bitmap



BITMAP(1)                                                            BITMAP(1)




NAME

       bitmap,  bmtoa, atobm - bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X
       Window System


SYNOPSIS

       bitmap [ -options ... ] [ filename ] [ basename ]

       bmtoa [ -chars ... ] [ filename ]

       atobm [ -chars cc ] [ -name variable ] [ -xhot number ] [ -yhot  number
       ] [ filename ]


DESCRIPTION

       The  bitmap program is a rudimentary tool for creating or editing rect-
       angular images made up of 1’s and 0’s.   Bitmaps  are  used  in  X  for
       defining  clipping  regions,  cursor  shapes, icon shapes, and tile and
       stipple patterns.

       The bmtoa and atobm filters convert bitmap files (FILE FORMAT)  to  and
       from  ASCII  strings.  They are most commonly used to quickly print out
       bitmaps and to generate versions for including in text.


COMMAND LINE OPTIONS

       Bitmap supports the standard X  Toolkit  command  line  arguments  (see
       X(1)).  The following additional arguments are supported as well.

       -size WIDTHxHEIGHT
           Specifies size of the grid in squares.

       -sw dimension
           Specifies the width of squares in pixels.

       -sh dimension
           Specifies the height of squares in pixels.

       -gt dimension
           Grid  tolerance.  If the square dimensions fall below the specified
           value, grid will be automatically turned off.

       -grid, +grid
           Turns on or off the grid lines.

       -axes, +axes
           Turns on or off the major axes.

       -dashed, +dashed
           Turns on or off dashing for the frame and grid lines.

       -stippled, +stippled
           Turns on or off stippling of highlighted squares.

       -proportional, +proportional
           Turns proportional mode on or off.  If  proportional  mode  is  on,
           square  width  is  equal to square height.  If proportional mode is
           off, bitmap will use the smaller square  dimension,  if  they  were
           initially different.

       -dashes filename
           Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for dashing.

       -stipple filename
           Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for highlighting.

       -hl color
           Specifies the color used for highlighting.

       -fr color
           Specifies the color used for the frame and grid lines.

       filename
           Specifies  the  bitmap to be initially loaded into the program.  If
           the file does not exist, bitmap will assume it is a new file.

       basename
           Specifies the basename to be used in the C code output file.  If it
           is  different  than  the  basename in the working file, bitmap will
           change it when saving the file.

       Bmtoa accepts the following option:

       -chars cc
           This option specifies the pair of characters to use in  the  string
           version  of the bitmap.  The first character is used for 0 bits and
           the second character is used for 1 bits.  The  default  is  to  use
           dashes (-) for 0’s and sharp signs (#) for 1’s.

       Atobm accepts the following options:

       -chars cc
           This option specifies the pair of characters to use when converting
           string bitmaps into arrays of numbers.  The first character  repre-
           sents  a  0  bit  and the second character represents a 1 bit.  The
           default is to use dashes (-) for 0’s and sharp signs (#) for 1’s.

       -name variable
           This option specifies the variable name to be used when writing out
           the  bitmap  file.  The default is to use the basename of the file-
           name command line argument or leave it blank if the standard  input
           is read.

       -xhot number
           This  option specifies the X coordinate of the hotspot.  Only posi-
           tive values are allowed.  By default,  no  hotspot  information  is
           included.

       -yhot number
           This  option specifies the Y coordinate of the hotspot.  Only posi-
           tive values are allowed.  By default,  no  hotspot  information  is
           included.


USAGE

       Bitmap  displays  grid  in which each square represents a single bit in
       the picture being edited.  Actual size of the bitmap image, as it would
       appear  normaly  and  inverted, can be obtained by pressing Meta-I key.
       You are free to move the image popup out of the way to  continue  edit-
       ing.   Pressing  the  left  mouse  button in the popup window or Meta-I
       again will remove the real size bitmap image.

       If the bitmap is to be used for defining a cursor, one of  the  squares
       in the images may be designated as the hot spot.  This determines where
       the cursor is actually pointing.  For cursors with sharp tips (such  as
       arrows  or fingers), this is usually at the end of the tip; for symmet-
       ric cursors (such as crosses or bullseyes), this is usually at the cen-
       ter.

       Bitmaps  are stored as small C code fragments suitable for including in
       applications.  They provide an array of bits as well as  symbolic  con-
       stants  giving  the width, height, and hot spot (if specified) that may
       be used in creating cursors, icons, and tiles.


