please  note  that
              many  of  the  fields are printed as %s rather than %d, and this
              may mean that flags don’t work as you might expect.   This  also
              means  that the ‘-’ flag does work (it forces fields to be left-
              aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at  the
              end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop  printing from this format immediately and flush the
                     output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \      ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (‘\’).

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A ‘\’ character followed by any other character is treated as an
              ordinary character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File’s  last  access time in the format returned by the C
                     ‘ctime’ function.

              %Ak    File’s last access time in the  format  specified  by  k,
                     which  is  either ‘@’ or a directive for the C ‘strftime’
                     function.  The possible values for k  are  listed  below;
                     some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due
                     to differences in ‘strftime’ between systems.

                      @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

                     Time fields:

                      H      hour (00..23)

                      I      hour (01..12)

                      k      hour ( 0..23)

                      l      hour ( 1..12)

                      M      minute (00..59)

                      p      locale’s AM or PM

                      r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                      S      second (00..61)

                      T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

                      +      Date and time,  separated  by  ’+’,  for  example
                             ‘2004-04-28+22:22:05’.   The time is given in the
                             current timezone (which may be affected  by  set-
                             ting the TZ environment variable).  This is a GNU
                             extension.

                      X      locale’s time representation (H:M:S)

                      Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
                             is determinable

                     Date fields:

                      a      locale’s abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                      A      locale’s full weekday name, variable length (Sun-
                             day..Saturday)

                      b      locale’s abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                      B      locale’s full month name, variable  length  (Jan-
                             uary..December)

                      c      locale’s  date  and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST
                             1989)

                      d      day of month (01..31)

                      D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                      h      same as b

                      j      day of year (001..366)

                      m      month (01..12)

                      U      week number of year with Sunday as first  day  of
                             week (00..53)

                      w      day of week (0..6)

                      W      week  number  of year with Monday as first day of
                             week (00..53)

                      x      locale’s date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                      y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                      Y      year (1970...)

              %b     File’s size in 512-byte blocks (rounded up).

              %c     File’s last status change time in the format returned  by
                     the C ‘ctime’ function.

              %Ck    File’s last status change time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File’s depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
                     command line argument.

              %D     The  device  number  on which the file exists (the st_dev
                     field of struct stat), in decimal.

              %f     File’s name with any leading  directories  removed  (only
                     the last element).

              %F     Type  of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be
                     used for -fstype.

              %g     File’s group name, or numeric group ID if the  group  has
                     no name.

              %G     File’s numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading directories of file’s name (all but the last ele-
                     ment).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is
                     in  the  current  directory)  the %h specifier expands to
                     ".".

              %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

              %i     File’s inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K  blocks
                     (rounded up).  This is different from %s/1024 if the file
                     is a sparse file.

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file  is  not  a
                     symbolic link).

              %m     File’s  permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the
                     ’traditional’ numbers  which  most  Unix  implementations
                     use,  but  if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
                     unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will  see
                     a  difference between the actual value of the file’s mode
                     and the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have  a
                     leading  zero  on this number, and to do this, you should
                     use the # flag (as in, for example, ’%#m’).

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File’s name.

              %P     File’s name with the name of the  command  line  argument
                     under which it was found removed.

              %s     File’s size in bytes.

              %t     File’s  last  modification time in the format returned by
                     the C ‘ctime’ function.

              %Tk    File’s last modification time in the format specified  by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File’s  user  name, or numeric user ID if the user has no
                     name.

              %U     File’s numeric user ID.

              %y     File’s type (like in ls -l),  U=unknown  type  (shouldn’t
                     happen)

              %Y     File’s  type  (like  %y),  plus  follow symlinks: L=loop,
                     N=nonexistent

              %Z     (SELinux only) file’s security context.

              A ‘%’ character followed by any  other  character  is  discarded
              (but the other character is printed).

              The  %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the
              other directives do not, even if they  print  numbers.   Numeric
              directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
              and n.  The ‘-’ format flag is supported and changes the  align-
              ment  of  a field from right-justified (which is the default) to
              left-justified.



       -prune If -depth is not given, true; if the file is a directory, do not
              descend into it.
              If -depth is given, false; no effect.


       -quit  Exit  immediately.   No child proceses will be left running, but
              no more paths specified on the command line will  be  processed.
              For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
              /tmp/foo.  Any command lines  which  have  been  built  up  with
              -execdir  ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit
              status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
              already occurred.


       -ls    True; list current file in ‘ls -dils’ format on standard output.
              The block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment  vari-
              able  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are
              used.


   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force precedence.

       ! expr True if expr is false.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an  implied
              "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List;  both  expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
              expr1 is discarded; the value  of  the  list  is  the  value  of
              expr2.       The  comma operator can be useful for searching for
              several different types of thing, but traversing the  filesystem
              hierarchy  only  once.   The -fprintf action can be used to list
              the various matched items into several different output files.




STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

       The following options are specified in the  POSIX  standard  (IEEE  Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This  option  is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the
              POSIX conformance of the system’s fnmatch(3)  library  function.
              As  of  findutils-4.2.2,  shell metacharacters (’*’. ’?’ or ’[]’
              for example) will match a leading ’.’, because IEEE PASC  inter-
              pretation  126  requires  this.   This is a change from previous
              versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’, ‘l’,  ‘p’,  ‘f’  and
              ‘s’.  GNU find also supports ‘D’, representing a Door, where the
              OS provides these.


