XSERVER(1)                                                          XSERVER(1)


       Xserver - X Window System display server


       X [option ...]


       X  is  the  generic name for the X Window System display server.  It is
       frequently a link or a copy of the appropriate server binary for  driv-
       ing the most frequently used server on a given machine.


       The  X  server  is  usually  started from the X Display Manager program
       xdm(1) or a similar display manager program.  This utility is run  from
       the  system  boot  files  and takes care of keeping the server running,
       prompting for usernames and passwords, and starting up  the  user  ses-

       Installations  that run more than one window system may need to use the
       xinit(1) utility instead of a display manager.  However, xinit is to be
       considered  a tool for building startup scripts and is not intended for
       use by end users.  Site administrators are strongly urged to use a dis-
       play manager, or build other interfaces for novice users.

       The  X  server  may  also  be started directly by the user, though this
       method is usually reserved for testing and is not recommended for  nor-
       mal  operation.   On some platforms, the user must have special permis-
       sion to start the X server, often because  access  to  certain  devices
       (e.g. /dev/mouse) is restricted.

       When  the  X server starts up, it typically takes over the display.  If
       you are running on a workstation whose console is the display, you  may
       not be able to log into the console while the server is running.


       Many X servers have device-specific command line options.  See the man-
       ual pages for the individual  servers  for  more  details;  a  list  of
       server-specific manual pages is provided in the SEE ALSO section below.

       All of the X servers accept the command line options  described  below.
       Some  X  servers  may have alternative ways of providing the parameters
       described here, but the values provided via the  command  line  options
       should override values specified via other mechanisms.

               The  X server runs as the given displaynumber, which by default
               is 0.  If multiple X servers are to  run  simultaneously  on  a
               host,  each must have a unique display number.  See the DISPLAY
               NAMES section of the X(7x) manual page to learn how to  specify
               which display number clients should try to use.

       -a number
               sets  pointer  acceleration  (i.e.  the  ratio  of  how much is
               reported to how much the user actually moved the pointer).

       -ac     disables host-based access control mechanisms.  Enables  access
               by  any host, and permits any host to modify the access control
               list.  Use with extreme caution.  This option exists  primarily
               for running test suites remotely.

       -audit level
               sets  the  audit  trail level.  The default level is 1, meaning
               only connection rejections are reported.  Level 2  additionally
               reports  all  successful  connections and disconnects.  Level 4
               enables messages  from  the  SECURITY  extension,  if  present,
               including  generation and revocation of authorizations and vio-
               lations of the security policy.  Level 0 turns  off  the  audit
               trail.  Audit lines are sent as standard error output.

       -auth authorization-file
               specifies  a  file which contains a collection of authorization
               records used to authenticate access.  See also the  xdm(1)  and
               Xsecurity(7x) manual pages.

       bc      disables certain kinds of error checking, for bug compatibility
               with previous releases (e.g., to work around bugs in R2 and  R3
               xterms and toolkits).  Deprecated.

       -bs     disables backing store support on all screens.

       -br     sets  the  default  root  window  to solid black instead of the
               standard root weave pattern.

       -c      turns off key-click.

       c volume
               sets key-click volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -cc class
               sets the visual class for the root  window  of  color  screens.
               The  class  numbers  are  as  specified in the X protocol.  Not
               obeyed by all servers.

       -co filename
               sets  name   of   RGB   color   database.    The   default   is

       -core   causes the server to generate a core dump on fatal errors.

       -deferglyphs whichfonts
               specifies  the  types  of  fonts  for  which  the server should
               attempt to use deferred glyph loading.  whichfonts can  be  all
               (all fonts), none (no fonts), or 16 (16 bit fonts only).

       -dpi resolution
               sets  the  resolution for all screens, in dots per inch.  To be
               used when the server cannot determine the screen  size(s)  from
               the hardware.

       dpms    enables  DPMS  (display  power management services), where sup-
               ported.  The default state is platform and  configuration  spe-

       -dpms   disables DPMS (display power management services).  The default
               state is platform and configuration specific.

       -f volume
               sets feep (bell) volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -fc cursorFont
               sets default cursor font.

       -fn font
               sets the default font.

