cscope



CSCOPE(1)                                                            CSCOPE(1)




NAME

       cscope - interactively examine a C program


SYNOPSIS

       cscope  [-bCcdehkLlqRTUuVv] [-Fsymfile] [-freffile] [-Iincdir] [-iname-
       file] [-[0-9]pattern] [-pn] [-sdir] [files]


DESCRIPTION

       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user  to
       browse through C source files for specified elements of code.

       By  default, cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y)
       source files in the current directory.  cscope may also be invoked  for
       source files named on the command line. In either case, cscope searches
       the standard directories for #include files that it does  not  find  in
       the  current  directory.   cscope uses a symbol cross-reference, called
       cscope.out by default, to locate  functions,  function  calls,  macros,
       variables, and preprocessor symbols in the files.

       cscope  builds  the symbol cross-reference the first time it is used on
       the source files for the program being browsed. On a subsequent invoca-
       tion,  cscope  rebuilds  the  cross-reference only if a source file has
       changed or the list of source files is different. When the cross-refer-
       ence  is  rebuilt, the data for the unchanged files are copied from the
       old cross-reference, which makes rebuilding  faster  than  the  initial
       build.


OPTIONS

       Some  command  line arguments can only occur as the the ony argument in
       the execution of cscope.  They cause the program to just print out some
       output and exit immediately:

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -V     Print  on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       --help Same as -h

       --version
              Same as -V


       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that  is,
              do not compress the data.

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

       -Fsymfile
              Read  symbol  reference lines from symfile.  (A symbol reference
              file is created by > and >>, and can also be read  using  the  <
              command,   described   under  ‘‘Issuing  Subsequent  Requests,’’
              below.)

       -freffile
              Use reffile as the cross-reference  file  name  instead  of  the
              default "cscope.out".

       -Iincdir
              Look  in  incdir  (before looking in $INCDIR, the standard place
              for header files, normally /usr/include) for any #include  files
              whose  names  do not begin with ‘‘/’’ and that are not specified
              on the command line or in namefile below.  (The  #include  files
              may  be  specified with either double quotes or angle brackets.)
              The incdir directory is searched  in  addition  to  the  current
              directory (which is searched first) and the standard list (which
              is searched last). If more than one occurrence  of  -I  appears,
              the  directories  are  searched  in the order they appear on the
              command line.

       -inamefile
              Browse through all source files whose names are listed in  name-
              file  (file  names  separated  by  spaces,  tabs,  or new-lines)
              instead  of  the  default  name  list  file,  which  is   called
              cscope.files.  If  this  option is specified, cscope ignores any
              file names appearing on the command line. The argument  namefile
              can  be set to ‘‘-’’ to accept a list of files from the standard
              input.  Filenames in the namefile that contain  whitespace  have
              to  be  enclosed  in  "double quotes".  Inside such quoted file-
              names, any double-quote and  backslash  characters  have  to  be
              escaped by backslashes.

       -k     ‘‘Kernel  Mode’’,  turns  off the use of the default include dir
              (usually /usr/include) when building the database, since  kernel
              source trees generally do not use it.

       -L     Do  a single search with line-oriented output when used with the
              -num pattern option.

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ‘‘Line-Oriented Interface’’ below).

       -[0-9]pattern
              Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -Ppath Prepend  path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-refer-
              ence file so you do not have to change to  the  directory  where
              the  cross-reference  file  was built. This option is only valid
              with the -d option.

       -pn    Display the last n file path components instead of  the  default
              (1). Use 0 to not display the file name at all.

       -q     Enable  fast  symbol  lookup  via an inverted index. This option
              causes  cscope  to  create   2   more   files   (default   names
              ‘‘cscope.in.out’’ and ‘‘cscope.po.out’’) in addition to the nor-
              mal database. This allows a faster symbol search algorithm  that
              provides   noticeably   faster   lookup  performance  for  large
              projects.

       -R     Recurse subdirectories during search for source files.

       -sdir  Look in dir for additional source files. This option is  ignored
              if source files are given on the command line.

       -T     Use  only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.
              A regular expression containing special characters other than  a
              period  (.)  will  not match any symbol if its minimum length is
              greater than eight characters.

       -U     Check file time stamps. This option will update the  time  stamp
              on the database even if no files have changed.

       -u     Unconditionally  build the cross-reference file (assume that all
              files have changed).

       -v     Be more verbose in line-oriented mode.  Output progress  updates
              during database building and searches.

       files  A list of file names to operate on.

       The  -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files
       file.

       Requesting the initial search

       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:

       Press the <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the  desired  input
       field, type the text to search for, and then press the <Return> key.



Issuing subsequent requests

       If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands can
       be used:

       0-9a-zA-Z
              Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

       <Space>
              Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or
              move  to  the  previous  matching  line (if the cursor is in the
              matching line list.)

       <Down> Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is  in  the  menu)  or
              move to the next matching line (if the cursor is in the matching
              line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read lines from a file that is in symbol reference format  (cre-
              ated by > or >>), just like the -F option.

       ^      Filter all lines through a shell command and display the result-
              ing lines, replacing the lines that were already there.

       |      Pipe all lines to a  shell  command  and  display  them  without
              changing them.

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

       <Return>
              Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle  ignore/use  letter  case  when searching. (When ignoring
              letter  case,  search  for  ‘‘FILE’’  will  match  ‘‘File’’  and
              ‘‘file’’.)

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.