EDITING

       To edit a bitmap image simply click on one of the buttons with  drawing
       commands  (Point,  Curve,  Line,  Rectangle, etc.) and move the pointer
       into the bitmap grid  window.  Press one of the buttons on  your  mouse
       and  the appropriate action will take place.  You can either set, clear
       or invert the gird squares.  Setting a grid square corresponds to  set-
       ting  a  bit  in  the bitmap image to 1.  Clearing a grid square corre-
       sponds to setting a bit in the bitmap image to  0.   Inverting  a  grid
       square corresponds to changing a bit in the bitmap image from 0 to 1 or
       1 to 0, depending what its previous state was. The default behavior  of
       mouse buttons is as specified below.

                 MouseButton1        Set
                 MouseButton2        Invert
                 MouseButton3        Clear
                 MouseButton4        Clear
                 MouseButton5        Clear

       This  default  behavior  can  be changed by setting the button function
       resources.  An example is provided below.

                 bitmap*button1Function: Set
                 bitmap*button2Function: Clear
                 bitmap*button3Function: Invert
                 etc.

       The button function applies to all drawing commands, including copying,
       moving and pasting, flood filling and setting the hot spot.


DRAWING COMMANDS

       Here  is the list of drawing commands accessible through the buttons at
       the left side of  the  application’s  window.   Some  commands  can  be
       aborted  by  pressing  A inside the bitmap window, allowing the user to
       select different guiding points where applicable.

       Clear
           This command clears all bits in the bitmap image.  The grid squares
           will  be set to the background color.  Pressing C inside the bitmap
           window has the same effect.

       Set This command sets all bits in the bitmap image.  The  grid  squares
           will  be set to the foreground color.  Pressing S inside the bitmap
           window has the same effect.

       Invert
           This command inverts all  bits  in  the  bitmap  image.   The  grid
           squares  will  be  inverted  appropriately.   Pressing I inside the
           bitmap window has the same effect.

       Mark
           This command is used to mark an area of the grid by dragging out  a
           rectangular  shape  in  the  highlighting  color.  Once the area is
           marked, it can be operated on by a  number  of  commands  (see  Up,
           Down,  Left,  Right, Rotate, Flip, Cut, etc.)  Only one marked area
           can be present at any time.  If you attempt to mark  another  area,
           the  old  mark  will  vanish.   The  same effect can be achieved by
           pressing Shift-MouseButton1 and dragging out  a  rectangle  in  the
           grid window.  Pressing Shift-MouseButton2 will mark the entire grid
           area.

       Unmark
           This command will cause the marked area to vanish.  The same effect
           can be achieved by pressing Shift-MouseButton3.

       Copy
           This  command is used to copy an area of the grid from one location
           to another.  If there  is  no  marked  grid  area  displayed,  Copy
           behaves  just  like  Mark  described above.  Once there is a marked
           grid area displayed in the highlighting color, this command has two
           alternative  behaviors.   If  you  click  a mouse button inside the
           marked area, you will be able to drag the rectangle that represents
           the  marked  area  to  the desired location.  After you release the
           mouse button, the area will be copied.  If you  click  outside  the
           marked  area,  Copy  will  assume that you wish to mark a different
           region of the bitmap image, thus it will behave like Mark again.

       Move
           This command is used to move an area of the grid from one  location
           to  another.   Its behavior resembles the behavior of Copy command,
           except that the marked area will be moved instead of copied.

       Flip Horizontally
           This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to  the  hori-
           zontal  axes.  If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will
           operate only inside the marked area.  Pressing H inside the  bitmap
           window has the same effect.

       Up  This command moves the bitmap image one pixel up.  If a marked area
           of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the  marked
           area.   Pressing  UpArrow  inside  the  bitmap  window has the same
           effect.

       Flip Vertically
           This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to the  verti-
           cal  axes.   If  a  marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will
           operate only inside the marked area.  Pressing V inside the  bitmap
           window has the same effect.

       Left
           This  command  moves  the bitmap image one pixel to the left.  If a
           marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside
           the  marked  area.  Pressing LeftArrow inside the bitmap window has
           the same effect.