       -fp fontPath
               sets the search path for fonts.  This path is a comma separated
               list  of  directories  which  the  X  server  searches for font
               databases.  See the FONTS section of this manual page for  more
               information and the default list.

       -help   prints a usage message.

       -I      causes all remaining command line arguments to be ignored.

       -maxbigreqsize size
               sets the maxmium big request to size MB.

       -nolisten trans-type
               disables a transport type.  For example, TCP/IP connections can
               be disabled with -nolisten tcp.  This option may be issued mul-
               tiple  times to disable listening to different transport types.

               prevents a server reset when  the  last  client  connection  is
               closed.   This  overrides  a  previous  -terminate command line

       -p minutes
               sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.

       -pn     permits the server to continue running if it fails to establish
               all  of its well-known sockets (connection points for clients),
               but establishes at least one.  This option is set by default.

       -nopn   causes the server to exit if it fails to establish all  of  its
               well-known sockets (connection points for clients).

       -r      turns off auto-repeat.

       r       turns on auto-repeat.

       -s minutes
               sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.

       -su     disables save under support on all screens.

       -t number
               sets  pointer  acceleration threshold in pixels (i.e. after how
               many pixels pointer acceleration should take effect).

               causes the server to terminate at server reset, instead of con-
               tinuing  to  run.   This  overrides a previous -noreset command
               line option.

       -to seconds
               sets default connection timeout in seconds.

       -tst    disables all testing extensions (e.g., XTEST,  XTrap,  XTestEx-
               tension1, RECORD).

       ttyxx   ignored, for servers started the ancient way (from init).

       v       sets video-off screen-saver preference.

       -v      sets video-on screen-saver preference.

       -wm     forces  the  default  backing-store  of all windows to be When-
               Mapped.  This is a backdoor way  of  getting  backing-store  to
               apply  to  all  windows.  Although all mapped windows will have
               backing store, the backing store attribute  value  reported  by
               the server for a window will be the last value established by a
               client.  If it has never been set by a client, the server  will
               report the default value, NotUseful.  This behavior is required
               by the X protocol,  which  allows  the  server  to  exceed  the
               client’s  backing store expectations but does not provide a way
               to tell the client that it is doing so.

       -x extension
               loads the specified extension at init.  This  is  a  no-op  for
               most implementations.

               enables(+)  or disables(-) the XINERAMA extension.  The default
               state is platform and configuration specific.


       Some X servers accept the following options:

       -ld kilobytes
               sets the data space limit of the server to the specified number
               of  kilobytes.  A value of zero makes the data size as large as
               possible.  The default value of -1 leaves the data space  limit

       -lf files
               sets the number-of-open-files limit of the server to the speci-
               fied number.  A value of zero makes the limit as large as  pos-
               sible.  The default value of -1 leaves the limit unchanged.

       -ls kilobytes
               sets  the stack space limit of the server to the specified num-
               ber of kilobytes.  A value of zero  makes  the  stack  size  as
               large  as  possible.   The default value of -1 leaves the stack
               space limit unchanged.

       -logo   turns on the X Window System logo display in the  screen-saver.
               There is currently no way to change this from a client.

       nologo  turns off the X Window System logo display in the screen-saver.
               There is currently no way to change this from a client.

       -render default|mono|gray|color sets the color allocation  policy  that
               will be used by the render extension.

               default selects  the  default  policy  defined  for the display
                       depth of the X server.

               mono    don’t use any color cell.

               gray    use a gray map of 13  color  cells  for  the  X  render

               color   use  a  color  cube of at most 4*4*4 colors (that is 64
                       color cells).

               disables smart scheduling on platforms that support  the  smart

       -schedInterval interval
               sets the smart scheduler’s scheduling interval to interval mil-


       X servers that support XDMCP have the following  options.   See  the  X
       Display Manager Control Protocol specification for more information.

       -query hostname
               enables  XDMCP  and  sends Query packets to the specified host-

               enable XDMCP and broadcasts BroadcastQuery packets to the  net-
               work.   The first responding display manager will be chosen for
               the session.