       NOTE: If the first character of the text to be searched for matches one
       of the above commands, escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the
       new  text,  and then it will display the lines containing the old text.
       Select the lines to be changed with these single-character commands:


       0-9a-zA-Z
              Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

       <Space>
              Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys

       If your terminal has arrow keys that work in vi, you can  use  them  to
       move around the input fields. The up-arrow key is useful to move to the
       previous input field instead of using the <Tab> key repeatedly. If  you
       have  <CLEAR>, <NEXT>, or <PREV> keys they will act as the ^l, +, and -
       commands, respectively.

       Line-Oriented interface

       The -l option lets you use cscope  where  a  screen-oriented  interface
       would not be useful, for example, from another screen-oriented program.

       cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line  starting
       with  the  field  number  (counting from 0) immediately followed by the
       search pattern, for example, ‘‘lmain’’ finds the definition of the main
       function.

       If  you  just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L
       and -num pattern options, and you won’t get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For each reference found, cscope outputs a line consisting of the  file
       name,  function  name, line number, and line text, separated by spaces,
       for example, main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

       Note that the editor is not  called  to  display  a  single  reference,
       unlike the screen-oriented interface.

       You can use the c command to toggle ignore/use letter case when search-
       ing. (When  ignoring  letter  case,  search  for  ‘‘FILE’’  will  match
       ‘‘File’’ and ‘‘file’’.)

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first charac-
       ter of an input line is ‘‘^d’’ or ‘‘q’’.



ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       CSCOPE_EDITOR
              Overrides the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you  wish
              to  use  a  different  editor with cscope than that specified by
              your EDITOR/VIEWER variables.

       CSCOPE_LINEFLAG
              Format of the line number flag  for  your  editor.  By  default,
              cscope  invokes  your  editor  via the equivalent of ‘‘editor +N
              file’’, where ‘‘N’’ is the line number that  the  editor  should
              jump  to. This format is used by both emacs and vi. If your edi-
              tor needs something different, specify it in this variable, with
              ‘‘%s’’ as a placeholder for the line number.  Ex: if your editor
              needs to be invoked as ‘‘editor -#103 file’’ to go to line  103,
              set this variable to ‘‘-#%s’’.

       CSCOPE_LINEFLAG_AFTER_FILE
              Set  this variable to ‘‘yes’’ if your editor needs to be invoked
              with the line number option after the filename to be edited.  To
              continue the example from CSCOPE_LINEFLAG, above: if your editor
              needs to see ‘‘editor  file  -#number’’,  set  this  environment
              variable. Users of most standard editors (vi, emacs) do not need
              to set this variable.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

       INCLUDEDIRS
              Colon-separated list  of  directories  to  search  for  #include
              files.

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

       SOURCEDIRS
              Colon-separated  list  of  directories  to search for additional
              source files.

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

       TERMINFO
              Terminal information directory full path name. If your  terminal
              is  not  in  the  standard  terminfo  directory,  see curses and
              terminfo for how to make your own terminal description.

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less),  which  overrides
              EDITOR (see above).

       VPATH  A  colon-separated  list  of  directories, each of which has the
              same directory structure below  it.  If  VPATH  is  set,  cscope
              searches for source files in the directories specified; if it is
              not set, cscope searches only in the current directory.



FILES

       cscope.files
              Default files containing -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list
              of source files (overridden by the -i option).

       cscope.out
              Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which
              is put in the home directory if it cannot be created in the cur-
              rent directory.

       cscope.in.out
       cscope.po.out
              Default  files containing the inverted index used for quick sym-
              bol searching (-q option). If you use the -f  option  to  rename
              the cross-reference file (so it’s not cscope.out), the names for
              these inverted index files will be created by adding
               .in and .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if you
              indicated  -f  xyz,  then  these files would be named xyz.in and
              xyz.po.

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).


Notices

       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces or tabs, not including newlines

       args   is any string that does not contain a ‘‘"’’ or a newline

       white  is zero or more spaces, tabs, or newlines

       arg_decs
              are zero or more argument  declarations  (arg_decs  may  include
              comments and white space)

       It  is  not necessary for a function declaration to start at the begin-
       ning of a line. The return type may precede the function  name;  cscope
       will still recognize the declaration. Function definitions that deviate
       from this form will not be recognized by cscope.

       The ‘‘Function’’ column of the search output for the menu  option  Find
       functions  called  by  this function: input field will only display the
       first function called in the line, that is, for this function

        e()
        {
                return (f() + g());
        }

       the display would be

          Functions called by this function: e
          File Function Line
          a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally, a function definition  or  call  may  not  be  recognized
       because  of braces inside #if statements. Similarly, the use of a vari-
       able may be incorrectly recognized as a definition.

       A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will  be  incorrectly
       recognized as a global definition, for example,

        LDFILE  *
        #if AR16WR

       Preprocessor  statements  can  also prevent the recognition of a global
       definition, for example,

        char flag
        #ifdef ALLOCATE_STORAGE
             = -1
        #endif
        ;

       A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a
       function call, for example,

        f()
        {
                void g();
        }

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope  recognizes  C++  classes  by looking for the class keyword, but
       doesn’t recognize that a struct is also a class, so it  doesn’t  recog-
       nize inline member function definitions in a structure. It also doesn’t
       expect the class keyword in a typedef , so it incorrectly recognizes  X
       as a definition in

        typedef class X  *  Y;

       It also doesn’t recognize operator function definitions

        Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)
        {
          ...
        }

       Nor  does  it  recognize  function  definitions with a function pointer
       argument

        ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
          int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))
        {
          ...
        }



The Santa Cruz Operation          August 2003                        CSCOPE(1)

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