       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation of the response is not locale-depen-
              dent (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).


       -newer Supported.   If  the  file  specified  is a symbolic link, it is
              always dereferenced.  This is a change from previous  behaviour,
              which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
              the HISTORY section below.


       Other predicates
              The predicates ‘-atime’, ‘-ctime’, ‘-depth’, ‘-group’, ‘-links’,
              ‘-mtime’,  ‘-nogroup’,  ‘-nouser’,  ‘-perm’, ‘-print’, ‘-prune’,
              ‘-size’, ‘-user’ and ‘-xdev’, are all supported.


       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses ‘(’, ‘)’, negation ‘!’ and the
       ‘and’ and ‘or’ operators (‘-a’, ‘-o’).

       All  other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions
       beyond the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique  to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that

              The  find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering
              a previously visited directory that is an ancestor of  the  last
              file  encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall
              write a diagnostic message to standard error  and  shall  either
              recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       The  link  count  of  directories  which contain entries which are hard
       links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should be.
       This  can  mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away the visiting
       of a subdirectory which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since  find
       does  not  actually  enter  such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid
       emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this behaviour may be somewhat
       confusing,  it  is  unlikely  that  anybody  actually  depends  on this
       behaviour.  If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with  -noleaf,
       the  directory entry will always be examined and the diagnostic message
       will be issued where it is appropriate.  Symbolic links cannot be  used
       to  create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -fol-
       low option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when find  encoun-
       ters  a  loop  of symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links,
       the leaf optimisation will often mean that find knows that  it  doesn’t
       need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic
       is frequently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for comatibility with various  BSD  systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant predicate -depth instead.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       LANG   Provides  a default value for the internationalization variables
              that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values  of  all
              the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pat-
              tern matching to be used for the ‘-name’ option.   GNU find uses
              the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for ‘LC_COLLATE’
              depends on the system library.

              POSIX also specifies that the ‘LC_COLLATE’ environment  variable
              affects  the  interpretation of the user’s response to the query
              issued by ‘-ok’, but this is not the case for GNU find.

       LC_CTYPE
              This variable affects the treatment of  character  classes  used
              with  the  ‘-name’  option,  if  the system’s fnmatch(3) library
              function supports this.   It has no effect on the  behaviour  of
              the ‘-ok’ expression.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.

       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat-
              alogues.

       PATH   Affects  the  directores which are searched to find the executa-
              bles invoked by ‘-exec’ and ‘-ok’.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines the block size used by ‘-ls’.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related  format
              directives of -printf and -fprintf.


EXAMPLES

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con-
       taining newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in such a way that file or  directory  names  con-
       taining  single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly han-
       dled.  The -name test comes before the -type test  in  order  to  avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.


       find . -type f -exec file {} \;

       Runs  ‘file’  on  every file in or below the current directory.  Notice
       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation  as  shell  script punctuation.   The semicolon is simi-
       larly protected by the use of a backslash, though ’;’ could  have  been
       used in that case also.


       find /    ( -perm +4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt %#m %u %p\n ) , \
                 ( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt %-10s %p\n )

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big/txt.


       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last accessed  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -atime 0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is  less  than  24  hours
       ago.



       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their owner,
       and group, but which the rest of the world can read but not  write  to.
       Files  which  meet  these  criteria but have other permissions bits set
       (for example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.


       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for their  owner,
       and  group,  but which the rest of the world can read but not write to,
       without regard to the presence of any extra permission bits (for  exam-
       ple  the  executable bit).  This will match a file which has mode 0777,
       for example.


       find . -perm +222

       Search for files which are writeable by somebody (their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).


       find . -perm +022
       find . -perm +g+w,o+w
       find . -perm +g=w,o=w

       All  three  of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses
       the octal representation of the file mode, and the other  two  use  the
       symbolic form.  These commands all search for files which are writeable
       by either their owner or their group.   The  files  don’t  have  to  be
       writeable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.


       find . -perm -022
       find . -perm -g+w,o+w

       Both  these  commands  do  the  same  thing; search for files which are
       writeable by both their owner and their group.





EXIT STATUS

       find exits with status 0  if  all  files  are  processed  successfully,
       greater  than  0  if  errors occur.   This is deliberately a very broad
       description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should  not  rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.



SEE ALSO

       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), fnmatch(3), regex(7),
       stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1),  printf(3),  strftime(3),  ctime(3),  Finding
       Files (on-line in Info, or printed),


HISTORY

       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (’*’. ’?’ or ’[]’ for exam-
       ple) used in filename patterns will match a leading ’.’,  because  IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.



BUGS

       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX
       standard specifies for find, which  therefore  cannot  be  fixed.   For
       example,  the  -exec action is inherently insecure, and -execdir should
       be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The best way to report a bug  is  to  use  the  form  at  http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The  reason  for  this is that you
       will then be able to track progress  in  fixing  the  problem.    Other
       comments  about  find(1) and about the findutils package in general can
       be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.   To  join  the  list,  send
       email to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.



                                                                       FIND(1)

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