       -multicast [address [hop count]]
               Enable XDMCP and multicast BroadcastQuery packets to the   net-
               work.   The  first responding display manager is chosen for the
               session.  If an address is specified, the multicast is sent  to
               that  address.   If  no  address is specified, the multicast is
               sent to the default XDMCP IPv6 multicast group.  If a hop count
               is  specified, it is used as the maximum hop count for the mul-
               ticast.  If no hop count is specified, the multicast is set  to
               a  maximum of 1 hop, to prevent the multicast from being routed
               beyond the local network.

       -indirect hostname
               enables XDMCP and send IndirectQuery packets to  the  specified

       -port port-number
               uses  the  specified  port-number for XDMCP packets, instead of
               the default.  This option must be specified before any  -query,
               -broadcast, -multicast, or -indirect options.

       -from local-address
               specifies the local address to connect from (useful if the con-
               necting host has  multiple  network  interfaces).   The  local-
               address  may  be  expressed  in any form acceptable to the host
               platform’s gethostbyname(3) implementation.

       -once   causes the server to terminate (rather  than  reset)  when  the
               XDMCP session ends.

       -class display-class
               XDMCP  has  an  additional  display  qualifier used in resource
               lookup for display-specific options.   This  option  sets  that
               value,  by  default  it is "MIT-Unspecified" (not a very useful

       -cookie xdm-auth-bits
               When testing XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1,  a  private  key  is  shared
               between the server and the manager.  This option sets the value
               of that private data (not that it is very private, being on the
               command line!).

       -displayID display-id
               Yet  another  XDMCP specific value, this one allows the display
               manager to identify each display so  that  it  can  locate  the
               shared key.


       X  servers  that  support the XKEYBOARD (a.k.a. "XKB") extension accept
       the following options.  All layout files specified on the command  line
       must be located in the XKB base directory or a subdirectory, and speci-
       fied as the relative path from the XKB base directory.  The default XKB
       base directory is /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xkb.

       [+-]kb  enables(+) or disables(-) the XKEYBOARD extension.

       [+-]accessx [ timeout [ timeout_mask [ feedback [ options_mask ] ] ] ]
               enables(+) or disables(-) AccessX key sequences.

       -xkbdir directory
               base  directory  for keyboard layout files.  This option is not
               available for setuid X servers (i.e., when the X server’s  real
               and effective uids are different).

       -ar1 milliseconds
               sets  the autorepeat delay (length of time in milliseconds that
               a key must be depressed before autorepeat starts).

       -ar2 milliseconds
               sets the autorepeat interval (length of  time  in  milliseconds
               that should elapse between autorepeat-generated keystrokes).

               disables  loading  of  an  XKB  keymap  description  on  server

       -xkbdb filename
               uses filename for default keyboard keymaps.

       -xkbmap filename
               loads keyboard description in filename on server startup.


       X servers that support the  SECURITY  extension  accept  the  following

       -sp filename
               causes  the server to attempt to read and interpret filename as
               a security policy file with the format  described  below.   The
               file is read at server startup and reread at each server reset.

       The syntax of the security policy file is as  follows.   Notation:  "*"
       means  zero or more occurrences of the preceding element, and "+" means
       one or more occurrences.  To interpret <foo/bar>, ignore the text after
       the /; it is used to distinguish between instances of <foo> in the next

       <policy file> ::= <version line> <other line>*

       <version line> ::= <string/v> ’\n’

       <other line > ::= <comment> | <access rule> | <site policy> | <blank line>

       <comment> ::= # <not newline>* ’\n’

       <blank line> ::= <space> ’\n’

       <site policy> ::= sitepolicy <string/sp> ’\n’

       <access rule> ::= property <property/ar> <window> <perms> ’\n’

       <property> ::= <string>

       <window> ::= any | root | <required property>

       <required property> ::= <property/rp> | <property with value>

       <property with value> ::= <property/rpv> = <string/rv>

       <perms> ::= [ <operation> | <action> | <space> ]*

       <operation> ::= r | w | d

       <action> ::= a | i | e

       <string> ::= <dbl quoted string> | <single quoted string> | <unqouted string>

       <dbl quoted string> ::= <space> " <not dqoute>* " <space>

       <single quoted string> ::= <space> ’ <not squote>* ’ <space>

       <unquoted string> ::= <space> <not space>+ <space>

       <space> ::= [ ’ ’ | ’\t’ ]*

       Character sets:

       <not newline> ::= any character except ’\n’
       <not dqoute>  ::= any character except "
       <not squote>  ::= any character except ’
       <not space>   ::= any character except those in <space>

       The semantics associated with the above syntax are as follows.