       Fold
           This command will fold the bitmap image so that the  opposite  cor-
           ners  become  adjacent.  This is useful when creating bitmap images
           for tiling.  Pressing F inside  the  bitmap  window  has  the  same
           effect.

       Right
           This  command  moves the bitmap image one pixel to the right.  If a
           marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside
           the  marked area.  Pressing RightArrow inside the bitmap window has
           the same effect.

       Rotate Left
           This command rotates the  bitmap  image  90  degrees  to  the  left
           (counter  clockwise.)  If a marked area of the grid is highlighted,
           it will operate only inside the marked area.  Pressing L inside the
           bitmap window has the same effect.

       Down
           This  command  moves  the bitmap image one pixel down.  If a marked
           area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate  only  inside  the
           marked  area.   Pressing DownArrow inside the bitmap window has the
           same effect.

       Rotate Right
           This command rotates the bitmap  image  90  degrees  to  the  right
           (clockwise.)   If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will
           operate only inside the marked area.  Pressing R inside the  bitmap
           window has the same effect.

       Point
           This  command  will  change  the  grid squares underneath the mouse
           pointer if a mouse button is being pressed down.  If you  drag  the
           mouse  button continuously, the line may not be continuous, depend-
           ing on the speed of your  system  and  frequency  of  mouse  motion
           events.

       Curve
           This  command  will  change  the  grid squares underneath the mouse
           pointer if a mouse button is being pressed down.  If you  drag  the
           mouse  button continuously, it will make sure that the line is con-
           tinuous.  If your system is slow or bitmap receives very few  mouse
           motion events, it might behave quite strangely.

       Line
           This  command  will  change  the gird squares in a line between two
           squares.  Once you press a mouse button in the grid window,  bitmap
           will  highlight the line from the square where the mouse button was
           initially pressed to the square where the mouse pointer is located.
           By  releasing  the  mouse  button you will cause the change to take
           effect, and the highlighted line will disappear.

       Rectangle
           This command will change the gird squares in  a  rectangle  between
           two  squares.   Once  you  press a mouse button in the grid window,
           bitmap will highlight the rectangle from the square where the mouse
           button  was initially pressed to the square where the mouse pointer
           is located.  By releasing the  mouse  button  you  will  cause  the
           change  to  take  effect, and the highlighted rectangle will disap-
           pear.

       Filled Rectangle
           This command is identical to Rectangle, except at the end the rect-
           angle will be filled rather than outlined.

       Circle
           This  command  will change the gird squares in a circle between two
           squares.  Once you press a mouse button in the grid window,  bitmap
           will  highlight  the  circle from the square where the mouse button
           was initially pressed to the square  where  the  mouse  pointer  is
           located.   By  releasing the mouse button you will cause the change
           to take effect, and the highlighted circle will disappear.

       Filled Circle
           This command is identical to Circle, except at the end  the  circle
           will be filled rather than outlined.

       Flood Fill
           This  command  will  flood  fill  the connected area underneath the
           mouse pointer when you click on  the  desired  square.   Diagonally
           adjacent squares are not considered to be connected.

       Set Hot Spot
           This  command  designates one square in the grid as the hot spot if
           this bitmap image is to be used for defining a cursor.  Pressing  a
           mouse button in the desired square will cause a diamond shape to be
           displayed.

       Clear Hot Spot
           This command removes any designated hot spot from the bitmap image.

       Undo
           This  command  will  undo  the last executed command.  It has depth
           one, that is, pressing Undo after Undo will undo itself.


FILE MENU

       The File menu commands can be accessed by pressing the File button  and
       selecting  the  appropriate  menu  entry,  or by pressing Ctrl key with
       another key.  These commands deal with files and global bitmap  parame-
       ters, such as size, basename, filename etc.

       New This command will clear the editing area and prompt for the name of
           the new file to be edited.  It will not load in the new file.

       Load
           This command is used to load a new bitmap file into the bitmap edi-
           tor.   If  the current image has not been saved, user will be asked
           whether to save or ignore the changes.  The editor  can  edit  only
           one  file at a time.  If you need interactive editing, run a number
           of editors and use cut and paste mechanism as described below.

       Insert
           This command is used to insert a bitmap file into the  image  being
           currently  edited.   After  being  prompted for the filename, click
           inside the grid window and drag the outlined rectangle to the loca-
           tion where you want to insert the new file.