       <version line>, the first line in the file, specifies the  file  format
       version.   If  the server does not recognize the version <string/v>, it
       ignores the rest of the file.  The version string for the  file  format
       described here is "version-1" .

       Once  past the <version line>, lines that do not match the above syntax
       are ignored.

       <comment> lines are ignored.

       <sitepolicy> lines are currently ignored.  They are intended to specify
       the site policies used by the XC-QUERY-SECURITY-1 authorization method.

       <access rule> lines specify how the server should  react  to  untrusted
       client  requests that affect the X Window property named <property/ar>.
       The rest of this section describes the  interpretation  of  an  <access

       For  an  <access  rule>  to apply to a given instance of <property/ar>,
       <property/ar> must be on a window that is in the set of windows  speci-
       fied  by  <window>.   If  <window>  is  any, the rule applies to <prop-
       erty/ar> on any window.  If <window>  is  root,  the  rule  applies  to
       <property/ar> only on root windows.

       If  <window> is <required property>, the following apply.  If <required
       property> is a <property/rp>, the rule applies when the window also has
       that <property/rp>, regardless of its value.  If <required property> is
       a <property with value>, <property/rpv> must also have the value speci-
       fied  by <string/rv>.  In this case, the property must have type STRING
       and format 8, and should contain one or more  null-terminated  strings.
       If any of the strings match <string/rv>, the rule applies.

       The  definition of string matching is simple case-sensitive string com-
       parison with one elaboration: the occurrence of the  character  ’*’  in
       <string/rv> is a wildcard meaning "any string."  A <string/rv> can con-
       tain multiple wildcards anywhere in  the  string.   For  example,  "x*"
       matches  strings  that begin with x, "*x" matches strings that end with
       x, "*x*" matches strings containing x, and "x*y*" matches strings  that
       start with x and subsequently contain y.

       There  may  be  multiple <access rule> lines for a given <property/ar>.
       The rules are tested in the order that they appear in  the  file.   The
       first rule that applies is used.

       <perms>  specify operations that untrusted clients may attempt, and the
       actions that the server should take in response to those operations.

       <operation> can be r (read), w (write), or d (delete).   The  following
       table shows how X Protocol property requests map to these operations in
       The Open Group server implementation.

       GetProperty    r, or r and d if delete = True
       ChangeProperty w
       RotateProperties    r and w
       DeleteProperty d
       ListProperties none, untrusted clients can always list all properties

       <action> can be a (allow), i (ignore), or e (error).  Allow means  exe-
       cute  the request as if it had been issued by a trusted client.  Ignore
       means treat the request as a no-op.  In the case of GetProperty, ignore
       means return an empty property value if the property exists, regardless
       of its actual value.  Error means do not execute the request and return
       a  BadAtom  error with the atom set to the property name.  Error is the
       default action for all properties, including those not  listed  in  the
       security policy file.

       An  <action> applies to all <operation>s that follow it, until the next
       <action> is encountered.  Thus, irwad  means  ignore  read  and  write,
       allow delete.

       GetProperty  and  RotateProperties may do multiple operations (r and d,
       or r and w).  If different actions apply to the  operations,  the  most
       severe  action  is  applied  to  the whole request; there is no partial
       request execution.  The severity ordering is: allow < ignore  <  error.
       Thus,  if  the  <perms>  for  a  property  are ired (ignore read, error
       delete), and an untrusted client attempts GetProperty on that  property
       with  delete  =  True,  an error is returned, but the property value is
       not.  Similarly, if any of the properties in a RotateProperties do  not
       allow  both  read  and write, an error is returned without changing any
       property values.

       Here is an example security policy file.


       # Allow reading of application resources, but not writing.
       property RESOURCE_MANAGER     root      ar iw
       property SCREEN_RESOURCES     root      ar iw

       # Ignore attempts to use cut buffers.  Giving errors causes apps to crash,
       # and allowing access may give away too much information.
       property CUT_BUFFER0          root      irw
       property CUT_BUFFER1          root      irw
       property CUT_BUFFER2          root      irw
       property CUT_BUFFER3          root      irw
       property CUT_BUFFER4          root      irw
       property CUT_BUFFER5          root      irw
       property CUT_BUFFER6          root      irw
       property CUT_BUFFER7          root      irw

       # If you are using Motif, you probably want these.
       property _MOTIF_DEFAULT_BINDINGS        rootar iw
       property _MOTIF_DRAG_WINDOW   root      ar iw
       property _MOTIF_DRAG_TARGETS  any       ar iw
       property _MOTIF_DRAG_ATOMS    any       ar iw
       property _MOTIF_DRAG_ATOM_PAIRS         any ar iw

       # The next two rules let xwininfo -tree work when untrusted.
       property WM_NAME              any       ar

       # Allow read of WM_CLASS, but only for windows with WM_NAME.
       # This might be more restrictive than necessary, but demonstrates
       # the <required property> facility, and is also an attempt to
       # say "top level windows only."
       property WM_CLASS             WM_NAME   ar

       # These next three let xlsclients work untrusted.  Think carefully
       # before including these; giving away the client machine name and command
       # may be exposing too much.
       property WM_STATE             WM_NAME   ar
       property WM_CLIENT_MACHINE    WM_NAME   ar
       property WM_COMMAND           WM_NAME   ar

       # To let untrusted clients use the standard colormaps created by
       # xstdcmap, include these lines.
       property RGB_DEFAULT_MAP      root      ar
       property RGB_BEST_MAP         root      ar
       property RGB_RED_MAP          root      ar
       property RGB_GREEN_MAP        root      ar
       property RGB_BLUE_MAP         root      ar
       property RGB_GRAY_MAP         root      ar

       # To let untrusted clients use the color management database created
       # by xcmsdb, include these lines.
       property XDCCC_LINEAR_RGB_CORRECTION    rootar
       property XDCCC_LINEAR_RGB_MATRICES      rootar
       property XDCCC_GRAY_SCREENWHITEPOINT    rootar
       property XDCCC_GRAY_CORRECTION          rootar

       # To let untrusted clients use the overlay visuals that many vendors
       # support, include this line.
       property SERVER_OVERLAY_VISUALS         rootar

       # Dumb examples to show other capabilities.

       # oddball property names and explicit specification of error conditions
       property "property with spaces"         ’property with "’aw er ed

       # Allow deletion of Woo-Hoo if window also has property OhBoy with value
       # ending in "son".  Reads and writes will cause an error.
       property Woo-Hoo              OhBoy = "*son"ad


       The X server supports client connections via a platform-dependent  sub-
       set  of the following transport types: TCPIP, Unix Domain sockets, DEC-
       net, and several varieties of SVR4 local connections.  See the  DISPLAY
       NAMES  section  of  the X(7x) manual page to learn how to specify which
       transport type clients should try to use.


       The X server implements a platform-dependent subset  of  the  following
       authorization  protocols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, XDM-
       AUTHORIZATION-2, SUN-DES-1, and MIT-KERBEROS-5.  See the  Xsecurity(7x)
       manual page for information on the operation of these protocols.

       Authorization  data  required  by  the above protocols is passed to the
       server in a private file named with  the  -auth  command  line  option.
       Each  time  the  server is about to accept the first connection after a
       reset (or when the server is starting), it reads this  file.   If  this
       file contains any authorization records, the local host is not automat-
       ically allowed access to the server, and only clients which send one of
       the authorization records contained in the file in the connection setup
       information will be allowed access.  See the  Xau  manual  page  for  a
       description  of the binary format of this file.  See xauth(1) for main-
       tenance of this file, and distribution of its contents to remote hosts.