       Save
           This  command  will  save the bitmap image.  It will not prompt for
           the filename unless it is said to be  <none>.   If  you  leave  the
           filename undesignated or -, the output will be piped to stdout.

       Save As
           This  command  will save the bitmap image after prompting for a new
           filename.  It should be used if you want to change the filename.

       Resize
           This command is used to resize the editing area to the  new  number
           of  pixels.  The size should be entered in the WIDTHxHEIGHT format.
           The information in the image being edited will not be  lost  unless
           the new size is smaller that the current image size. The editor was
           not designed to edit huge files.

       Rescale
           This command is used to rescale the editing area to the  new  width
           and height.  The size should be entered in the WIDTHxHEIGHT format.
           It will not do antialiasing and information will  be  lost  if  you
           rescale  to the smaller sizes.  Feel free to add you own algorithms
           for better rescaling.

       Filename
           This command is used to change the filename  without  changing  the
           basename nor saving the file.  If you specify - for a filename, the
           output will be piped to stdout.

       Basename
           This command is used to change the basename,  if  a  different  one
           from the specified filename is desired.

       Quit
           This  command  will  terminate the bitmap application.  If the file
           was not saved, user will be prompted and asked whether to save  the
           image  or not.  This command is preferred over killing the process.


EDIT MENU

       The Edit menu commands can be accessed by pressing the Edit button  and
       selecting  the  appropriate  menu  entry,  or by pressing Meta key with
       another key.  These commands deal with editing facilities such as grid,
       axes, zooming, cut and paste, etc.

       Image
           This command will display the image being edited and its inverse in
           its actual size in a separate window.  The window can be moved away
           to  continue  with  editing.  Pressing the left mouse button in the
           image window will cause it to disappear from the screen.

       Grid
           This command controls the grid in the editing area.   If  the  grid
           spacing  is  below the value specified by gridTolerance resource (8
           by default), the grid will be automatically turned off.  It can  be
           enforced by explicitly activating this command.

       Dashed
           This  command controls the stipple for drawing the grid lines.  The
           stipple specified by dashes resource can be turned  on  or  off  by
           activating this command.

       Axes
           This  command  controls  the  highlighting  of the main axes of the
           image being edited.  The actual lines are not part  of  the  image.
           They are provided to aid user when constructing symmetrical images,
           or whenever having the main axes highlighted helps your editing.

       Stippled
           This command controls the stippling of the highlighted areas of the
           bitmap  image.   The  stipple  specified by stipple resource can be
           turned on or off by activating this command.

       Proportional
           This command controls the proportional mode.  If  the  proportional
           mode  is on, width and height of all image squares are forced to be
           equal, regardless of the proportions of the bitmap window.

       Zoom
           This command controls the zoom mode.  If there is a marked area  of
           the  image  already  displayed, bitmap will automatically zoom into
           it.  Otherwise, user will have to highlight an area to be edited in
           the  zoom  mode  and bitmap will automatically switch into it.  One
           can use all the editing commands and other utilities  in  the  zoom
           mode.   When  you  zoom  out, undo command will undo the whole zoom
           session.

       Cut This commands cuts the contents of the highlighted image area  into
           the internal cut and paste buffer.

       Copy
           This command copies the contents of the highlighted image area into
           the internal cut and paste buffer.

       Paste
           This command will check if there are any other bitmap  applications
           with  a  highlighted  image  area,  or if there is something in the
           internal cut and paste buffer and copy it to the image.   To  place
           the copied image, click in the editing window and drag the outlined
           image to the position where you want to place i, and  then  release
           the button.


CUT AND PASTE

       Bitmap  supports  two  cut  and  paste mechanisms; the internal cut and
       paste and the global X selection cut and paste.  The internal  cut  and
       paste  is  used  when executing copy and move drawing commands and also
       cut and copy commands from the edit menu.  The global X  selection  cut
       and  paste  is  used  whenever  there is a highlighted area of a bitmap
       image displayed anywhere on the screen.  To copy a part of  image  from
       another  bitmap  editor  simply highlight the desired area by using the
       Mark command or pressing the shift key and dragging the area  with  the
       left  mouse  button.   When  the selected area becomes highlighted, any
       other applications (such as xterm, etc.)  that  use  primary  selection
       will  discard  their  selection  values and unhighlight the appropriate
       information.  Now, use the Paste command for the Edit menu  or  control
       mouse  button  to  copy the selected part of image into another (or the
       same) bitmap application.  If you attempt to do this without a  visible
       highlighted  image  area, the bitmap will fall back to the internal cut
       and paste buffer and paste whatever was there stored at the moment.