       The  X  server  also uses a host-based access control list for deciding
       whether or not to accept  connections  from  clients  on  a  particular
       machine.   If no other authorization mechanism is being used, this list
       initially consists of the host on which the server is running  as  well
       as  any  machines listed in the file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is the dis-
       play number of the server.  Each line of the file should contain either
       an  Internet  hostname  (e.g. expo.lcs.mit.edu) or a DECnet hostname in
       double colon format (e.g. hydra::) or a complete  name  in  the  format
       family:name  as described in the xhost(1) manual page.  There should be
       no leading or trailing spaces on any lines.  For example:


       Users can add or remove hosts from this  list  and  enable  or  disable
       access  control  using  the  xhost command from the same machine as the

       If the X FireWall Proxy (xfwp) is  being  used  without  a  sitepolicy,
       host-based  authorization  must  be turned on for clients to be able to
       connect to the X server via the xfwp.  If xfwp is run without a config-
       uration  file  and thus no sitepolicy is defined, if xfwp is using an X
       server where xhost + has been run to turn off host-based  authorization
       checks, when a client tries to connect to this X server via xfwp, the X
       server will deny the connection.   See  xfwp(1)  for  more  information
       about this proxy.

       The  X protocol intrinsically does not have any notion of window opera-
       tion permissions or place any restrictions on what a client can do;  if
       a  program  can connect to a display, it has full run of the screen.  X
       servers that support the SECURITY extension fare better because clients
       can  be designated untrusted via the authorization they use to connect;
       see the xauth(1) manual page for details.  Restrictions are imposed  on
       untrusted clients that curtail the mischief they can do.  See the SECU-
       RITY extension specification for a complete list of these restrictions.

       Sites  that  have better authentication and authorization systems might
       wish to make use of the hooks in the libraries and the server  to  pro-
       vide additional security models.


       The X server attaches special meaning to the following signals:

       SIGHUP  This  signal  causes  the  server to close all existing connec-
               tions, free all resources, and restore  all  defaults.   It  is
               sent  by  the  display  manager  whenever  the main user’s main
               application (usually an xterm or window manager) exits to force
               the server to clean up and prepare for the next user.

       SIGTERM This signal causes the server to exit cleanly.

       SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently from either of the above.
               When the server starts, it checks to see if  it  has  inherited
               SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of the usual SIG_DFL.  In this case,
               the server sends a SIGUSR1 to its parent process after  it  has
               set  up  the various connection schemes.  Xdm uses this feature
               to recognize when connecting to the server is possible.


       The X server  can  obtain  fonts  from  directories  and/or  from  font
       servers.   The  list  of directories and font servers the X server uses
       when trying to open a font is controlled by the font path.

       The    default    font    path    is    /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/,
       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/,         /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/,
       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/CID/,         /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/,
       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/ .

       The  font  path  can be set with the -fp option or by xset(1) after the
       server has started.


       /etc/Xn.hosts                 Initial access control list  for  display
                                     number n

                                     Bitmap font directories

                                     Outline font directories

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb.txt    Color database

       /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn             Unix domain socket for display number n

       /tmp/rcXn                     Kerberos  5 replay cache for display num-
                                     ber n

       /usr/adm/Xnmsgs               Error log file for display  number  n  if
                                     run from init(8)

                                     Default  error  log file if the server is
                                     run from xdm(1)


       General information: X(7x)

       Protocols: X Window System Protocol, The X  Font  Service  Protocol,  X
       Display Manager Control Protocol

       Fonts:  bdftopcf(1), mkfontdir(1), mkfontscale(1), xfs(1), xlsfonts(1),
       xfontsel(1), xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions

       Security: Xsecurity(7x), xauth(1), Xau(1), xdm(1),  xhost(1),  xfwp(1),
       Security Extension Specification

       Starting the server: xdm(1), xinit(1)

       Controlling the server once started: xset(1), xsetroot(1), xhost(1)

       Server-specific  man  pages:  Xdec(1),  XmacII(1),  Xsun(1),  Xnest(1),
       Xvfb(1), XFree86(1), XDarwin(1).

       Server internal documentation: Definition of the Porting Layer for  the
       X v11 Sample Server


       The  sample server was originally written by Susan Angebranndt, Raymond
       Drewry, Philip Karlton, and Todd Newman, from Digital Equipment  Corpo-
       ration,  with support from a large cast.  It has since been extensively
       rewritten by Keith Packard and Bob Scheifler, from MIT.   Dave  Wiggins
       took over post-R5 and made substantial improvements.


Man(1) output converted with man2html