WIDGETS

       Below is the widget structure of the bitmap  application.   Indentation
       indicates  hierarchical  structure.   The  widget  class  name is given
       first, followed by the widget instance name.  All  widgets  except  the
       bitmap widget are from the standard Athena widget set.

            Bitmap bitmap
                 TransientShell image
                      Box box
                           Label normalImage
                           Label invertedImage
                 TransientShell input
                      Dialog dialog
                           Command okay
                           Command cancel
                 TransientShell error
                      Dialog dialog
                           Command abort
                           Command retry
                 TransientShell qsave
                      Dialog dialog
                           Command yes
                           Command no
                           Command cancel
                 Paned parent
                      Form formy
                           MenuButton fileButton
                           SimpleMenu fileMenu
                                SmeBSB  new
                                SmeBSB  load
                                SmeBSB  insert
                                SmeBSB  save
                                SmeBSB  saveAs
                                SmeBSB  resize
                                SmeBSB  rescale
                                SmeBSB  filename
                                SmeBSB  basename
                                SmeLine line
                                SmeBSB  quit
                           MenuButton editButton
                           SimpleMenu editMenu
                                SmeBSB  image
                                SmeBSB  grid
                                SmeBSB  dashed
                                SmeBSB  axes
                                SmeBSB  stippled
                                SmeBSB  proportional
                                SmeBSB  zoom
                                SmeLine line
                                SmeBSB  cut
                                SmeBSB  copy
                                SmeBSB  paste
                           Label status
                      Pane pane
                           Bitmap bitmap
                           Form form
                                Command clear
                                Command set
                                Command invert
                                Toggle  mark
                                Command unmark
                                Toggle  copy
                                Toggle  move
                                Command flipHoriz
                                Command up
                                Command flipVert
                                Command left
                                Command fold
                                Command right
                                Command rotateLeft
                                Command down
                                Command rotateRight
                                Toggle  point
                                Toggle  curve
                                Toggle  line
                                Toggle  rectangle
                                Toggle  filledRectangle
                                Toggle  circle
                                Toggle  filledCircle
                                Toggle  floodFill
                                Toggle  setHotSpot
                                Command clearHotSpot
                                Command undo


COLORS

       If you would like bitmap to be viewable in color, include the following
       in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read with xrdb:

       *customization:                 -color

       This will cause bitmap to pick up the colors in the app-defaults  color
       customization file:

           /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/Bitmap-color



BITMAP WIDGET

       Bitmap widget is a stand-alone widget for editing raster images.  It is
       not designed to edit large images, although it may be used in that pur-
       pose  as  well.   It can be freely incorporated with other applications
       and used as a standard editing tool.  The following are  the  resources
       provided by the bitmap widget.

       Bitmap Widget

       Header file         Bitmap.h
       Class               bitmapWidgetClass
       Class Name          Bitmap
       Superclass          Bitmap


       All the Simple Widget resources plus ...

       Name            Class           Type            Default Value

       foreground      Foreground      Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
       highlight       Highlight       Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
       framing         Framing         Pixel           XtDefaultForeground
       gridTolerance   GridTolerance   Dimension       8
       size            Size            String          32x32
       dashed          Dashed          Boolean         True
       grid            Grid            Boolean         True
       stippled        Stippled        Boolean         True
       proportional    Proportional    Boolean         True
       axes            Axes            Boolean         False
       squareWidth     SquareWidth     Dimension       16
       squareHeight    SquareHeight    Dimension       16
       margin          Margin          Dimension       16
       xHot            XHot            Position        NotSet (-1)
       yHot            YHot            Position        NotSet (-1)
       button1Function Button1Function DrawingFunction Set
       button2Function Button2Function DrawingFunction Invert
       button3Function Button3Function DrawingFunction Clear
       button4Function Button4Function DrawingFunction Invert
       button5Function Button5Function DrawingFunction Invert
       filename        Filename        String          None ("")
       basename        Basename        String          None ("")



AUTHOR

       Davor Matic, MIT X Consortium



                                                                     BITMAP(1)

Man(1) output converted with man2html